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Full text of "History of Franklin county, Pennsylvania; containing a history of the county, its townships, towns, villages, schools, churches, industries, etc.; portraits of early settlers and prominent men; biographies; history of Pennsylvania, statistical and miscellaneous matter, etc"

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Containing  a  History  of  the  County,  Its  Townships,  Towns, 

Villages,  Schools,  Churches,  Industries,  Etc.;  Portraits  of 

Early  Settlers  and  Prominent  men;  Biographies; 

History  of  Pennsylvania,  Statistical  and 

Miscellaneous  Matter,  etc.,  etc. 



WAKNER,    BEERS    &    CO., 


The  reproduction  of  this  book  has  been 
made  possible  through  the  sponsorship 
of  the  Greencastle-Antrim  Civil  War 
Roundtable,  Greentastle,  Pennsylvania. 


The  New  York 
Public  Library 



Reproduction  by  Unigraphic,  Inc. 

1401  North  Fares  Avenue 

Evansville,  Indiana  47711 

Nineteen  Hundred  Seventy  Five 


In  submitting  the  History  of  Franklin  County  to  the  public,  it  may  not 
be  improper  to  state,  briefly,  a  few  of  the  characteristics  of  the  work: 

I.  The  special  prominence  given  to  the  pioneer  times  of  the  county 
— Hence  a  record  of  the  persons,  organizations,  and  events  of  the  days 
anterior  to  1820  has  been  given  as  fully  as  available  data  would  war- 

II.  The  fullness  with  which  the  various  religious,  educational  and 
society  organizations  have  been  presented,  due  allowance  being  made,  of 
course,  for  the  destruction  or  absence  of  proper  records. 

III.  The  completeness  of  the  official  and  postal  records,  the  latter 
having  been  obtained  direct  from  the  proper  department  at  Washington. 

IV.  The  importance  attached  to  the  various  military  organizations 
and  their  movements,  in  all  the  wars  in  which  the  people  of  the  county 
have  participated. 

V.  The  biographical  sketches  of  many  of  the  most  prominent  per- 
sonages, living  and  dead,  which  make  the  book  valuable  for  reference 
purposes  to  all  classes. 

VI.  The  classification  of  material  under  appropriate  heads,  which - 
facilitates  the  easy  finding  of  any  desired  information. 

The  outline  history  of  the  State,  contained  in  Part  I  is  from  the  pen 
of  Prof.  Samuel  P.  Bates,  of  Meadville.  The  history  of  Franklin  County 
in  Part  II  was  compiled  chiefly  by  Prof.  J.  Fraise  Richard,  who  has 
striven  to  give  an  accurate  and  reliable  account  of  the  county's  origin,  prog 
ress  and  development;  and,  for  that  purpose,  has  laid  under  contribution  the 
data  afforded  by  historic  sketches,  newspaper  articles,  public  and  private 
records,  personal  interviews  and  correspondence,  tombstones  and  other  reli- 
able sources.  The  biographical  sketches  in  Part  III  were,  for  the  most 
part,  collected  by  a  corps  of  solicitors,  and  a  proof  of  each  sketch  submitted 
by  mail  to  each  subject  for  correction. 

To  repay,  in  detail,  all  the  kindnesses  manifested  by  Franklin  County 
citizens  to  the  writers  and  solicitors  would  compel  involuntary  bankruptcy. 
The  special  gratitude  of  the  publishers,  however,  is  due  and  is  hereby  ex- 
tended to  the  press  of  Chambersburg,  Waynesboro,    Greencastle  and  Mer- 


cersburg  for  the  use  of  their  files,  and  for  other  courtesies;  to  the  county 
officials  and  to  Hons.  F.  M.  Kimmell,  D.  Watson  Rowe  and  John  Stewart 
for  personal  aid  and  favors;  to  Jacob  Hoke,  Esq.,  Drs.  W.  C.  Lane,  S.  G. 
Lane,  Chas.  T.  Maclay  and  W.  H.  Egle,  State  Historian;  Capt.  J.  H. 
Walker,  John  B.  Kaufman,  J.  W.  Douglas  and  George  S.  Kyle  for  contri- 
butions and  special  aid;  and  to  the  pastors  of  the  various  churches,  and 
secretaries  of  different  orders  for  reports  of  their  organizations. 

With  due  appreciation  of  the  liberal  patronage  received,  the  publishers 
beg  to  present  this  volume  to  their  patrons  in  the  highly  favored  county  of 






CHAPTER  I.— Introductory.— Cornells  Jacob- 
son  Mey,  1624-25.  William  Van  Hulst,  1626 
-26.  Peter  Minuit,  1626-33.  David  Peter- 
sen de  Vries,  1632-33.  VVouter  Van  Twiller, 
1633-38 15-23 

CHAPTER  II.— Sir  William  Keift,  1638-47. 
Peter  Minuit,  1638-41.  Peter  Hollandaer, 
1641-43.  John  Printz,  1643-53.  Peter  Stuy- 
vesant.  1647-64.  John  Pappagoya,  1653-64. 
John  Claude  Rysingh,  1654-56 23-33 

CHAPTER  III.— John  Paul  Jacquet,  1655-57. 
Jacob  Alrichs,  1657-59.  Goeran  Van  Dyck. 
1657-58.  William  Beekmau,  1658-63.  Alex. 
D'Hinoyossa,  1659-64 33-35 

CHAPTER  IV.— Richard  Nichols,  1664-67.  Rob- 
ert Needhaui,  1664-68.  Francis  Lovelace, 
1667-73.  John  Carr,  1668-73.  Anthony 
Colve,  1673-74.     Peter  Alrichs,  1673-74 35-41 

CHAPTER  V.— Sir  Edmund  Andros,  1674-81. 
Edmund  Cantwell,  1674-76.  John  Collier, 
1676-77.     Christopher  Billop,  1677-81 41-50 

CHAPTER  VI.— William  Markham,  1681-82. 
William  Penn,  1682-84 51-61 

CHAPTER  VTL— Thomas  Lloyd,  1684-86.  Five 
Commissioners,  1686-88.  John  Blackwell, 
1688-90.  Thomas  Lloyd,  1690-91.  William 
Markham.  1691-93.  Benjamin  Fletcher, 
1693-95.     William  Markham,  1693-99 61-69 

CHAPTER  VIII.— William  Penn,  1699-1701. 
Andrew  Hamilton,  1701-03.  Edward  Ship- 
pen,  1 703-04.  John  Evans,  1704-09.  Charles 
Gooken,  1709-17 69-75 


CHAPTER  IX.— Sir  William  Keith,  1717-26. 
Patrick  Gordon,  1726-36.  James  Logan, 
1736-38.  George  Thomas,  1738-47.  Anthony 
Palmer,  1747-48.  James  Hamilton  1748-54 

CHAPTER  X.— Robert  H.  Morris,  1754-56.  Wil- 
liam Denny,  1756-59.  James  Hamilton, 
1759-63 89-97 

CHAPTER  XL— John  Penn.  1763-71.  James 
Hamilton,  1771.  Richard  Penn,  1771-73. 
John  Penn,  1773-76 98-104 

CHAPTER  XII.— Thomas  Wharton,  Jr.,  1777- 
78.  George  Bryan,  1778.  Joseph  Reed,  1778 
-81.  William  Moore,  1781-82.  John  Dickin- 
son, 1782-85.  Benjamin  Franklin,  1785-88 

CHAPTER  XIII.— Thomas  Mifflin,  1788-99. 
Thomas  McKean,  1799-1808.  Simon  Snyder, 
1808-17.  William  Findlay,  IS  17-20.  Joseph 
Heister,  1820-23.  John  A.  Shulze,  1823-29. 
George  Wolfe,  1829-35  Joseph  Ritner, 
1835-39 114-121 

CHAPTER  XIV— David  R.  Porter,  1839-45. 
Francis  R.  Shunk,  1845^8.  William  F. 
Johnstone,  1848-52.  William  Bigler.l  852-55. 
James  Pollock,  1855-58.  William  F.  Packer, 
1858-61.  Andrew  G.  Curtin,  1861-67.  John 
W.  Geary,  1867-73.  John  F.  Hartranft, 
1873-78.  Henry  F.  Hovt,  1878-82.  Robert 
E.  Pattison,  1882-86.  "James  A.  Beaver, 
1886 122  131 

Gubernatorial  Table 132 




CHAPTER  I.— Physical  Description 137-141 

The  Great  Eastern  Valley— The  Path  of  a 
Probable  Gulf  Stream  —  The  Mountain 
Ranges  and  their  Appendages — Systems  of 
Drainage — Geological  and  Mineralogical  As- 
pects—Character of  Soil  — Vegetation — Cli- 

CHAPTER  II.— Pioneer  Settlers i41-159 

Two  Classes:  Scotch-Irish,  their  Origin, 
Arrivals, Character  and  Locations—Germans, 
Sketch  of  Persecutions,  Arrival,  Trials,  etc. 
— Trend  of  Settlements  in  Cumberland  Val- 
ley Westward — Shippensburg  a  Distributing 
Point  —  Settlements  at  Falling  Spring  — 
Sketch  of  Benjamin  Chambers — Other  Set- 
tlements and  Settlers  in  Various  Parts  of 
the  County — List  of  1751-52 — 
Mason  andDixon's  Line. 

CHAPTER  III.— Indian  War 159-175 

Indian  Nations  Described — VVar  Between 
French  and  English — Colonies  Involved  — 
Braddock's  Defeat  and  its  Effects — Forts 
Located  and  Described — Massacres  from  1754 
to  1785 — Conflict  Between  the  Civil  and 
Military  at  Fort  Loudoun. 


CHAPTER  IV.— The  Revolution 175-190 

Its  Causes — Loyalty  to  the  Mother  Coun- 
try— Early  Military — Roster  and  Roll  of 
Franklin  Men — From  Colonies  to  States — 
Heroes  from  Franklin  County — One  of  the 
First  American  Cannons,  etc. 

CHAPTER  V— Whisky  War 190-191 

Eleven  Years  of  Peace — Causes  of  the 
Whisky  Insurrection — Its  Prosecution  and 
its  Subversion — Sympathy  of  the  Militia, 

CHAPTER   VI.  — Franklin   County   Organ- 
ized   192-214 

Date  of  Erection — Petitions  in  Favor  of 
and  in  Opposition  to  the  Project — Fight  over 
the  County  Seat — The  First  Court  House 
and  First  Jail — Early  County  Officers — Esti- 
mate of  Population  —  First  General  Elec- 
tion— Officials,  etc. 

CHAPTER  VII.— Internal  Affairs 214-235 

Lands  and  Land  Titles— Indian  Trails — 
Roads — Bridges — Turnpikes — Inns  or  Tav- 
erns— Militia — Muster  Days — Mail  Routes 
and     Post-offices  —  Postmasters  —  Railroads 




— Cumberland  Valley  Railroad — First  Sleep- 
ing Car  Ever  Made — Franklin  Railroad — 
Shenaudoah  Valley  Railroad — Harrisburg 
.t  Potomac  Railroad — Western  Maryland 
Railroad — Baltimore  ct  Cumberland  Valley 
Railroad— Mont  Alto  Railroad — Mont  Alto 
Iron  Works,  etc. 

CHAPTER  VIII.—  War  of  1812-15 235-245 

Cause  of  the  War — Declaration  of  War — 
Franklin  County  Companies — Incidents  of 
the  War. 

CHAPTER  IX.— Mexican  War 245-249 

Texas  and  Mexico— Whig  and  Democrat 
— Counter  Arguments — Declaration  of  War 
— Franklin  County  Company — Its  Services. 

CHAPTER  X.— The  Press 249-260 

Introductory — First  Newspaper — Press  of 
Chambersburg — Press  of  Waynesboro  — 
Press  of  Mercersburg— Press  of  Greencastle. 

CHAPTER  XL— Agriculture 260-266 

A  Business  of  First  Importance — Its  Prom- 
ising Future — Improvements  Introduced — 
Judge  Watts  —  The  First  Reaper  —  First 
Stock  in  the  Country — Wheat  and  Corn- 
Hessian  Fly  —  Improved  Implements  —  A 
Wonderful  Fsat  with  the  Scythe — Agri- 
cultural Societies,  Officers,  etc. 

CHAPTER  XII.— The  Medical   Profession 


Introductory  View  of  the  Human  Structure 
— Sketches  of  Prominent  Deceased  Physi- 
cians— Epidemics — Medical  Societies — Ros- 
ter of  Present  Physicians. 

CHAPTER  XIII.— Educational  and  Relig- 
ious   Z95-316 

Educational  —  Education  Defined  — 
Teaching  Defined — Early  Schools  and  their 
Equipments— John  B.  Kaufman's  Account 
of  Early  Schools  and  Teachers — History  of 
School  Legislation— Comparative  Statistics — 
County  Superintendents— County  Institutes 
—Letter  from  Ex-Co.  Supt.  A.  J.  McElwain 

—  List  ol  County  Superintendents  —  Relig- 
ious—Early Settlers'  Religions — Presbyie- 
rians — Lutherans— Reformed — Methodists — 
Fnited  Brethren — Roman  Catholic— Episco- 
palian—Church  of  Cod— German  Baptists — 
River  Brethren  —  Menuonites  —  Retormed 
Meunonites— Colored  Churches—  Mormon- 

CHAPTER  XIV.— Popular  Agitations  and 

Philanthropic  Reforms 319-331 

Human  Society  Compared  to  the  Ocean — 
Early  Outlaws— The  Nugents— Slavery  in 
Franklin  County— A  Curious  Will— Gradual 
Abolition  of  Slavery— Runaway  Slaves— The 
Underground  Railroad— Capture  of  Bob  and 
I  :avc— History  of  John  Brown's  Raid  on  Har- 
per's Ferry— Fate  of  His  Coadjutors— Wen- 
dell Phillips'  Speech— curious  Prophecies- 
History  of  Know-nothingism  iu  Chambers- 
burg—-Sketches  of  Early  Temperance  Move- 
ments in  the  County— Tidal- Waves— W  ash- 
ingtonian  Movement— Father  Mathew's  Ef- 
forts—Sons of  Temperance  -Good  Temp- 
lars—Woman's  Crusade-  -National  Woman's 
Christian  Temperance  Union  —  Murphy 
Movement-  Prohibition— Franklin  County 
Bible  Society  -Children's  Aid  Society. 

en  \pter  XV.— The  Great  Rebellion  of 

1861-65 33U-390 

introduction  —  Civil  War  an  Interest- 
ing study— Its  Antecedents  Must  be  Con- 
sidered—Jamestown  and  Plymouth  Typical 
of  I' wo  Antagonistic  Civilizations— Practical 
Inferences— War  Statistics— Firing  on  Fort 
Sumter  and  its  Effects— Patriotic  Meetings 

—  Hearty    Response  to   President's  Call  for 
roops— Incidents  of  1861— Complete  Ro3ter 

of  Troops  Furnished  by  the  County— Stuart's 
Raid  in  1862— Lee's  Invasion,  Preceded  by 
Jenkins'  Raid— Rebel  Occupation  of  Cham- 
bersburg and  Its  Events— Advance  on  Get- 
tysburg—Battle—Retreat—Lee's Train  of 
Wounded — Burning  of  EwelPs  Supplv  Train 
and  capture  of  Prisoners  by  Kilpatrick— 
McCausland's  Raid  and  Burning  of  Cham- 

CHAPTER  XVI.— Law  Makers  and  Law  In-    ■ 

terpretess 390-422 

Law  Defined  and  Analyzed — Founded  in 
Natural  Justice— Mental  Requirements  for 
its  Study  — Various  State  Conventions  — 
Franklin's  Representatives  in  National  Con- 
gress, in  State  Senate  and  House  — Early 
Bench  and  Bar— List  of  President  and  Asso"- 
eiate  Judges— List  of  Attorneys  from  Organ- 
ization of  County. 

CHAPTER  XVII.—  Master  Spirits 422-433 

Uses  and  Abuses  of  Greatness— Character 
of  Genius— Greatness— Its  Elements— Power 
of  Mothers— Sketches  of  Master  Spirits :  ,'l) 
Military,  (2)  Political,  (3)  Railroad  Mana- 
gers, (4)  Theologians,  (5)  County  Officials,  (6) 
Medical,  (7.)  Educational,  (8)  Press,  (9)  Legal 
—Franklin  County's  Roll  of  Honor. 

CHAPTER  XVIIL— The  County's  First  Cen- 
tennial  433-451 

Introductory— Value  of  Anniversaries- 
Triumphs  of  the  Century— Preparations  for 
the  Coming  Anniversary — Executive  Com- 
mittee—Township Committees — Account  of 
the  Two  Days'  Doings — Extracts  from  Ad- 
dresses and  Poems  Delivered. 

CHAPTER    XIX.— Borough    of   Chambers- 
burg  451-504 

Description— Early  History  —  Incorpora- 
tion— Banks— First  Market  Houses— Present 
Market.  House— Water-works— Gas  Works 
—Fire  Department—  Manufactories— Secret 
Societies— Churches— Cemetery— Schools. 

CHAPTER  XX.— Borough  of   mercersburg 


Location  —  Settlement  —  James  Black- 
Early  Traffic— Original  Plat— Derivation  of 
Name— Sketch  of  Dr.  Mercer— Past  and 
Present  Business  Interests— Incorporation 
—Prominent  Residents— Birthplace  of  Presi- 
dent Buchanan— Mercersburg  College  and 
Public  Schools— Church  History— Cemetery 
—Banks— Fire   Company— Secret  Societies. 

CHAPTER   XXI.— Borough  of  Waynesboro 


Origin  of  the  Name—  Location— The  Plat- 
Original  Lot  Owners— Incorporation — Banks 

—  Manufactories  —  Water-works  —  Societies 
—Churches— Temperance  Union— Schools- 
Cemetery— Famous  Sewing  Machine. 

CHAPTER  XXIL-Borough  of  Greencastle 


Site  of  the  Borough —  Ancient  Burving 
Grounds— Plat  of  the  Town,  and  iurst  Resi- 
dents—Early Reminiscences  and  Anecdotes 
—Old  Churches— Cemeteries  and   Epitaphs 

—  Incorporation  of  Borough— Its  Centen- 
nial—The Turnpike  — Church  Hi-tory— 
<  emetery— The  Schools  —  Industries— Bor- 
ough Officers— Bank— Town  Hall  Company 
— Societies. 

CHAPTER  XXIII. —Townships 554-614 

Antrim 555 

Formation  —Name— First  Settlers— Early 
Land  Titles— Old  Graveyard  Transcription's 
—List  of  Taxables,  1786— Early  Settlements 
— Borough  and  Villages — The  Mormons. 

Lurgan 504 

Formation— Topography— Earlv  Land  Ti- 
tles—List of  Taxables,  1786— The' Pomeroys 
— Villages. 




Pkters 567 

Name — Formation  — First  Settlers — Early 
Laud  Titles—  List  of  Taxables,  1786 — Loudon 
—  Leiuasters  —  Upton  —  Bridgeport  —  Cove 


Formation — Name — Early  Land  Entries — 
List  of  Taxables — Manors — Churches — Vil- 

Hamilton 577 

Name,  etc. — Earliest  Land  Entries — List  of 
Taxables,  1786 — Cashtown. 

Fannett 578 

Formation — The  Indians  and  First  Imnii- 

f rants  —  Name  —  Early    Land   Purchases — 
)arly  Land   Entries— List  of  Taxables,  1786 

Lktterkenny 583 

Formation — Bou  ndary — Early  Settlements 
— Earliest  Land  Titles — List  of  Taxables, 
1786— Early  School  Teaahers— Village- 

Washington 588 

Formation — Name — Early  Land  Titles-'- 
List  of  Taxables,  1786— Villages. 

Montgomery 591 

Formation — Name — Early  Land  Entries — 
List  of  taxables,  1786 — Villages. 


Southampton 593 

Kormation,elc. — Early  Land  Entries — List 
of  Taxables,  1786- Borough  of  Orrstown — 

Franklin 596 

Absorption  of  Township  by  Chambers- 
burg — List  of  Taxables,   1786. 

Greene 596 

Formation  —  Name —  Early  Settlement — 
Early  Land  Entries — Early  Uemiuiscences 
Greenvillage  —  Scotland  —  Fayetteville — 
Black's  Gap — Sruoketown. 

Metal 604 

Boundary  —  Formation  —  Topography  — 
Early  Settlers — Early  Land  Entries — Promi- 
nent First  Settlers — Taxables  in  1786— F'irst 
Justices  of  the  Peace — Villages — Churches. 

Wakren Su7 

Location — Its  Early  History — Name— Ear- 
liest Land  Entries — Early  Settlers— Old  Doc- 
uments— Churches. 

St.  Thomas 609 

Formation — Its  Early  History — Name — 
Immigration — Early  Land  Entries — Taxa- 
bles, 1786— Villages. 

Ql'INCY  611 

Formation — Its  settlements — Its  Wealth — 
Name — Early  Settlers — Early  Laud  Entries 
— Transcriptions  from  Early  Tombstones — 
Taxables  iu  1786— Villages. 

part  in. 



Chambersburg,  Borough  of 617 

Antrim  Township  and  Borough  of  Greencastle..  700 

Fannett  Township 737 

Greene  Township 763 

Guilford  Township 795 

Hamilton  Township 803 

Letterkenny  Township 809 

Lurgan  Township 817 

Metal  Township 834 


Montgomery  Township  and  Borough  of  Mercers- 
burg 845 

Peters  Township 873 

Quincy  Township 887 

St.  Thomas  Township 897 

Southampton  Township  and  Borough  of  Orrs- 
town    917 

Warren  Township 926 

Washington  Township  and  Borough  of  Waynes- 
boro    927 



Alexander,  Rev.S.  C 417 

Amberson,  W.  S 267 

Bard,  Robert  M 207 

Besore,  George 167 

Bonbrake,  E.  J 387 

Brotherton,  Col.  D.  H 407 

Buhrman,  C.  H 497 

('arson,  JamesO 157 

Chambers,  George 79 

Chritzman,  H.  G.,  M.  D 477 

Clayton,  James  H 367 

Crowell,  J.  B 277 

Davison,  J.  A 507 

Fleming,  Archibald 177 

Foltz,  M.  A 487 

Garver,  Samuel 307 

Good,  Jacob  S 297 

Hammond,  Lawrence 187 

Hammond,  M.  L 427 

Harbaugh,  Rev.  H 257 

Harnish,  H.  R 347 

Hassler,  Rev.  J 317 


Hawbecker,  S  .Z 527 

Hoke,  Jacob 327 

Hoover,  Daniel 447 

Keefer,  William  S 337 

Kerlin,  P 437 

Lamaster,  J.  R 537 

McDowell,  A.  B 357 

McKinstry,  William 45 

Orr,  William 197 

Rowe,  D.   Watson 397 

Rowe,  John 217 

Sentman.  S.  L 227 

Sharpe,  J.  McD 377 

Shockey,  Daniel 547 

Shoemaker,  John  A 557 

Skinner,  S.  M 287 

Snively,  I.  N.,M.  D 517 

Snively,  Joseph 147 

Walker,  Capt.  John  H 457 

Winger,  Joseph 237 

Winger,  Col.  B.  F 467 

Ziegler,  George  W 247 



Map  of  Franklin  County 10,    11 

Map  showing  various  purchases  from  Indians - 113 

Diagram  showing    proportionate  Annual  Production  of  Anthracite  Coal  since  1820 118 

Table  showing  amount  of  Anthracite  Coal  produced  in  each  region  since  1820 119 

Table  showing  vote  for  Governors  of  Pennsylvania  since  Organization  of  State 132 

Relief  Map  of  Cumberland  Valley 134,  135 




"God,  that  has  given  it  me  through  many  difficulties,  will,  I  believe, 
bless  and  make  it  the  seed  of  a  nation.  I  shall  have  a  tender  care  to  the 
government  that  it  be  well  laid  at  first.  -----  I  do,  therefore, 
desire  the  Lord's  wisdom  to  guide  me,  and  those  that  may  be  concerned 
with  me,  that  we  may  do  the  thing  that  is  truly  wise   and  just." 




Introductory  —  Cornelis  Jacobson  Mey,  1624-25— William  Van  Httlst,  1625- 
26— Peter  Mintjit,  1626-33— David  Petersen  de  Vries,  1632-33— Wouter 
Van  Twiller,  1633-38. 

IN  the  early  colonization  upon  the  American  continent,  two  motives  were 
principally  operative.  One  was  the  desire  of  amassing  sudden  wealth 
without  great  labor,  which  tempted  adventurous  spirits  to  go  in  search  of  gold, 
to  trade  valueless  trinkets  to  the  simple  natives  for  rich  furs  and  skins,  and  even 
to  seek,  amidst  the  wilds  of  a  tropical  forest,  for  the  fountain  whose  healing 
waters  could  restore  to  man  perpetual  youth.  The  other  was  the  cherished 
purpose  of  escaping  the  unjust  restrictions  of  Government,  and  the  hated  ban 
of  society  against  tne  worship  of  the  Supreme  Being  according  to  the  honest 
dictates  of  conscience,  which  incited  the  humble  devotees  of  Christianity  to 
forego  the  comforts  of  home,  in  the  midst  of  the  best  civilization  of  the  age, 
and  make  for  themselves  a  habitation  on  the  shores  of  a  new  world,  where  they 
might  erect  altars  and  do  homage  to  their  God  in  such  habiliments  as  they 
preferred,  and  utter  praises  in  such  note  as  seemed  to  them  good.  This  pur- 
pose was  also  incited  by  a  certain  romantic  temper,  common  to  the  race,  es- 
pecially noticeable  in  youth,  that  invites  to  some  uninhabited  J  spot,  and  Ras- 
selas  and  Robinson  Crusoe- like  to  begin  life  anew. 

William  Penn,  the  founder  of  Pennsylvania,  had  felt  the  heavy  hand  of 
persecution  for  religious  opinion's  sake.  As  a  gentleman  commoner  at  Ox- 
ford, he  had  been  fined,  and  finally  expelled  from  that  venerable  seat  of  learn- 
ing for  non-comformity  to  the  established  worship.  At  home,  he  was  whipped 
and  turned  out  of  doors  by  a  father  who  thought  to  reclaim  the  son  to  the 
more  certain  path  of  advancement  at  a  licentious  court.  He  was  sent  to  prison 
by  the  Mayor  of  Cork.  For  seven  months  he  languished  in  the  tower  of  Lon- 
don, and,  finally,  to  complete  his  disgrace,  he  was  cast  into  Newgate  with  com- 
mon felons.  Upon  the  accession  of  James  II,  to  the  throne  of  England,  over 
fourteen  hundred  persons  of  the  Quaker  faith  were  immured  in  prisons  for  a 
conscientious  adherence  to  their  religious  convictions.  To  escape  this  harassing 
persecution,  and  find  peace  and  quietude  from  this  sore  proscription,  was  the 
moving  cause  which  led  Penn  and  his  followers  to  emigrate  to  America. 

Of  all  those  who  have  been  founders  of  States  in  near  or  distant  ages,  none 
have  manifested  so  sincere  and  disinterested  a  spirit,  nor  have  been  so  fair  ex- 
emplars of  the  golden  rule,  and  of  the  Redeemer's  sermon  on  the  mount,  as 
William  Penn.  In  his  preface  to  the  frame  of  government  of  his  colony,  he 
says:  "  The  end  of  government  is  first  to  terrify  evil-doers;  secondly,  to  cher- 
ish those  who  do  well,  which  gives  government  a  life  beyond  corruption,   and 


makes  it  as  durable  in  the  world,  as  good  men  shall  be.  So  that  government 
seems  to  be  a  part  of  religion  itself,  a  thing  sacred  in  its  institution  and  end. 
For,  if  it  does  not  directly  remove  the  cause,  it  crushes  the  effects  of  evil,  and 
is  an  emanation  of  the  same  Divine  power,  that  is  both  author  and  object  of 
pure  religion,  the  difference  lying  here,  that  the  one  is  more  free  and  mental, 
the  other  more  corporal  and  compulsive  in  its  operations;  but  that  is  only  to 
evil-doers,  government  itself  being  otherwise  as  capable  of  kindness,  goodness 
and  charity,  as  a  more  private  society.  They  weakly  err,  who  think  there  is  no 
other  use  of  government  than  correction,  which  is  the  coarsest  part  of  it. 
Daily  experience  tells  us,  that  the  care  and  regulation  of  many  other  affairs 
more  soft,  and  daily  necessary,  make  up  much  the  greatest  part  of  government. 
Governments,  like  clocks,  go  from  the  motion  men  give  them,  and  as  govern- 
ments are  made  and  moved  by  men,  so  by  them  are  they  ruined,  too.  Where- 
fore, governments  rather  depend  upon  men,  than  men  upon  governments.  Let 
men  be  good,  and  the  government  cannot  be  bad.  If  it  be  ill,  they  will  cure 
it.  But  if  men  be  bad,  let  the  government  be  never  so  good,  they  will  endeavor 
to  warp  and  spoil  to  their  turn.  *  *  *  That,  therefore,  which  makes  a  good 
constitution, must  keep  it,  men  of  wisdom  and  virtue, qualities,  that  because  they 
descend  not  with  worldly  inheritances,  must  be  carefully  propagated  by  a  vir- 
tuous education  of  youth,  for  which,  after  ages  will  owe  more  to  the  care  and 
prudence  of  founders  and  the  successive  magistracy,  than  to  their  parents  for 
their  private  patrimonies.  *  *  *  We  have,  therefore,  with  reverence  to  God, 
and  good  conscience  to  men,  to  the  best  of  our  skill,  contrived  and  composed  the 
Frame  and  Laws  of  this  government,  viz. :  To  support  power  in  reverence 
with  the  people,  and  to  secure  the  people  from  the  abuse  of  power,  that  they 
may  be  free  by  their  just  obedience,  and  the  magistrates  honorable  for  their 
just  administration.  For  liberty  without  obedience  is  confusion,  and  obedi- 
ence without  liberty  is  slavery." 

Though  born  amidst  the  seductive  arts  of  the  great  city,  Penn's  tastes  were 
rural.  He  hated  the  manners  of  the  corrupt  court,  and  delighted  in  the  homely 
labors  and  iunocent  employments  of  the  farm.  " The  country,"  he  said,  "is 
the  philosopher's  garden  and  library,  in  which  he  reads  and  contemplates  the* 
power,  wisdom  and  goodness  of  God.  It  is  his  food  as  well  as  study,  and  gives 
him  life  as  well  as  learning."  And  to  his  wife  he  said  upon  taking  leave  of 
her  in  their  parting  interview:  "  Let  my  children  be  husbandmen,  and  house- 
wives. It  is  industrious,  healthy,  honest,  and  of  good  report.  This  leads  to 
consider  the  works  of  God,  and  diverts  the  mind  from  being  taken  up  with  vain 
arts  and  inventions  of  a  luxurious  world.  Of  cities  and  towns  of  concourse, 
beware.  The  world  is  apt  to  stick  close  to  thos9  who  have  lived  and  got  wealth 
there.     A  country  life  and  estate  I  love  best  for  my  children." 

Having  thus  given  some  account  at  the  outset  of  the  spirit  and  purposes  of 
the  founder,  and  the  motive  which  drew  him  to  these  shores,  it  will  be  in 
place,  before  proceeding  with  the  details  of  the  acquisition  of  territory,  and 
the  coming  of  emigrants  for  the  actual  settlement  under  the  name  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, to  say  something  of  the  aborigines  who  were  found  in  possession  of  the 
soil  when  first  visited  by  Europeans,  of  the  condition  of  the  surface  of  the 
country,  and  of  the  previous  attempts  at  settlements  before  the  coming  of  Pehn. 

The  surface  of  what  is  now  known  as  Pennsylvania  was,  at  the  time  of  the 
coming  of  the  white  men,  one  vast  forest  of  hemlock,  and  pine,  and  beech, 
and  oak,  unbroken,  except  by  an  occasional  rocky  barren  upon  the  precipitous 
mountain  side,  or  by  a  few  patches  of  prairie,  which  had  been  reclaimed  by 
annual  burnings,  and  was  used  by  the  indolent  and  simple-minded  natives  for 
the  culture  of  a  little  maize  and  a  few  vegetables.     The  soil,  by  the  annual 


accumulations  of  leaves  and  abundant  growths  of  forest  vegetation,  was  luxu- 
rious, and  the  trees  stood  close,  and  of  gigantic  size.  The  streams  swarmed 
with  fish,  and  the  forest  abounded  with  game.  Where  now  are  cities  and 
hamlets  filled  with  busy  populations  intent  upon  the  accumulation  of  wealth, 
the  mastery  of  knowledge,  the  pursuits  of  pleasure,  the  deer  browsed  and 
sipped  at  the  water's  edge,  and  the  pheasant  drummed  his  monotonous  note. 
Where  now  is  the  glowing  furnace  from  which  day  and  night  tongues  of  flame 
are  bursting,  and  the  busy  water  wheel  sends  the  shuttle  flashing  through  the 
loom,  half-naked,  dusky  warriors  fashioned  their  spears  with  rude  implements 
of  stone,  and  made  themselves  hooks  out  of  the  bones  of  animals  for  alluring 
the  finny  tribe.  Where  now  are  fertile  fields,  upon  which  the  thrifty  farmer 
turns  his  furrow,  which  his  neighbor  takes  up  and  runs  on  until  it  reaches 
from  one  end  of  the  broad  State  to  the  other,  and  where  are  flocks  and  herds, 
rejoicing  in  rich  meadows,  gladdened  by  abundant  fountains,  or  reposing  at  the 
heated  noontide  beneath  ample  shade,  not  a  blow  had  been  struck  against  the 
giants  of  the  forest,  the  soil  rested  in  virgin  purity,  the  streams  glided  on  in 
majesty,  un vexed  by  wheel  and  unchoked  by  device  of  man. 

Where  now  the  long  train  rushes  on  with  the  speed  of  the  wind  over 
plain  and  mead,  across  streams  and  under  mountains,  awakening  the  echoes  of 
the  hills  the  long  day  through,  and  at  the  midnight  hour  screaming  out  its 
shrill  whistle  in  fiery  defiance,  the  wild  native,  with  a  fox  skin  wrapped  about 
his  loins  and  a  few  feathers  stuck  in  his  hair,  issuing  from  his  rude  hut,  trot- 
ted on  in  his  forest  path,  followed  by  his  squaw  with  her  infant  peering  forth 
from  the  rough  sling  at  her  back,  pointed  his  canoe,  fashioned  from  the  barks 
of  the  trees,  across  the  deep  river,  knowing  the  progress  of  time  only  by  the 
rising  and  setting  sun,  troubled  by  no  meridians  for  its  index,  starting  on  his 
way  when  his  nap  was  ended,  and  stopping  for  rest  when  a  spot  was  reached 
that  pleased  his  fancy.  Where  now  a  swarthy  population  toils  ceaselessly  deep 
down  in  the  bowels  of  the  earth,  shut  out  trom  the  light  of  day  in  cutting  out 
the  material  that  feeds  the  fifes  upon  the  forge,  and  gives  genial  warmth  to  the 
lovers  as  they  chat  merrily  in  the  luxurious  drawing  room,  not  a  mine  had 
been  opened,  and  the  vast  beds  of  the  black  diamond  rested  unsunned  beneath 
the  superincumbent  mountains,  where  they  had  been  fashioned  by  the  Creator's 
hand.  Rivers  of  oil  seethed  through  the  impatient  and  uneasy  gases  and  vast 
pools  and  lakes  of  this  pungent,  parti -colored  fluid,  hidden  away  from  the 
coveting  eye  of  man,  guarded  well  their  own  secrets.  Not  a  derrick  protruded 
its  well-balanced  form  in  the  air.  Not  a  drill,  with  its  eager  eating  tooth  de- 
scended into  the  flinty  rock  No  pipe  line  diverted  the  oily  tide  in  a  silent, 
ceaseless  current  to  the  ocean's  brink.  The  cities  of  iron  tanks,  filled  to  burst- 
ing, had  no  place  amidst  the  forest  solitudes.  Oil  exchanges,  with  their  vex- 
ing puts  and  calls,  shorts  aud  longs,  bulls  and  bears,  had  not  yet  come  to  dis- 
turb tbe  equanimity  of  the  red  man,  as  he  smoked  the  pipe  of  peace  at  the 
council  fire.  Had  he  once  seen  the  smoke  and  soot  of  the  new  Birmingham  of 
the  West,  or  snuffed  the  odors  of  an  oil  refinery,  he  would  willingly  have  for- 
feited his  goodly  heritage  by  the  forest  stream  or  the  deep  flowing  river,  and 
sought  for  himself  new  hunting  grounds  in  less  favored  regions. 

It  was  an  unfortunate  circumstance  that  at  the  coming  of  Europeans  the 
territory  now  known  as  Pennsylvania  was  occupied  by  some  of  the  most  bloody 
and  revengeful  of  the  savage  tribes.  They  were  known  as  the  Lenni  Lenapes, 
and  held  sway  from- the  Hudson  to  the  Potomac.  A  tradition  was  preserved 
among  them,  that  in  a  remote  age  their  ancestors  had  emigrated  eastward  from 
beyond  the  Mississippi,  exterminating  as  they  came  the  more  civilized  and 
peaceful  peoples,  the  Mound-Builders  of  Ohio  and  adjacent    States,  and  who 


were  held  among  the  tribes  by  whom  they  were  surrounded  as  the  progenitors, 
the  grandfathers  or  oldest  people.  They  came  to  be  known  by  Europeans  as 
the  Delawares,  after  the  name  of  the  river  and  its  numerous  branches  along 
which  they  principally  dwelt.  Tbe  Monseys  or  Wolves,  another  tribe  of  the 
Lenapes,  dwelt  upon  the  Susquehanna  and  its  tributaries,  and,  by  their  war- 
like disposition,  won  the  credit  of  being  the  fiercest  of  their  nation,  and  the 
guardians  of  the  door  to  their  council  housp  from  the  North. 

Occupying  the  greater  part  of  the  tevitory  now  known  as  New  York,  were 
the  five  nations — the  Senacas,  the  Mohawks,  the  Oneidas,  the  Cayugas,  and 
the  Onondagas,  which,  from  their  hearty  union,  acquired  great  strength  and 
came  to  exercise  a  commanding  influence.  Obtaining  firearms  of  the  Dutch 
at  Albany,  they  repelled  the  advances  of  the  French  from  Canada,  and  by 
their  superiority  in  numbers  and  organization,  had  overcome  the  Lenapes, 
and  held  them  for  awhile  in  vassalage.  The  Tuscaroras,  a  tribe  which  had 
been  expelled  from  their  home  in  North  Carolina,  Avere  adopted  by  the  Five  Na- 
tions in  1712,  and  from  this  time  forward  these  tribes  were  known  to  the  English 
as  the  Six  Nations,  called  by  the  Lenapes,  Mingoes,  and  by  the  French,  Iroquois. 
There  was,  therefore,  properly  a  United  States  before  the  thirteen  colonies 
achieved  their  independence.  The  person  and  character  of  these  tribes  were 
marked.  They  were  above  the  ordinary  stature,  erect,  bold,  and  commanding, 
of  great  decorum  in  council,  and  when  aroused  showing  native  eloquence.  In 
warfare,  they  exhibited  all  the  bloodthirsty,  revengeful,  cruel  instincts  of  the 
savage,  and  for  the  attainment  of  their  purposes  were  treacherous  and  crafty. 

The  Indian  character,  as  developed  by  intercourse  with  Europeans,  exhibits 
some  traits  that  are  peculiar.  While  coveting  what  they  saw  that  pleased 
them,  and  thievish  to  the  last  degree,  they  were  nevertheless  generous.  This 
may  be  accounted  for  by  their  habits.  "They  held  that  the  game  of  the  for- 
est, the  tish  of  the  rivers,  and  the  grass  of  the  field  were  a  common  heritage, 
and  free  to  all  who  would  take  the  trouble  to  gather  them,  and  ridiculed  the 
idea  of  fencing  in  a  meadow."  Bancroft  says:  "  The  hospitality  of  the  Indian 
has  rarely  been  questioned.  The  stranger  enters  his  cabin,  by  day  or  by 
night,  without  asking  leave,  and  is  entertained  as  freely  as  a  thrush  or  a 
blackbird,  that  regales  himself  on  the  luxuries  of  the  fruitful  grove.  He 
will  take  his  own  rest  abroad,  that  he  may  give  up  his  own  skin  or  mat  of 
sedge  to  his  guest.  Nor  is  the  traveler  questioned  as  to  the  purpose  of  his 
visit.  He  chooses  his  own  time  freely  to  deliver  his  message."  Penn,  who, 
from  frequent  intercourse  came  to  know  them  well,  in  his  letter  to  the  society 
of  Free  Traders,  says  of  them:  "In  liberality  they  excel;  nothing  is  too  good 
for  their  friend.  Give  them  a  fine  gun,  coat  or  other  thing,  it  may  pass 
twenty  hands  before  it  sticks;  light  of  heart,  strong  affections,  but  soon  spent. 
The  most  merry  creatures  that  live;  feast  and  dance  perpetually.  They  never 
have  much  nor  want  much.  Wealth  circulateth  like  the  blood.  All  parts 
partake;  and  though  none  shall  want  what  another  hath,  yet  exact  observers 
of  property.  Some  Kings  have  sold,  others  presented  me  with  several  .parcels 
of  land.  The  pay  or  presents  I  made  them,  were  not  hoarded  by  the  particu- 
lar owners,  but  the  neighboring  Kings  and  clans  being  present  when  the 
goods  were  brought  out.  the  parties  chiefly  concerned  consulted  what  and  to 
whom  they  should  give  them.  To  every  King,  then,  by  the  hands  of  a  per- 
son for  that  work  appointed  is  a  proportion  sent,  so  sorted  and  folded,  and 
with  that  gravity  that  is  admirable.  Then  that  King  subdivideth  it  in  like  man- 
ner among  his  dependents,  they  hardly  leaving  themselves  an  equal  share 
with  one  of  their  subjects,  and  be  it  on  such  occasions  as  festivals,  or  at  their 
common  mealB,  the  Kings  distribute,  and  to  themselves  last.      They  care  for 


little  because  they  want  but  little,  and  the  reason  is  a  little  contents  them.  In 
this  they  are  sufficiently  revenged  on  us.  They  are  also  free  from  our  pains. 
They  are  not  disquieted  with  bills  of  lading  and  exchange,  nor  perplexed 
with  chancery  suits  and  exchequer  reckonings.  "We  sweat  and  toil  to  live; 
their  pleasure  feeds  them;  I  mean  their  hunting,  fishing  and  fowling,  and 
this  table  is  spread  everywhere.  They  eat  twice  a  day,  morning  and  evening. 
Their  Heats  and  table  are  the  ground.  Since  the  Europeans  came  into  these 
parts  they  are  grown  great  lovers  of  strong  liquors,  rum  especially,  and  for  it 
exchange  the  richest  of  their  skins  and  furs.  If  they  are  heated  with  liquors, 
they  are  restless  till  they  have  enough  to  sleep.  That  is  their  cry,  '  Some 
more  and  I  will  go  to  sleep; '  but  when  drunk  one  of  the  most  wretched  spec- 
tacles in  the  world." 

On  the  28th  of  August,  1609,  a  little  more  than  a  century  from  the  time 
of  the  first  discovery  of  the  New  World  by  Columbus,  Hendrick  Hudson,  an 
English  navigator,  then  in  the  employ  of  the  Dutch  East  India  Company,  hav- 
ing been  sent  out  in  search  of  a  northwestern  passage  to  the  Indies,  discovered 
the  mouth  of  a  great  bay,  since  known  as  Delaware  Bay,  which  he  entered  and 
partially  explored.  But  finding  the  waters  shallow,  and  being  satisfied  that 
this  was  only  an  arm  of  the  sea  which  received  the  waters  of  a  great  river, 
and  not  a  passage  to  the  western  ocean,  he  retired,  and,  turning  the  prow  of 
his  little  craft  northward,  on  the  2d  of  September,  he  discovered  the  river 
which  bears  his  name,  the  Hudson,  and  gave  several  days  to  its  examination. 
Not  finding  a  passage  to  the  "West,  which  was  the  object  of  his  search,  he  returned 
to  Holland,  bearing  the  evidences  of  his  adventures,  and  made  a  full  report  of 
his  discoveries  in  which  he  says,  "  Of  all  lands  on  which  I  ever  set  my  foot, 
this  is  the  best  for  tillage." 

A  proposition  had  been  made  in  the  States  General  of  Holland  to  form  a 
West  India  Company  with  purposes  similar  to  those  of  the  East  India  Com- 
pany; but  the  conservative  element  in  the  Dutch  Congress  prevailed,  and  while 
the  Government  was  unwilling  to  undertake  the  risks  of  an  enterprise  for 
which  it  would  be  responsible,  it  was  not  unwilling  to  foster  private  enter- 
prise, and  on  the  27th  of  Mai'ch,  1614,  an  edict  was  passed,  granting  the 
privileges  of  trade,  in  any  of  its  possessions  in  the  New  World,  during  four 
voyages,  founding  its  right  to  the  territory  drained  by  the  Delaware  and 
Hudson  upon  the  discoveries  by  Hudson.  Five  vessels  were  accordingly 
fitted  by  a  company  composed  of  enterprising  merchants  of  the  cities  of  Am- 
sterdam and  Hoorn,  which  made  speedy  and  prosperous  voyages  under  com- 
mand of  Cornells  Jacobson  Mey,  bringing  back  with  them  fine  furs  and  rich 
woods,  which  so  excited  cupidity  that  the  States  General  was  induced  on  the 
14th  of  October,  1614,  to  authorize  exclusive  trade,  for  four  voyages,  extend- 
ing through  three  years,  in  the  newly  acquired  possessions,  the  edict  designat- 
ing them  as  New  Netherlands. 

One  of  the  party  of  this  first  enterprise,  Cornells  Hendrickson,  was  left 
behind  with  a  vessel  called  the  Unrest,  which  had  been  built  to  supply  the 
place  of  one  accidentally  burned,  in  which  he  proceeded  to  explore  more  fully 
the  bay  and  river  Delaware,  of  which  he  made  report  that  was  read  before  the 
States  General  on  the  19th  of  August,  1616.  This  report  is  curious  as  dis- 
closing the  opinions  of  the  first  actual  explorer  in  an  official  capacity:  "  He 
hath  discovered  for  his  aforesaid  masters  and  directors  certain  lands,  a  bay, 
and  three  rivers,  situate  between  thirty-eight  and  forty  degrees,  and  did  their 
trade  with  the  inhabitants,  said  trade  consisting  of  sables,  furs,  robes  and 
other  skins.  He  hath  found  the  said  country  full  of  trees,  to  wit,  oaks,  hick- 
ory and  pines,  which  trees  were,  in  some  places,  covered  with  vines.     He  hath 


seen  in  said  country  bucks  and  does,  turkeys  and  partridges.  He  hath  found 
the  climate  of  said  country  very  temperate,  judging  it  to  be  as  temperate  as 
this  country,  Holland.  He  also  traded  for  and  bought  from  the  inhabitants, 
the  Minquas,  three  persons,  being  people  belonging  to  this  company,  which 
three  persons  were  employed  in  the  service  of  the  Mohawks  and  Machicans, 
giving  for  them  kettles,  beads,  and  merchandise." 

This  second  charter  of  privileges  expired  in  January,  1618,  and  daring  its 
continuance  the  knowledge  acquired  of  the  country  and  its  resources  promised 
so  much  of  success  that  the  States  General  was  ready  to  grant  broader  privi- 
leges, and  on  the  3d  of  June,  1621,  the  Dutch  West  India  Company  was  in- 
corporated, to  extend  for  a  period  of  twenty-four  years,  with  the  right  of 
renewal,  the  capital  stock  to  be  open  to  subscription  by  all  nations,  and 
"privileged  to  trade  and  plant  colonies  in  Africa,  from  the  tropic  of  Cancer 
to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  and  in  America  from  the  Straits  of  Magellan  to  the 
remotest  north."  The  past  glories  of  Holland,  though  occupying  but  an  in- 
significant patch  of  Europe,  emboldened  its  Government  to  pass  edicts  for  the 
colonizing  and  carrying  on  an  exclusive  trade  with  a  full  half  of  the  entire 
world,  an  example  of  the  biting  off  of  more  than  could  be  well  chewed.  But 
the  light  of  this  enterprising  people  was  beginning  to  pale  before  the  rising- 
glories  of  the  stern  race  in  their  sea  girt  isle  across  the  channel.  Dissensions- 
were  arising  among  the  able  statesmen  who  had  heretofore  guided  its  affairs, 
and  before  the  periods  promised  in  the  original  charter  of  this  colonizing  com- 
pany had  expired,  its  supremacy  of  the  sea  was  successfully  resisted,  and  its 
exclusive  rights  and  privileges  in  the  New  World  had   to  be  relinquished. 

The  principal  object  in  establishing  this  West  India  Company  was  to- 
secure  a  good  dividend  upon  the  capital  stock,  which  was  subscribed  to  by  the 
rich  old  burgomasters.  The  fine  furs  and  products  of  the  forests,  which  had 
been  taken  back  to  Holland,  had  proved  profitable.  But  it  was  seen  that  »* 
this  trade  was  to  be  permanently  secured,  in  face  of  the  active  competition  of 
other  nations,  and  these  commodities  steadily  depended  upon,  permanent  set- 
tlements must  bo  provided  for.  Accordingly,  in  1623,  a  colony  of  about  forty 
families,  embracing  a  party  of  Walloons,  protestant  fugitives  from  Belgium, 
sailed  for  the  new  province,  under  the  leadership  of  Cornells  Jacobson  Mey  and 
Joriz  Tienpont.  Soon  after  their  arrival,  Mey,  who  had  been  invested  with 
the  power  of  Director  General  of  all  the  territory  claimed  by  the  Dutch,  see- 
ing, no  doubt,  the  evidences  of  some  permanence  on  the  Hudson,  determined 
to  take  these  honest  minded  and  devoted  Walloons  to  the  South  River,  or  Del- 
aware, that  he  might  also  gain  for  his  country  a  foothold  there.  The  testi- 
mony of  one  of  the  women,  Catalina  Tricho,  who  was  of  the  party,  is 
curious,  and  sheds  some  light  upon  this  point.  M  That  she  came  to  this  prov- 
ince either  in  the  year  1623  or  1624,  and  that  four  women  came  along  with 
her  in  the  same  ship,  in  which  Gov.  Arien  Jorissen  came  also  over,  which  four 
women  were  married  at  sea,  and  that  they  and  their  husbands  stayed  about 
three  weeks  at  this  place  (Manhattan)  and  then  they  with  eight  seamen  more, 
went  in  a  vessel  by  orders  of  the  Dutch  Governor  to  Delaware  River,  and 
there  settled."  Ascending  the  Delaware  some  fifty  miles,  Mey  landed 
on  the  eastern  shore  near  where  now  is  the  town  of  Gloucester,  and  built  a 
fort  which  he  called  Nassau.  Having  duly  installed  his  little  colony,  he  re- 
turned to  Manhattan;  but  beyond  the  building  of  the  fort,  which  served  as  a 
trading  post,  this  attempt  to  plant  a  colony  was  futile;  for  these  religious 
zealots,  tiring  of  the  solitude  in  which  they  were  left,  after  a  few  months* 
abandoned  it,  and  returned  to  their  associates  whom  they  had  left  upon  the 
Hudson.     Though  not  successful  in  establishing  a  permanent  colony  upon  the 


Delaware,  ships  plied  regularly  between  the  fort  and  Manhattan,  and  this 
became  the  rallying  point  for  the  Indians,  who  brought  thither  their  commodi- 
ties for  trade.  At  about  this  time,  1626,  the  island  of  Manhattan  estimated 
to  contain  22,000  acres,  on  which  now  stands  the  city  of  New  York  with  its 
busy  population,  surrounded  by  its  forests  of  masts,  was  bought  for  the  insig- 
nificant sum  of  sixty  guilders,  about  $24,  what  would  now  pay  for  scarcely  a 
square  inch  of  some  of  that  very  soil.  As  an  evidence  of  the  thrift  which  had 
begun  to  mark  the  progress  of  the  colony,  it  may  be  stated  that  the  good  ship 
"  The  Arms  of  Amsterdam,"  which  bore  the  intelligence  of  this  fortunate  pur- 
chase to  the  assembly  of  the  XIX  in  Holland,  bore  also  in  the  language  of 
O'Calaghan,  the  historian  of  New  Netherland,  the  "  information  that  the  col- 
ony was  in  a  most  prosperous  state,  and  that  the  women  and  the  soil  were 
both  fruitful.  To  prove  the  latter  fact,  samples  of  the  recent  harvest,  consist- 
ing of  wheat,  rye,  barley,  oats,  buckwheat,  canary  seed,  were  sent  forward, 
together  with  8,130  beaver  skins,  valued  at  over  45,000  guilders,  or  nearly 
$19,000."  It  is  accorded  by  another  hisiorian  that  this  same  ship  bore  also 
"  853J  otter  skins,  eighty-one  mink  skins,  thirty-six  wild  cat  skins  and  thirty-four 
rat  skins,  with  a  quantity  of  oak  and  hickory  timber."  From  this  it  may  be 
seen  what  the  commodities  were  which  formed  the  subjects  of  trade.  Doubt- 
less of  wharf  rats  Holland  had  enough  at  home,  but  the  oak  and  hickory  tim- 
ber came  at  a  time  when  there  was  sore  need  of  it. 

Finding  that  the  charter  of  privileges,  enacted  in  1621,  did  not  give  suffi- 
cient encouragement  and  promise  of  security  to  actual  settlers,  further  con- 
cessions were  made  in  1629,  whereby  "  all  such  persons  as  shall  appear  and 
desire  the  same  from  the  company,  shall  be  acknowledged  as  Patroons  [a  sort 
of  feudal  lord]  of  New  Netherland,  who  shall,  within  the  space  of  four  years 
next  after  they  have  given  notice  to  any  of  the  chambers  of  the  company  here, 
or  to  the  Commander  or  Council  there,  undertake  to  plant  a  colony  there  of 
fifty  souls,  upward  of  fifteen  years  old;  one- fourth  part  within  one  year,  and 
within  three  years  after  sending  the  first,  making  together  four  years,  the  re- 
mainder, to  the  full  number  of  fifty  persons,  to  be  shipped  from  hence,  on  pain, 
in  case  of  willful  neglect,  of  being  deprived  of  the  privileges  obtained."  *  * 
"  The  Patroons,  by  virtue  of  their  power,  shall  be  permitted,  at  such  places  as  they 
shall  settle  their  colonies,  to  extend  their  limits  four  miles  along  the  shore,  or 
two  miles  on  each  side  of  a  river,  and  so  far  into  the  country  as  the  situation 
of  the  occupiers  will  permit." 

Stimulated  by  these  flattering  promises,  Goodyn  and  Bloemmaert,  two 
wealthy  and  influential  citizens,  through  their  agents — Heyser  and  Coster — 
secured  by  purchase  from  the  Indians  a  tract  of  land  on  the  western  shore, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Delaware,  sixteen  miles  in  length  along  the  bay  front,  and 
extending  sixteen  miles  back  into  the  country,  giving  a  square  of  256  miles. 
Goodyn  immediately  gave  notice  to  the  company  of  their  intention  to  plant  a 
colony  on  their  newly  acquired  territory  as  patroons.  They  were  joined  by  an 
experienced  navigator,  De  Vries,  and  on  the  12th  of  December,  1630,  a  vessel, 
the  Walrus,  under  command  of  De  Vries,  was  dispatched  with  a  company  of 
settlers  and  a  stock  of  cattle  and  farm  implements,  which  arrived  safely  in 
the  Delaware.  De  Vries  landed  about  three  leagues  within  the  capes,  "  near 
the  entrance  of  a  fine  navigable  stream,  called  the  Hoarkill,"  where  he  pro- 
ceeded to  build  a  house,  well  surrounded  with  cedar  palisades,  which  served 
the  purpose  of  fort,  lodging  house,  and  "trading  post.  The  little  settlement, 
which  consisted  of  about  thirty  persons,  was  christened  by  the  high  sounding 
title  of  Zwanendal — Valley  of  Swans.  In  the  spring  they  prepared  their  fields 
and  planted  them,  and  De  Vries  returned  to  Holland,  to  make  report  of  his 


But  a  sad  fate  awaited  the  little  colony  at  Zwanendal.  In  accordance  with 
the  custom  of  European  nations,  the  commandant,  on  taking  possession  of  the 
new  purchase,  erected  a  pust,  and  affixed  thereto  a  piece  of  tin  on  which  was 
traced  the  arms  of  Holland  and  a  legend  of  occupancy.  An  Indian  chieftain, 
passing  that  way,  attracted  by  the  shining  metal,  and  not  understanding  the 
object  of  the  inscription,  and  not  having  the  fear  of  their  high  mightinesses, 
the  States  General  of  Holland  before  his  eyes,  tore  it  down  and  proceeded  to 
make  for  himself  a  tobacco  pipe,  considering  it  valuable  both  by  way  of  orna- 
ment and  use.  When  this  act  of  trespass  was  discovered,  it  was  regarded  by 
the  doughty  Dutchman  as  a  direct  insult  to  the  great  State  of  Holland,  and 
so  great  an  ado  was  raised  over  it  that  the  simple  minded  natives  became 
frightened,  believing  that  their  chief  had  committed  a  mortal  offense,  and  in 
the  strength  and  sincerity  of  their  friendship  immediately  proceeded  to  dis- 
patch the  offending  chieftain,  and  brought  the  bloody  emblems  of  their  deed  to 
the  head  of  the  colony.  This  act  excited  the  anger  of  the  relatives  of  the  mur- 
dered man,  and  in  accordance  with  Indian  law,  they  awaited  the  chance  to 
take  revenge.  O'Calaghan  gives  the  following  account  (if  this  bloody  massa- 
cre which  ensued:  "The  colony  at  Zwanendal  consisted  at  this  time  of  thirty- 
four  persons.  Of  these,  thirty- two  were  one  day  at  work  in  the  fields,  while 
Commissary  Hosset  remained  in  charge  of  the  house,  where  another  of  the  set- 
tlers lay  sick  abed.  A  large  bull  dog  was  chained  out  of  doors.  On  pretence 
of  selling  some  furs,  three  savages  entered  the  house  and  murdered  Hosset 
and  the  sick  man.  They  found  it  not  so  easy  to  dispatch  the  mastiff.  It  was 
not  until  they  had  pierced  him  with  at  least  twenty-five  arrows  that  he  was 
destroyed.  The  men  in  the  fields  were  then  set  on,  in  an  equally  treacherous 
manner,  under  the  guise  of  friendship,  and  every  man  of  them  slain."  Thus 
was  a  worthless  bit  of  tin  the  cause  of  the  cutting  off  and  utter  extermination 
of  the  infant  colony. 

De  Vries  was  upon  the  point  of  returning  to  Zwanendal  when  he  received 
intimation  of  disaster  to  the  settlers.  With  a  large  vessel  and  a  yacht,  he  set 
sail  on  the  24th  of  May,  1632,  to  carry  succor,  provided  with  the  means  of 
prosecuting  the  whale  fishery  which  he  had  been  led  to  believe  might  be  made 
very  profitable,  and  of  pushing  the  production  of  grain  and  tobacco.  On  ar- 
riving in  the  Delaware,  he  fired  a  signal  gun  to  give  notice  of  his  approach. 
The  report  echoed  through  the  forest,  but,  alas!  the  ears  which  would  have 
been  gladened  with  the  sound  were  heavy,  and  no  answering  salute  came  from 
the  shore.  On  landing,  he  found  his  house  destroyed,  the  palisades  burned, 
and  the  skulls  and  bones  of  his  murdered  countrymen  bestrewing  the  earth, 
sad  relics  of  the  little  settlement,  which  had  promised  so  fairly,  and  warning 
tokens  of  the  barbarism  of  the  natives. 

De  Vries  knew  that  he  was  in  no  position  to  attempt  to  punish  the  guilty 
parties,  and  hence  determined  to  pursue  an  entirely  pacific  policy.  At  his 
invitation,  the  Indians  gathered  in  with  their  chief  for  a  conference.  Sitting 
down  in  a  circle  beneath  the  shadows  of  the  somber  forest,  their  Sachem  in 
the  centre,  De  Vries,  without  alluding  to  their  previous  acts  of  savagery, 
concluded  with  them  a  treaty  of  peace  and  friendship,  and  presented  them  in 
token  of  ratification,  "some  duffels,  bullets,  axes  and  Nuremburg  trinkets." 

In  place  of  finding  his  colony  with  plenty  of  provisions  for  the  immediate 
needs  of  his  party,  he  could  get  nothing,  and  began  to  be  in  want.  He  accord- 
ingly sailed  up  the  river  in  quest  t>f  food.  The  natives  were  ready  with 
their  furs  for  barter,  but  they  had  no  supplies  of  food  with  which  they  wished 
to  part.  Game,  however,  was  plenty,  and  wild  turkeys  were  brought  in  weigh- 
ing over  thirty  pounds.     One  morning  after  a  frosty  night,  while   the  little 


craft  was  up  the  stream,  tho  party  was  astonished  to  find  the  waters  frozen 
over,  and  their  ship  fast  in  the  ice.  Judging  by  the  mild  climate  of  their  own 
country,  Holland,  they  did  not  suppose  this  possible.  For  several  weeks  they 
were  held  fast  without  the  power  to  move  their  floating  home.  Being  in  need 
of  a  better  variety  of  food  than  he  found  it  possible  to  obtain,  De  Vries  sailed 
away  with  a  part  of  his  followers  to  Virginia,  where  he  was  hospitably  enter- 
tained by  the  Governor,  who  sent  a  present  of  goats  as  a  token  of  friendship  to 
the  Dutch  Governor  at  Manhattan.  Upon  his  return  to  the  Delaware,  De 
Vries  found  that  the  party  he  had  left  behind  to  prosecute  the  whale  fishery 
had  only  taken  a  few  small  ones,  and  these  so  poor  that  the  amount  of  oil  ob- 
tained was  insignificant.  He  had  been  induced  to  embark  in  the  enterprise  of 
a  settlement  here  by  the  glittering  prospect  of  prosecuting  the  whale  fishery 
along  the  shore  at  a  great  profit.  Judging  by  this  experience  that  the  hope 
of  great  gains  from  this  source  was  groundless,  and  doubtless  haunted  by  a 
superstitious  dread  of  making  their  homes  amid  the  relics  of  the  settlers  of  the 
previous  year,  and  of  plowing  fields  enriched  by  their  blood  who  had  been 
so  utterly  cut  off,  and  a  horror  of  dwelling  amongst  a  people  so  revengeful  and 
savage,  De  Vries  gathered  all  together,  and  taking  his  entire  party  with  him 
sailed  away  to  Manhattan  and  thence  home  to  Holland,  abandoning  utterly  the 
settlement.  . 

The  Dutch  still  however  sought  to  maintain  a  footnold  upon  the  Dela- 
ware, and  a  fierce  contention  having  sprung  up  between  the  powerful  patroons 
and  the  Director  General,  and  they  having  agreed  to  settle  differences  by 
the  company  authorizing  the  purchase  of  the  claims  of  the  patroons,  those  upon 
the  Delaware  were  sold  for  15,600  guilders.  Fort  Nassau  was  accordingly  re- oc- 
cupied and  manned  with  a  small  military  force,  and  when  a  party  from  Con- 
necticut Colony  came,  under  one  Holmes  to  make  a  settlement  upon  the  Dela- 
ware, the  Dutch  at  Nassau  were  found  too  strong  to  be  subdued,  and  Holmes 
and  his  party  were  compelled  to  surrender,  and  were  sent  as  prisoners  of  war 
to  Manhattan. 


Sir  William  Keift,  1638-47— Peter  Minttit,  1638-41— Peter  Hollandaer,  1641-43— 
John  Printz,  1648-53— Peter  Stuyvesant,  1647-64— John  Pappagoya,  1653-54 — 
John  Claude  Rysingh,  1654-55. 

AT  £his  period,  the  throne  of  Sweden  was  occupied  by  Gustavus  Adolphus, 
a  monarch  of  the  most  enlightened  views  and  heroic  valor.  Seeing  the 
activity  of  surrounding  nations  in  sending  out  colonies,  he  proposed  to  his 
people  to  found  a  commonwealth  in  the  New  World.,  not  for  the  mere  purpose 
of  gain  by  trade,  but  to  set  up  a  refuge  for  the  oppressed,  a  place  of  religious 
liberty  and  happy  homes  that  should  prove  of  advantage  to  "  all  oppressed 
Christendom. "  Accordingly,  a  company  with  ample  privileges  was  incorpo- 
rated by  the  Swedish  Government,  to  which  the  King  himself  pledged  $400,00( 
of  the  royal  treasure,  and  men  of  every  rank  and  nationality  were  invited  to 
join  in  the  enterprise.  *  Gustavus  desired  not  that  his  colony  should  depend 
upon  serfs  or  slaves  to  do  the  rough  work.  "  Slaves  cost  a  great  deal,  labor 
with  reluctance,  and  soon  perish  from  hard  usage.  The  Swedish  nation  is 
laborious  and  intelligent,  and  surely  we  shall  gain  more  by  a  free  people  with 
wives  and  children." 


In  the  meantime,  the  fruits  of  the  reformation  in  Germany  were  menaced, 
and  the  Swedish  monarch  determined  to  unsheath  his  sword  and  lead  his 
people  to  the  aid  of  Protestant  faith  in  the  land  where  its  standard  had  been 
successfully  raised.  At  the  battle  of  Lutzen,  where  for  the  cause  which  he  had 
espoused,  a  signal  victory  was  gained,  the  illustrious  monarch,  in  the  flower 
of  life,  received  a  mortal  wound.  Previous  to  the  battle,  and  while  engaged  in 
active  preparations  for  the  great  struggle,  he  remembered  the  interests  of  his. 
contemplated  colony  in  America,  and  in  a  most  earnest  manner  commended 
the  enterprise  to  the  people  of  Germany. 

Oxenstiern,  the  minister  of  Gustavus,  upon  whom  the  weight  of  govern- 
ment devolved  during  the  minority  of  the  young  daughter,  Christina,  declared 
that  he  was  but  the  executor  of  the  will  of  the  fallen  King,  and  exerted  him- 
self to  further  the  interests  of  a  colony  which  he  believed  would  be  favorable  to 
"all  Christendom,  to  Europe,  to  the  whole  world."  Four  years  however 
elapsed  before  the  project  was  brought  to  a  successful  issue.  Peter  Minuit, 
who  had  for  a  time  been  Governor  of  New  Netherlands,  having  been  displaced, 
sought  employment  in  the  Swedish  company,  and  was  given  the  command  of 
the  first  colony.  Two  vessels,  the  Key  of  Calmar  and  the  Griffin,  early  in  the 
year  1638,  with  a  company  of  Swedes  and  Fins,  made  their  way  across  the 
stormy  Atlantic  and  arrived  safely  in  the  Delaware.  They  purchased  of  the 
Indians  the  lands  from  the  ocean  to  the  falls  of  Trenton,  and  at  the  mouth  of 
Christina  Creek  erected  a  fort  which  they  called  Christina,  after  the  name  of 
the  youthful  Queen  of  Sweden.  The  soil  was  fruitful,  the  climate  mild,  and 
the  scenery  picturesque.  Compared  with  many  parts  of  Finland  and  Sweden, 
it  was  a  Paradiso,  a  name  which  had  been  given  the  point  at  the  entrance  of 
the  bay.  As  tidings  of  the  satisfaction  of  the  first  emigrants  were  borne  back 
to  the  fatherland,  the  desire  to  seek  a  home  in  the  new  country  spread  rap- 
idly, and  the  ships  sailing  were  unable  to  take  the  many  families  seeking  pas- 

The  Dutch  were  in  actual  possession  of  Fort  Nassau  when  the  Swedes 
first  arrived,  and  though  they  continued  to  hold  it  and  to  seek  the  trade  of  the 
Indians,  yet  the  artful  Minuit  was  more  than  a  match  for  them  in  Indian  bar- 
ter. William  Keift,  the  Governor  of  New  Netherland,  entered  a  vigorous 
protest  against  the  encroachments  of  the  Swedes  upon  Dutch  territory,  in 
which  he  said  "  this  has  been  our  property  for  many  years,  occupied  with 
forts  and  sealed  by  our  blood,  which  also  was  done  when  thou  wast  in  the 
service  of  New  Netherland,  and  is  therefore  well  known  to  thee."  But  Minuit 
pushed  forward  the  work  upon  his  fort,  regardless  of  protest,  trusting  to  the- 
respect  which  the  flag  of  Sweden  had  inspired  in  the  hands  of  Banner  and 
Torstensen.  For  more  than  a  year  no  tidings  were  had  from  Sweden,  ,and  no 
supplies  from  any  source  were  obtained;  and  while  the  fruits  of  their  labors 
were  abundant  there  were  many  articles  of  diet,  medicines  and  apparel,  the- 
lack  of  which  they  began  to  sorely  feel.  So  pressing  had  the  want  become, 
that  application  had  been  made  to  the  authorities  at  Manhattan  for  permission 
to  remove  thither  with  all  their  effects.  But  on  the  very  day  before  that  on 
which  they  were  to  embark,  a  ship  from  Sweden  richly  laden  with  provisions, 
cattle,  seeds  and  merchandise  for  barter  with  the  natives  came  joyfully  to  their 
relief,  and  this,  the  first  permanent  settlement  on  soil  where  now  are  the  States 
of  Delaware  and  Pennsylvania,  was  spared.  The  success  and  prosperity  of  the- 
colony  during  the  first  few  years  of  its  existence  was  largely  due  to  the  skill 
and  policy  of  Minuit,  who  preserved  the  friendship  of  the  natives,  avoided  an 
open  conflict  with  the  Dutch,  and  so  prosecuted  trade  that  the  Dutch  Governor 
reported  to  his  government  that  trade  had  fallen  off  30,000  beavers.     Minuit 


was  at  the  head  of  the  colony  for  about  three  years,  and  died  in  the  midst 
of  the  people  whom  he  had  led. 

Minuit  was  succeeded  in  the  government  by  Peter  Hollandaer,  who  had 
previously  gone  in  charge  of  a  company  of  emigrants,  and  who  was  now,  in 
1641,  commissioned.  The  goodly  lands  upon  the  Delaware  were  a  constant 
attraction  to  the  eye  of  the  adventurer;  a  party  from  Connecticut,  under  the  lead- 
ership of  Robert  Cogswell,  came,  and  squatted  without  authority  upon  the  site 
of  the  present  town  of  Salem,  N.  J.  Another  company  had  proceeded  up  the 
river,  and,  entering  the  Schuylkill,  had  planted  themselves  upon  its  banks. 
The  settlement  of  the  Swedes,  backed  as  it  was  by  one  of  the  most  powerful 
nations  of  Europe,  the  Governor  of  New  Netherland  was  not  disposed  to 
molest;  but  when  these  irresponsible  wandering  adventurers  came  sailing  past 
their  forts  and  boldly  planted  themselves  upon  the  most  eligible  sites  and  fer- 
tile lands  in  their  territory,  the  Dutch  determined  to  assume  a  hostile  front, 
and  to  drive  them  away.  Accordingly,  Gen.  Jan  Jansen  Van  Ilpendam — his 
very  name  was  enough  to  frighten  away  the  emigrants — was  sent  with  two 
vessels  and  a  military  force,  who  routed  the  party  upon  the  Schuylkill,  destroy- 
ing their  fort  and  giving  them  a  taste  of  the  punishment  that v was  likely  to  be 
meted  out  to  them,  if  this  experiment  of  trespass  was  repeated.  The  Swedes 
joined  the  Dutch  in  breaking  up  the  settlement  at  Salem  and  driving  away  the 
New  England  intruders. 

In  1642,  Hollandaer  was  succeeded  in  the  government  of  the  Swedish 
Colony  by  John  Printz,  whose  instructions  for  the  management  of  affahs  were 
drawn  with  much  care  by  the  officers  of  the  company  in  Stockholm.  -  He  was, 
first  of  all,  to  maintain  friendly  relations  with  the  Indians,  and  by  the  advan- 
tage of  low  prices  hold  their  trade.  His  next  care  was  to  cultivate  enough 
grain  for  the  wants  of  the  colonists,  and  when  this  was  insured,  turn  his  atten- 
tion to  the  culture  of  tobacco,  the  raising  of  cattle  and  sheep  of  a  good  species, 
the  culture  of  the  grape,  and  the  raising  of  silk  worms.  The  manufacture  of 
salt  by  evaporation,  and  the  search  for  metals  and  minerals  were  to  be  prose- 
cuted, and  inquiry  into  the  establishment  of  fisheries,  with  a  view  to  profit, 
especially  the  whale  fishery,  was  to  be  made."  It  will  be  seen  from  these  in- 
structions that  the  far-sighted  Swedish  statesmen  had  formed  an  exalted  con- 
ception of  the  resources  of  the  new  country,  and  had  figured  to  themselves 
great  possibilities  from  its  future  development.  Visions  of  rich  silk  products, 
of  the  precious  metals  and  gems  from  its  mines,  flocks  upon  a  thousand  hills 
that  should  rival  in  the  softness  of  their  downy  fleeces  the  best  products  of  the 
Indian  looms,  and  the  luscious  clusters  of  the  vine  that  could  make  glad  the 
palate  of  the  epicure  filled  their  imaginations. 

With  two  vessels,  the  Stoork  and  Renown,  Printz  set  sail,  and  arrived  at 
Port  Christina  on  the  15th  of  February,  1643.  He  was  bred  to  the  profession 
of  arms,  and  was  doubtless  selected  with  an  eye  to  his  ability  to  holding  posses- 
sion of  the  land  against  the  conflict  that  was  likely  to  arise.  He  had  been  a 
.Lieutenant  of  cavalry,  and  was  withal  a  man  of  prodigious  proportions,  "  who 
weighed,"  according  to  De  Vries,  "  upward  of  400  pounds,  and  drank  three 
■drinks  at  every  meal."  He  entertained  exalted  notions  of  his  dignity  as  Govern- 
or of  the  colony,  pr>d  prepared  to  establish  himself  in  his  new  dominions  with 
some  degree  of  magnificence.  He  brought  with  bim  from  Sweden  the  bricks 
to  be  used  for  the  construction  of  his  royal  dwelling.  Upon  an  inspection  of 
the  settlement,  he  detected  the  inherent  weakness  of  the  location  of  Fort 
Christina  for  commanding  the  navigation  of  the  river,  and  selected  the  island 
of  Tinacum  for  the  site  of  a  new  fort,  called  New  Gottenburg,  which  was 
speedily  erected  and  made  strong  with  huge  hemlock  logs.     In  the  midst  of 


the  island,  he  built  his  royal  residence,  which  was  surrounded  with  trees  and 
shubbery.  He  erected  another  fort  near  the  mouth  of  Salem  Creek, 
called  Elsinborg,  which  he  mounted  with  eight  brass  twelve- pounders, 
and  garrisoned.  Here  all  ships  ascending  the  river  were  brought  to, 
and  required  to  await  a  permit  from  the  Governor  before  proceeding 
to  their  destination.  Gen.  Van  Ilpendam,  who  had  been  sent  to  drive 
away  the  intruders  from  New  England,  had  remained  after  executing 
his  commission  as  commandant  at  Fort  Nassau;  but  having  incurred  the  dis- 
pleasure of  Director  Keift,  be  had  been  displaced,  and  was  succeeded  by  An- 
dreas Hudde,  a  crafty  and  politic  agent  of  the  Dutch  Governor,  who  had  no 
sooner  arrived  and  become  settled  in  his  place  than  a  conflict  of  authority 
sprang  up  between  himself  and  the  Swedish  Governor.  Dutch  settlers  secured 
a  grant  of  land  on  the  west  bank  of  Delaware,  and  obtained  possession  by  pur- 
chase from  the  Indians.  This  procedure  kindled  the  wrath  of  Printz,  who 
tore  down  the  ensign  of  the  company  which  had  been  erected  in  token  of 
the  power  of  Holland,  and  declared  that  he  would  have  pulled  down  the 
colors  of  their  High  Mightinessps  had  they  been  erected  on  this  the  Swed- 
ish soil.  That  there  might  be  no  mistake  about  his  claim  to  authority,  the 
testy  Governor  issued  a  manifesto  to  his  rival  on  the  opposite  bank,  in  which 
were  these  explicit  declarations: 

"  Andreas  Hudde!  I  remind  you  again,  by  this  written  warning,  to  discon- 
tinue the  injuries  of  which  you  have  been  guilty  against  the  Royal  Majesty 
of  Sweden,  my  most  gracious  Queen;  against  Her  Royal  Majesty's  rights,  pre- 
tensions, soil  and  land,  without  showing  the  least  respect  to  the  Royal  Majes- 
ty's magnificence,  reputation  and  dignity;  and  to  do  so  no  more,  considering 
how  little  it  would  be  becoming  Her  Royal  Majesty  to  bear  such  gross  violence, 
and  what  great  disasters  might  originate  from  it,  yea,  might  be  expected.  * 
*  *  All  this  I  can  freely  bring  forward  in  my  own  defense,  to  exculpate  me 
from  all  future  calamities,  of  which  we  give  you  a  warning,  and  place  it  at 
your  account.     Dated  New  Gothenburg,  3d  September,  stil,  veteri  1646." 

It  will  be  noted  from  the  repetition  of  the  high  sounding  epithets  applied 
to  the  Queen,  that  Printz  had  a  very  exalted  idea  of  his  own  position  as  the 
Vicegerent  of  the  Swedish  monarch.  Hudde  responded,  saying  in  reply:  "  The 
place  we  possess  we  hold  in  just  deed,  perhaps  before  the  name  of  South  River 
was  heard  of  in  Sweden."  This  paper,  upon  its  presentation,  Printz  flung  to 
the  ground  in  contempt,  and  when  the  messenger,  who  bore  it,  demanded  an 
answer,  Printz  unceremoniously  threw  him  out  doors,  and  seizing  a  gun  would 
have  dispatched  the  Dutchman  had  he  not  been  arrested;  and  whenever  any  of 
Hudde's  men  visited  Tinicum  they  were  sure  to  be  abused,  and  frequently  came 
back  "  bloody  and  bruised. "  Hudde  urged  rights  acquired  by  prior  posses- 
sion, but  Printz  answered:  "  The  devil  was  the  oldest  possessor  in  hell,  yet  he, 
notwithstanding,  would  sometimes  admit  a  younger  one."  A  vessel  which  had 
come  to  the  Delaware  from  Manhattan  with  goods  to  barter  to  the  Indians,  was 
brought  to,  and  ordered  away.  In  vain  did  Hudde  plead  the  rights  acquired 
by  previous  possession,  and  finally  treaty  obligations  existing  between  the 
two  nations.  Printz  was  inexorable,  and  peremptorily  ordered  the  skipper 
away,  and  as  his  ship  was  not  provided  with  the  means  of  fighting  its  way  up 
past  the  frowning  battlements  oE  Fort  Elsinborg,  his  only  alternative  was  to 
return  to  Manhattan  and  report  the  result  to  his  employers. 

Peter  Stuyvesant,  a  man  of  a  good  share  of  native  talent  and  force  of  char- 
acter, succeeded  to  the  chief  authority  over  New  Netherland  in  May,  1647. 
The  affairs  of  his  colony  were  not  in  an  encouraging  condition.  The  New 
England  colonies  were  crowding  upon  him   from  the  north  and  east,  and  the 


Swedes  upon  the  South  River  were  occupying  the  territory  which  the  Dutch 
for  many  years  previous  to  the  coining  of  Christina's  colony  had  claimed. 
Amid  the  thickening  complications,  Stuyvesant  had  need  of  all  his  power  of 
argument  and  executive  skill.  He  entered  into  negotiations  with  the  New  En- 
gland colonies  for  a  peaceful  settlement  of  their  difficulties,  getting  the  very 
best  terms  he  could,  without  resorting  to  force;  for,  said  his  superiors,  the> 
officers  of  the  company  in  Holland,  who  had  an  eye  to  dividends,  "  War  can- 
not be  for  our  advantage;  the  New  England  people  are  too  powerful  for  us.'* 
A  pacific  policy  was  also  preserved  toward  the  Swedes.  Hudde  was  retained 
at  the  head  of  Dutch  affairs  upon  the  Delaware,  and  he  was  required  to  inake 
full  reports  of  everything  that  was  transpiring  there  in  order  that  a  clear  in- 
sight might  be  gained  of  the  policy  likely  to  be  pursued.  Stuyvesant  was  en- 
tirely too  shrewd  a  politician  for  the  choleric  Printz.  He  recommended  to  the 
company  to  plant  a  Dutch  colony  on  the  site  of  Zwanendal  at  the  mouth  of 
the  river,  another  on  the  opposite  bank,  which,  if  effectually  done,  would  com- 
mand its  navigation;  and  a  third  on  tho  upper  waters  at  Beversreede,  which 
would  intercept  the  intercourse  of  the  native  population.  By  this  course  of 
active  colonizing,  Stuyvesant  rightly  calculated  that  the  Swedish  power  would 
be  circumscribed,  and  finally,  upon  a  favorable  occasion,  be  crushed  out. 

Stuyvesant,  that  he  might  ascertain  the  nature  and  extent  of  the  Swedish 
claims  to  tho  country,  and  examine  into  the  complaints  that  were  pouring  in 
upon  him  of  wrongs  and  indignities  suffered  by  the  Dutch  at  the  hands  of  the 
Swedish  power,  in  1651  determined  to  visit  the  Delaware  in  his  official  capac- 
ity. He  evidently  went  in  some  state,  and  Printz,  who  was  doubtless  impressed 
with  the  condecension  of  the  Governor  of  all  New  Netherland  in  thus  coming, 
was  put  upon  his  good  behavior.  Stuyvesant,  by  his  address,  got  completely 
on  the  blind  side  of  the  Swedish  chief,  maintaining  the  garb  of  friendship 
and  brotherly  good-will,  and  insisting  that  the  discussion  of  rights  should  be 
carried  on  in  a  peaceful  and  friendly  manner,  for  we  are  informed  that  they 
mutually  promised  "  not  to  commit  any  hostile  or  vexatious  acts  against  one 
another,  but  to  maintain  together  all  neighborly  friendship  and  correspond- 
ence, as  good  friends  and  allies  aro  bound  to  do."  Printz  was  thus,  by  this 
agreement,  entirely  disarmed  and  placed  at  a  disadvantage;  for  the  Dutch 
Governor  took  advantage  of  the  armistice  to  acquire  lands  below  Fort  Chris- 
tina, where  he  proceeded  to  erect  a  fort  only  five  miles  away,  which  he  named 
Fort  Casimir.  This  gave  the  Dutch  a  foothold  upon  the  south  bank,  and  in 
nearer  proximity  to  the  ocean  than  Fort  Christina.  Fort  Nassau  was  dis- 
mantled and  destroyed,  as  being  no  longer  of  use.  In  a  conference  with  the 
Swedish  Governor,  Stuyvesant  demanded  to  see  documental  proof  of  his  right 
to  exercise  authority  upon  he  Delaware,  and  the  compass  of  the  lands  to 
which  the  Swedish  Government  laid  claim.  Printz  prepared  a  statement  in 
which  he  set  out  the  "Swedish  limits  wide  enough."  But  Stuyvesant  de- 
manded the  documents,  under  the  seal  of  the  company,  and  characterized  this 
writing  as  a  "subterfuge,"  maintaining  by  documentary  evidence,  on  his  part, 
the  Dutch  West  India  Company's  right  to  the  soil. 

Printz  was  great  as  a  blusterer,  and  preserver  of  authority  when  personal 
abusa  and  kicks  and  cuffs  could  be  resorted  to  without  the  fear  of  retaliation; 
but  no  match  in  statecraft  for  the  wily  Stuyvesant.  To  the  plea  of  pre-occu- 
pancy  he  had  nothing  to  answer  more  than  he  had  already  done  to  Hudde'f 
messenger  respecting  the  government  of  Hades,  and  herein  was  the  cause  oi 
the  Swedes  inherently  weak.  In  numbers,  too,  the  Swedes  were  feeble  com- 
pared with  the  Dutch,  who  had  ten  times  the  population.  But  in  diplomacy 
he  had  been  entirely  overreached.     Fort   Casimir,  by  its  location,  rendered 


the  rival  Fort  Elsinborg  powerless,  and  under  plea  that  the  mosquitoes  had  be- 
come troublesome  there,  it  was  abandoned.  Discovering,  doubtless,  that  a  cloud 
of  complications  was  thickening  over  him,  which  be  would  be  unable  with  the 
forces  at  his  commaud  to  successfully  withstand,  he  asked  to  be  relieved,  and, 
without  awaiting  an  answer  to  his  application,  departed  for  Sweden,  leaving 
his  son-in-law,  John  Pappegoya,  who  had  previously  received  marks  of  the 
royal  favor,  and  been  invested  with  the  dignity  of  Lieutenant  Governor,  in 
supreme  authority. 

The  Swedish  company  had  by  this  time,  no  doubt,  discovered  that  forcible 
opposition  to  Swedish  occupancy  of  the  soil  upon  Delaware  was  destined  soon 
to  come,  and  accordingly,  as  a  precautionary  measure,  in  November,  1653,  the 
College  of  Commerce  sent  John  Amundson  Besch,  with  the  commission  of 
Captain  in  the  Navy,  to  superintend  the  construction  of  vessels.  Upon  his 
arrival,  he  acquired  lands  suitable  for  the  purpose  of  ship-building,  and  set 
about  laying  his  keels.  He  was  to  have  supreme  authority  over  the  naval  force, 
and  was  to  act  in  conjunction  with  the  Governor  in  protecting  the  interests  of 
the  coiony,  but  in  such  a  manner  that  neither  should  decide  anything  without 
■consulting  the  other. 

On  receiving  the  application  of  Printz  to  be  relieved,  the  company  ap- 
pointed John  Claude  Bysingh,  then  Secretary  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce, 
as  Vice  Director  of  New  Sweden.  He  was  instructed  to  fortify  and  extend 
the  Swedish  possessions,  but  without  interrupting  the  friendship  existing 
■with  the  English  or  Dutch.  He  was  to  use  his  power  of  persuasion  in  induc- 
ing the  latter  to  give  up  Fort  Casimir,  which  was  regarded  as  an  intrusion 
upon  Swedish  possessions,  but  without  resorting  to  hostilities,  as  it  was  better 
to  allow  the  Dutch  to  occupy  it  than  to  have  it  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  En- 
glish, "who  are  the  more  powerful,  and,  of  course,  the  most  dangerous  in  that 
country."  Thus  early  was  the  prowess  of  England  foreshadowed.  Gov. 
Bysingh  arrived  in  the  Delaware,  on  the  last  day  of  May,  1654,  and  immediately 
demanded  the  surrender  of  Fort  Casimir.  Adriaen  Van  Tienhoven,  an  aide- 
de-camp  on  the  staff  of  the  Dutch  commandant  of  the  fort,  was  sent  on  board 
the  vessel  to  demand  of  Gov.  Bysingh  by  what  right  he  claimed  to  dis- 
possess the  rightful  occupants;  but  the  Governor  was  not  disposed  to  discuss 
the  matter,  and  immediately  landed  a  party  and  took  possession  without  more 
opposition  than  wordy  protests,  the  Dutch  Governor  saying,  when  called  on  to 
make  defense,  "What  can  I  do?  there  is  no  powder."  Bysingh,  however,  in 
justification  of  his  course,  stated  to  Teinhoven,  after  he  had  gained  possession 
of  the  fort,  that  he  was  acting  under  orders  from  the  crown  of  Sweden,  whose 
embassador  at  the  Dutch  Court,  when  remonstrating  against  the  action  of  Gov. 
Stuyvesant  in  erecting  and  manning  Fort  Casimir  had  been  assured,  by 
the  State's  General  and  the  offices  of  the  West  India  Company,  that  they  had 
not  authorized  the  erection  of  this  fort  on  Swedish  soil,  saying,  "  if  our  people 
are  in  your  Excellency's  way,  drive  them  off."  "Thereupon  the  Swedish 
Governor  slapped  Van  Teinhoven  on  the  breast,  and  said,  '  Go!  tell  your  Gov- 
ernor that.'"  As  the  capture  was  made  on  Trinity  Sunday,  the  name  was 
changed  from  Fort  Casimir  to  Fort  Trinity. 

Thus  were  the  instructions  of  the  new  Governor,  not  to  resort  to  force,  but 
to  secure  possession  of  the  fort  by  negotiation,  complied  with,  but  by  a  forced 
interpretation.  For,  although  he  had  not  actually  come  to  battle,  for  the  very 
good  reason  that  the  Dutch  had  no  powder,  and  were  not  disposed  to  use 
their  fists  against  fire  arms,  which  the  Swedes  brandished  freely,  yet,  in  mak- 
ing his  demand  for  the  fort,  he  had  put  on  the  stern  aspect  of  war. 

Stuyvesant,  on  learning  of  the  loss  of  Fort  Casimir,  sent  a  messenger  to  the 


Delaware  to  invite  Gov.  Rysingh  to  come  to  Manh  attan  to  hold  friendly  confer- 
ence upon  the  subject  of  their  difficulties.  This  Rysingh  refused  to  do,  and  tht 
Dutch  Governor,  probably  desiring  instructions  from  the  home  Government  be- 
fore proceeding  to  extremities,  made  a  voyage  to  the  West  Indies  for  the  purpose 
of  arranging  favorable  regulations  of  trade  with  the  colonies,  though  without 
the  instructions,  or  even  the  knowledge  of  the  States- General.  Cromwell, 
who  was  now  at  the  head  of  the  English  nation,  by  the  policy  of  his  agents, 
rendered  this  embassy  of  Stuyvesant  abortive. 

As  soon  as  information  of  the  conduct  of  Rysingh  at  Zwanendal  was 
mown  in  Holland,  the  company  lost  no  time  in  disclaiming  the  representa- 
tions which  he  had  made  of  its  willingness  to  have  the  fort  turned  over  to  the 
Swedes,  and  immediately  took  measures  for  restoring  it  and  wholly  dispossess- 
ing the  Swedes  of  lands  upon  the  Delaware.  On  the  16th  of  November,  1655, 
the  company  ordered  Stuyvesant  "to  exert  every  nerve  to  avenge  the  insult, 
by  not  only  replacing  matters  on  the  Delaware  in  their  former  position,  but 
by  driving  the  Swedes  from  every  side  of  the  river,"  though  they  subsequent- 
ly modified  this  order  in  such  manner  as  to  allow  the  Swedes,  after  Fort  Casi- 
mir  had  been  taken,  "to  hold  the  land  on  which  Fort  Christina  is  built,"  with 
a  garden  to  cultivate  tobacco,  because  it  appears  that  they  had  made  the  pur- 
chase with  the  previous  knowledge  of  the  company,  thus  manifesting  a  disin- 
clination to  involve  Holland  in  a  war  with  Sweden.  "Two  armed  ahips  were 
forthwith  commissioned;  'the  drum  was  beaten  daily  for  volunteers' in  the 
streets  of  Amsterdam;  authority  was  sent  out  to  arm  and  equip,  and  if  neces- 
sary to  press  into  the  company's  service  a  sufficient  number  of  ships  for  the 
expedition."  In  the  meantime,  Gov.  Rysingh,  who  had  inaugurated  his 
reign  by  so  bold  a  stroke  of  policy,  determined  to  ingratiate  himself  ido  the 
favor  of  the  Indians,  who  had  been  soured  in  disposition  by  the  arbi- 
trary conduct  of  the  passionate  Printz.  He  accordingly  sent  out  on  all  sides 
an  invitation  to  the  native  tribes  to  assemble  on  a  certain  day,  by  their  chiets 
and  principal  men,  at  the  seat  of  government  on  Tinicum  Island,  to  brighten 
the  chain  of  friendship  and  renew  their  pledges  of  faith  and  good  neighbor- 

On  the  morning  of  the  appointed  day,  ten  .grand  sachems  with  their  at- 
tendants came,  and  with  the  formality  characteristic  of  these  native  tribes,  the 
council  opened.  Many  and  bitter  were  the  complaints  made  against  the  Swedes 
for  wrongs  suffered  at  their  hands,  "  chief  among  which  was  that  many  of 
their  number  had  died,  plainly  pointing,  though  not  explicitly  saying  it,  to  the 
giving  of  spirituous  liquors  as  the  cause."  The  new  Governor  had  no  answer 
to  make  to  these  complaints,  being  convinced,  probably,  that  they  were  but  too 
true.  Without  attempting  to  excuse  or  extenuate  the  past,  Rysingh  brought 
forward  the  numerous  presents  which  he  had  taken  with  him  from  Sweden  for 
the  purpose.  The  sight  of  the  piled  up  goods  produced  a  profound  impression 
upon  the  minds  of  the  native  chieftains.  They  sat  apart  for  conference  before 
making  any  expression  of  their  feelings.  Naaman,  the  fast  friend  of  the  white 
man,  and  the  most  consequential  of  the  warriors,  according  to  Campanius, 
spoke:  '  Look,"  said  he,  "and  see  what  they  have  brought  to  us."  So  say- 
ing, he  stroked  himself  three  times  down  the  arm,  which,  among  the  Indians, 
was  a  token  of  friendship;  afterward  he  thanked  the  Swedes  on  behalf  of  his 
people  for  the  presents  they  had  received,  and  said  that  friendship  should  be 
observed  more  strictly  between  them  than  ever  before;  that  the  Sweden  and 
the  Indians  in  Gov.  Printz's  time  were  as  one  body  and  one  heart,  striking  his 
breast  as  he  spoke,  and  that  thenceforward  they  should  be  as  one  head;  in 
token  of  which  he  took  hold  of  his  head  with  both  hands,  and  made  a  motion 



as  if  he  were  tying  a  knot,  and  then  he  made  this  comparison:  "  That,  as  the 
calabash  was  round,  without  any  crack,  so  they  should  be  a  compact  body  with- 
out any  fissure;  and  that  if  any  should  attempt  to  do  any  harm  to  the  Indians, 
the  Swedes  should  immediately  inform  them  of  it;  and,  on  the  other  hand,  the 
Indians  would  give  immediate  notice  to  the  Christians,  even  if  it  were  in  the 
middle  of  the  night."  On  this  they  were  answered  that  that  would  be  indeed 
a  true  and  lasting  friendship,  if  every  one  would  agree  to  it;  on  which  they 
gave  a  general  shout  in  token  of  consent.  Immediately  on  this  the  great  guns 
were  fired,  which  pleased  them  extremely,  and  they  said,  "Poo,  hoo,  hoo; 
mokerick  picon,"  that  is  to  say  "Hear  and  believe;  the  great  guns  are  fired." 
Rysingh  then  produced  all  the  treaties  which  had  ever  been  concluded  between 
them  and  the  Swedes,  which  were  again  solemnly  confirmed.  "  "When  those 
who  had  signed  the  deeds  heard  their  names,  they  appeared  to  rejoice,  but, 
when  the  names  were  read  of  those  who  were  dead,  they  hung  their  heads  in 

After  the  first  ebulition  of  feeling  had  subsided  on  the  part  of  the  Dutch 
Company  at  Amsterdam,  the  winter  passed  without  anything  further  being 
done  than  issuing  the  order  to  Stuyvesant  to  proceed  against  the  Swedes.  In 
the  spring,  however,  a  thirty-six-gun  brig  was  obtained  from  the  burgomasters 
of  Amsterdam,  which,  with  four  other  crafts  of  varying  sizes,  was  prepared  for 
duty,  and  the  little  fleet  set  sail  for  New  Netherland.  Orders  were  given  for 
immediate  action,  though  Director  General  Stuyvesant  had  not  returned  from 
the  West  Indies.  Upon  the  arrival  of  the  vessels  at  Manhattan,  it  was  an- 
nounced that  "  if  any  lovers  of  the  prosperity  and  security  of  the  province  of 
New  Netherland  were  inclined  to  volunteer,  or  to  serve  for  reasonable  wages, 
they  should  come  forward,"  and  whoever  should  lose  a  limb,  or  be  maimed,  was 
assured  of  a  decent  compensation.  The  merchantmen  were  ordered  to  furnish 
two  of  their  crews,  and  the  river  boatmen  were  to  be  impressed.  At  this  junct- 
ure a  grave  question  arose:  "Shall  the  Jews  be  enlisted?"  It  was  decided 
in  the  negative;  but  in  lieu  of  service,  adult  male  Jews  were  taxed  sixty  five 
stivers  a  head  per  month,  to  be  levied  by  execution  in  case  of  refusal. 

Stuyvesant  had  now  arrived  from  his  commercial  trip,  and  made  ready  for 
opening  the  campaign  in  earnest.  A  day  of  prayer  and  thanksgiving  was  held 
to  beseech  the  favor  of  Heaven  upon  the  enterprise,  and  on  the  5th  of  Septem- 
ber, 1655,  with  a  fleet  of  seven  vessels  and  some  600  men,  Stuyvesant  hoisted 
sail  and  steered  for  the  Delaware.  Arrived  before  Fort  Trinity  (Casimir),  the 
Director  sent  Capt.  Smith  and  a  drummer  to  summon  the  fort,  and  ordered  a 
flank  movement  by  a  party  of  fifty  picked  men  to  cut  oft*  communication  with 
Fort  Christina  and  the  headquarters  of  Gov.  Rysingh.  Swen  Schute,  the  com- 
mandant of  the  garrison,  asked  permission  to  communicate  with  Rysingh, 
which  was  denied,  and  he  was  called  on  to  prevent  bloodshed.  An  interview 
in  the  valley  midway  between  the  fort  and  the  Dutch  batteries  was  held,  when 
Schute  asked  to  send  an  open  letter  to  Rysingh.  This  was  denied,  and  for  a 
third  time  the  fort  was  summoned.  Impatient  of  delay,  and  in  no  temper  for 
parley,  the  great  guns  were  landed  and  the  Dutch  force  ordered  to  advance. 
Schute  again  asked  for  a  delay  until  morning,  which  was  granted,  as  the  day 
was  now  well  spent  and  the  Dutch  would  be  unable  to  mako  the  necessary 
preparations  to  open  before  morning.  Early  on  the  following  day,  Schute  went 
on  board  the  Dutch  flag- ship,  the  balance,  and  agreed  to  terms  of  surrender 
very  honorable  to  his  flag.  He  was  permitted  to  send  to  Sweden,  by  the  first 
opportunity,  the  cannon,  nine  in  number,  belonging  to  the  crown  of  Sweden, 
to  march  out  of  the  fort  with  twelve  men,  as  his  body  guard,  fully  aceoutered, 
and  colors  flying;  the  common  soldiers  to  wear  their  side  arms.     The  com- 


ruandant  and  other  officers  were  to  retain  their  private  property,  the  muskets 
belonging  to  the  crown  were  to  be  held  until  sent  for,  and  finally  the  fort  was 
to  be  surrendered,  with  all  the  cannon,  ammunition,  materials  and  other  goods 
belonging  to  the  West  India  Company.  The  Dutch  entered  the  fort  at  noon 
with  all  the  formality  and  glorious  circumstance  of  war,  and  Dominie  Megap- 
olensis,  Chaplain  of  the  expedition,  preached  a  sermon  of  thanksgiving  on  the 
following  Sunday  in  honor  of  the  great  triumph. 

While  these  signal  events  were  transpiring  at  Casimir,  Gov.  Rysing,  at  his 
royal  residence  on  Tinicum,  was  in  utter  ignorance  that  he  was  being  despoiled 
of  his  power.  A  detachment  of  nine  men  had  been  sent  by  the  Governor  to 
Casimir  to  re-enforce  the  garrison,  which  came  unawares  upon  the  Dutch  lines, 
and  after  a  brief  skirmish  all  but  two  were  captured.  Upon  learning  that  the 
fort  was  invested,  Factor  Ellswyck  was  sent  with  a  flag  to  inquire  of  the  in- 
vaders the  purpose  of  their  coming.  The  answer  was  returned  "  To  recover 
and  retain  our  property."  Rysingh  then  communicated  the  hope  that  they 
would  therewith  rest  content,  and  not  encroach  further  upon  Swedish  territory, 
having,  doubtless,  ascertained  by  this  time  that  the  Dutch  were  too  strong  for 
him  to  make  any  effectual  resistance.  Stuyvesant  returned  an  evasive  answer, 
but  made  ready  to  march  upon  Fort  Christina.  It  will  be  remembered  that 
by  the  terms  of  the  modified  orders  given  for  the  reduction  of  the  Swedes, 
Fort  Christina  was  not  to  be  disturbed.  But  the  Dutch  Governor's  blood  was 
now  up,  and  he  determined  to  make  clean  work  while  the  means  were  in  his 
haods.  Discovering  that  the  Dutch  were  advancing,  Rysingh  spent  the  whole 
night  in  strengthening  the  defenses  and  putting  the  garrison  in  position  to 
make  a  stout  resistance.  Early  on  the  following  day  the  invaders  made  their 
appearance  on  the  opposite  bank  of  Christina  Creek,  where  they  threw  up  de- 
fenses and  planted  their  cannon.  Forces  were  landed  above  the  fort,  and  the 
place  was  soon  invested  on  all  sides,  the  vessels,  in  the  meantime,  having  beon 
brought  ioto  the  mouth  of  the  creek,  their  cannon  planted  west  of  the  fort  and 
on  Timber  Island.  Having  thus  securely  shut  up  the  Governor  and  his  garri- 
son, Stuyvesant  summmoned  him  to  surrender.  Rysingh  could  not  in  honor 
tamely  submit,  and  at  a  council  of  war  it  was  resolved  to  make  a  defense  and 
"  leave  the  consequence  to  be  redressed  by  our  gracious  superiors."  But  their 
supply  of  powder  barely  sufficed  for  one  round,  and  his  force  consisted  of  only 
thirty  men.  In  the  meantime,  the  Dutch  soldiery  made  free  with  the  property 
of  the  Swedes  without  the  fort,  killing  their  cattle  and  invading  their  homes. 
"At  length  the  Swedish  garrison  itself  showed  symptoms  of  mutiny.  The 
men  were  harassed  with  constant  watching,  provisions  began  to  fail,  many 
were  sick,  several  had  deserted,  and  Stuyvesant  threatened,  that,  if  they  held 
out  much  longer,  to  give  no  quarter."  A  conference  was  held  which  ended 
by  the  return  of  Rysingh  to  the  fort  more  resolute  than  ever  for  defense. 
Finally  Stuyvesant  sent  in  his  trftimahim  and  gave  twenty-four  hours  for  a 
final  answer,  the  generous  extent  of  time  for  consideration  evincing  the  humane 
disposition  of  the  commander  of  the  invading  army,  or  what  is  perhaps  more 
probable  his  own  lack  of  stomach  for  carnage.  Before  the  expiration  of  the 
time  allowed,  the  garrison  capitulated,  "  after  a  siege  of  fourteen  days,  dur- 
ing which,  very  fortunately,  there  was  a  great  deal  more  talking  than  cannon- 
ading, and  no  blood  shed,  except  those  of  the  goats,  poultry  and  swine,  which 
the  Dutch  troops  laid  their  hands  on.  The  twenty  or  thirty  Swedes  then 
marched  out  with  their  arms;  colors  flying,  matches  lighted,  drums  beating, 
and  fifes  playing,  and  the  Dutch  took  possession  of  the  fort,  hauled  down  the 
Swedish  flag  and  hoisted  their  own." 

By  the  terms  of  capitulation,  the  Swedes,  who  wished  to  remain  in  the 


country,  were  permitted  to  do  so,  od  taking  the  oath  of  allegiance,  and  rights 
of  property  were  to  be  respected  under  the  sway  of  Dutch  law.  Gov.  Ry- 
singh,  and  all  others  who  desired  to  return  to  Europe,  were  furnished  passage, 
and  by  a  secret  provision,  a  loan  of  £300  Flemish  was  made  to  Rysingh,  to  be 
refunded  on  bis  arrival  in  Sweden,  the  cannon  and  other  property  belonging 
■to  the  crown  remaining  in  the  hands  of  the  Dutch  until  the  loan  was  paid. 
Before  withdrawing  Stuyvesant  offered  to  deliver  over  Fort  Christina  and  the 
lands  immediately  about  it  to  Rysingh,  but  this  offer  was  declined  with  dig- 
nity, as  the  matter  had  now  passed  for  arbitrament  to  the  courts  of  the  two  na- 

The  terms  of  the  capitulation  were  honorable  and  liberal  enough,  but  the 
Dutch  authorities  seem  to  have  exercised  little  care  in  carrying  out  its  provis- 
ions, or  else  the  discipline  in  the  service  must  have  been  very  lax.  For  Ry- 
singh had  no  sooner  arrived  at  Manhattan,  than  he  entered  most  vigorous  pro- 
tests against  the  violations  of  the  provisions  of  the  capitulation  to  Gov.  Stuy 
vesant.  He  asserted  that  the  property  belonging  to  the  Swedish  crown  had 
been  left  without  guard  or  protection  from  pillage,  and  that  he  himself  had 
not  been  assigned  quarters  suited  to  his  dignity.  He  accused  the  Dutch 
with  having  broken  open  the  church,  and  taken  away  all  the  cordage  and  sails 
of  a  new  vessel,  with  having  plundered  the  villages,  Tinnakong,  Uplandt,  Fin- 
land, Printzdorp  and  other  places.  "  In  Christina,  the  women  were  violently 
torn  from  their  houses;  whole  buildings  were  destroyed;  yea,  oxen,  cows,  hogs 
and  other  creatures  were  butchered  day  after  day;  even  tbe  horses  were  nol 
spared,  but  wantonly  shot;  the  plantations  destroyed,  and  tbe  whole  country 
so  desolated  that  scarce  any  means  were  left  for  the  subsistence  of  the  inhab- 
itants." "Your  men  carried  off  even  my  own  property, "  said  Rysingh, 
"  with  that  of  my  family,  and  we  were  left  like  sheep  doomed  to  the  knife, 
without  means  of  defense  against  the  wild  barbarians." 

Thus  the  colony  of  Swedes  and  Fins  on  the  South  River,  which  had  been 
planned  by  and  had  been  the  object  of  solicitude  to  the  great  monarch  himself, 
and  had  received  tbe  fostering  care  of  the  Swedish  Government,  came  to  an 
end  after  an  existence  of  a  little  more  than  seventeen  years — 1638-1655.  But 
though  it  no  longer  existed  ao  a  colony  under  the  government  of  the  crown  of 
Sweden,  many  of  the  colonists  remained  and  became  the  most  intelligent  and 
law-abiding  citizens,  and  constituted  a  vigorous  element  in  the  future  growth 
of  the  State.  Some  of  the  best  blood  of  Europe  at  this  period  flowed  in  the 
veins  of  the  Swedes.  "A  love  for  Sweden,"  says  Bancroft,  "their  dear 
mother  country,  the  abiding  sentiment  of  loyalty  toward  its  sovereign,  con- 
tinued to  distinguish  the  little  band.  At  Stockholm,  they  remained  for  a 
century  the  objects  of  disinterested  and  generous  regard;  affection  united  them 
in  the  New  World;  and  a  part  of  their  descendants  still  preserve  their  altar 
and  their  dwellings  around  the  graves  of  their  fathers." 

This  campaign  of  Stuyvesant,  for  tbe  dispossessing  of  the  Swedes  of  terri- 
tory upon  the  Delaware,  furnishes  Washington  Irving  subject  for  some  of  the 
most  inimitable  chapters  of  broad  humor,  in  his  Knickerbocker's  N9W  York,  to 
be  found  in  the  English  language.  And  yet,  in  the  midst  of  his  side-splitting 
paragraphs,  he  indulges  in  a  reflection  which  is  worthy  of  remembrance. 
"  He  who  reads  attentively  will  discover  the  threads  of  gold  which  run 
throughout  the  web  of  history,  and  are  invisible  to  the  dull  eye  of  ignorance. 
*  *  *  By  the  treacherous  surprisal  of  Fort  Casimir,  then,  did  the  crafty 
Swedes  enjoy  a  transient  triumph,  but  drew  upon  their  heads  the  vengeance 
of  Peter  Stuyvesant,  who  wrested  all  New  Sweden  from  their  hands.  By  the 
conquest  of  New  Sweden,  Peter  Stuyvesant  aroused  the  claims  of  Lord  Balti- 


more,  who  appealed  to  the  cabinet  of  Great  Britain,  who  subdued  the  whole 
province  of  New  Netherlands.  By  this  great  achievement,  the  whole  extent  of 
North  America,  from  Nova  Scotia  to  the  Floridas,  was  rendered  one  entire 
dependency  upon  the  British  crown.  But  mark  the  consequence:  The  hith- 
erto scattered  colonies  being  thus  consolidated  and  having  no  rival  colonies  to 
check  or  keep  them  in  awe,  waxed  great  and  powerful,  and  finally  becoming 
too  strong  for  the  mother  country,  were  enabled  to  shake  off  its  bonds.  But 
the  chain  of  effects  stopped  not  here;  the  successful  revolution  in  America  pro- 
duced the  sanguinary  revolution  in  France,  which  produced  the  puissant 
Bonaparte,  who  produced  the  French  despotism." 

In  March,  1656,  the  ship  "Mercury,"  with  130  emigrants,  arrived,  the 
government  at  Stockholm  having  had  no  intimation  of  the  Dutch  conquest. 
An  attempt  was  made  to  prevent  a  landing,  and  the  vessel  was  ordered  to 
report  to  Stuyvesant  at  Manhattan,  but  the  order  was  disregarded  and  the  col- 
onists debarked  and  acquired  lands.  The  Swedish  Government  was  not  dis- 
posed to  submit  to  these  high-handed  proceedings  of  the  Dutch,  and  the  min- 
isters of  the  two  courts  maintained  a  heated  discussion  of  their  differences. 
Finding  the  Dutch  disposed  to  hold  by  force  their  conquests,  the  government 
of  Sweden  allowed  the  claim  to  rest  until  1664.  In  that  year,  vigorous  meas- 
ures were  planned  to  regain  its  claims  upon  the  Delaware,  and  a  fleet  bearing 
a  military  force  was  dispatched  for  the  purpose.  But,  having  been  obliged  to 
put  back  on  account  of  stress  of  weather,  the  enterprise  was  abandoned. 


John  Paul  Jacquet,  1655-57— Jacob  Alrichs,  1657-59— Goeran  Van  Dyck,  1657 
-58— William  Beekman,  1658-63— Alexander  D'Hinoyossa.  1659-64. 

TT^HE  colonies  upon  the  Delaware  being  now  under  exclusive  control  of  the 
_L  Dutch,  John  Paul  Jaquet  was  appointed  in  November,  1655,  as  Vice 
Director,  Derek  Smidt  having  exercised  authority  after  the  departure  of  Stuy- 
vesant. The  expense  of  fitting  out  the  expedition  for  the  reduction  of  the 
Swedes  was  sorely  felt  by  the  West  India  Company,  which  had  been  obliged 
to  borrow  money  for  the  purpose  of  tae  city  of  Amsterdam.  In  payment  of. 
this  loan,  the  company  sold  to  the  city  all  the  lands  upon  the  south  bank  of 
the  Delaware,  from  the  ocean  to  Christina  Creek,  reaching  back  to  the  lands 
of  the  Minquas,  which  was  designated  Nieur  Amstel.  Again  was  there  di- 
vided authority  upon  the  Delaware.  The  government  of  the  new  possession 
was  vested  in  a  commission  of  forty  residents  of  Amsterdam,  who  appointed 
Jacob  Alrichs  as  Director,  and  sent  him  with  a  force  of  forty  soldiers  and  150 
colonists,  in  three  vessels,  to  assume  the  government,  whereupon  Jaquet  relin- 
quished authority  over  this  portion  of  his  territory.  The  company  in  commu- 
nicating with  Stuyvesant  upon  the  subject  of  his  course  in  dispossessing  the 
Swedes,  after  duly  considering  all  the  complaints  and  remonstrances  of  the 
Swedish  government,  approved  his  conduct,  "though  they  would  not  have  been 
displeased  had  such  a  formal  capitulation  not  taken  place,"  adding  as  a  paren- 
thetical explanation  of  the  word  formal  "  what  is  written  is  too  long  preserved, 
and  may  be  produced  when  not  desired,  whereas  words  not  recorded  are,  in  the 
lapse  of  time,  forgotten,  or  may  be  explained  away." 


Stuyvesant  still  remained  in  supreme  control  over  both  the  colony  of  the 
city  and  the  colony  of  the  company,  to  the  immediato  governorship  of  the  lat- 
ter of  which,  Goeran  Van  Dyck  was  appointed.  But  though  settlements  in 
the  management  of  affairs  were  frequently  made,  they  would  not  remain  set- 
tled. There  was  conflict  of  authority  between  Alrichs  and  Van  Dyck.  The 
companies  soon  found  that  a  grievous  system  of  smuggling  had  sprung  up. 
After  a  searching  examination  into  the  irregularities  by  Stuyvesant,  who  vis- 
ited the  Delaware  for  the  purpose,  he  recommended  the  appointment  of  one 
general  agent  who  should  have  charge  of  all  the  revenues  of  both  co'onies, 
and  "William  Beekman  was  accordingly  appointed.  The  company  of  the  city 
soems  not  to  have  been  satisfied  with  the  profits  of  their  investment,  and  ac- 
cordingly made  new  regulations  to  govern  settlement,  by  which  larger  returns 
would  accrue.  This  action  created  discontent  among  the  settlers,  and  many 
who  were  meditating  the  purchase  of  lands  and  the  acquisition  of  homes,  de- 
termined to  go  over  into  Maryland  where  Lord  Baltimore  was  offering  far  more 
liberal  terms  of  settlement.  To  add  to  the  discomforts  of  the  settlers,  "  the 
miasms  which  the  low  alluvial  soil  and  the  rank  and  decomposed  vegetation 
of  a  new  country  engenders, ' '  produced  wasting  sicknesses.  When  the  planting 
was  completed,  and  the  new  soil,  for  ages  undisturbed,  had  been  thoroughly 
stirred,  the  rains  set  in  which  descended  almost  continuously,  producing  fever 
and  ague  and  dysentery.  Scarcely  a  family  escaped  the  epidemic.  Six  in 
the  family  of  Director  Alrichs  were  attacked,  and  his  wife  died.  New  colo- 
nists came  without  provisions,  which  only  added  to  the  distress.  "  Scarcity  of 
provisions,"  says  O'Calaghan,  "  naturally  followed  the  failure  of  the  crops; 
900  schepels  of  grain  had  been  sown  in  the  spring.  They  produced  scarcely 
600  at  harvest.  Rye  rose  to  three  guilders  the  bushel;  peas  to  eight  guilders 
the  sack;  salt  was  twelve  guilders  the  bushel  at  New  Amsterdam;  cheese  and 
butter  were  not  to  be  had,  and  when  a  man  journeys  he  can  get  nothing  but 
dry  bread,  or  he  must  take  a  pot  or  kettle  along  with  him  to  cook  his  victuals." 
"  The  place  had  now  got  so  bad  a  name  that  the  whole  river  could  not  wash  it 
clean."  The  exactions  of  the  city  company  upon  its  colony,  not  only  did  not 
bring  increased  revenue,  but  by  dispersing  the  honest  colonists,  served  to 
notify  Lord  Baltimore — who  had  laid  claim  to  the  lands  upon  Delaware,  on 
account  of  original  discovery  by  Lord  De  la  War,  from  whom  the  river  takes 
its  name,  and  from  subsequent  charter  of  the  British  crown,  covering  territory 
from  the  38th  to  the  40th  degree  of  latitude — of  the  weakness  of  the  colonies, 
and  persuade  him  that  now  was  a  favorable  opportunity  to  enforce  his  claims. 
Accordingly,  Col.  Utie,  with  a  number  of  delegates,  was  dispatched  to  demand 
that  the  Dutch  should  quit  the  place,  or  declare  themselves  subjects  of  Lord 
Baltimore,  adding,  "  that  if  they  hesitated,  they  should  be  responsible  for 
whatever  innocent  blood  might  be  shed." 

Excited  discussions  ensued  between  the  Dutch  authorities  and  the  agents 
of  the  Maryland  government,  and  it  was  finally  agreed  to  refer  the  matter  to 
Gov.  Stuyvesant,  who  immediately  sent  Commissioners  to  the  Chesapeake  to 
settle  differences,  and  enter  into  treaty  regulations  for  the  mutual  return  of 
fugitives,  and  dispatched  sixty  soldiers  to  the  Delaware  to  assist  in  preserving 
order,  and  resisting  the  English,  sbould  an  attempt  be  made  to  dispossess  the 

L'pon  the  death  of  Alrichs,  which  occurred  in  1659,  Alexander  D'Hinoyossa 
was  appointed  Governor  of  the  city  colony.  The  new  Governor  was  a  man  of 
good  business  capacity,  and  sought  to  administer  the  affairs  of  his  colony  for 
the  best  interests  of  the  settlers,  and  for  increasing  the  revenues  of  the  com- 
pany.     To  further  the  general  prosperity,  the  company  negotiated  a  new  loan 


with  which  to  strengthen  and  improve  its  resources.  This  liberal  policy  had 
the  desired  effect.  The  Swedes,  who  had  settled  above  od  the  river,  moved 
down,  and  acquired  homes  on  the  lands  of  the  city  colony.  The  Fins  and  dis- 
contented Dutch,  who  had  gone  to  Maryland,  returned  and  brought  with  them 
some  of  the  English  settlers. 

Discouraged  by  the  harassing  conflicts  of  authority  which  seemed  inter- 
minable, the  West  India  Company  transferred  all  its  interests  on  the  east  side 
of  the  river  to  the  colony  of  the  city,  and  upon  the  visit  of  D'Hinoyossa  to 
Holland  in  1663,  he  secured  for  himself  the  entire  and  exclusive  government 
of  the  colonies  upon  the  Delaware,  being  no  longer  subject  to  the  authority  of 

Encouraged  by  liberal  terms  of  settlement,  and  there  being  now  a  prospect 
of  stable  government,  emigrants  were  attracted  thither.  A  Mennonite  commu- 
nity came  in  a  body.  "  Clergymen  were  not  allowed  to  join  them,  nor  any 
*  intractable  people  such  as  those  in  communion  with  the  Roman  See,  usurious 
Jews,  English  stiff-necked  Quakers,  Puritans,  foolhardy  believers  in  the  mil- 
lennium, and  obstinate  modern  pretenders  to  revelation.'  "  They  were  obliged 
to  take  an  oath  never  to  seek  for  an  office;  Magistrates  were  to  receive  no  com- 
pensation, "  not  even  a  stiver."  The  soiJ  and  climate  were  regarded  as  excel- 
lent, and  when  sufficiently  peopled,  the  country  would  be  the  "  finest  on  the 
face  of  the  globe." 


Richard  Nichols,  1664-67— Robert  Neebham,  1664-68— Francis  Lovelace, 
1667-73— John  Carr,  1668-73— Anthony  Colve,  1673-74— Peter  Alrichs, 

AFFAIRS  were  scarcely  arranged  upon  the  Delaware,  and  the  dawning  of 
a  better  day  for  the  colonists  ushered  in,  before  new  complications 
began  to  threaten  the  subversion  of  the  whole  Dutch  power  in  America.  The 
English  had  always  claimed  the  entire  Atlantic  seaboard.  Under  Cromwell, 
the  Navigation  act  was  aimed  at  Dutch  interests  in  the  New  World.  Captain 
John  Scott,  who  had  been  an  officer  in  the  army  of  Charles  I,  having 
obtained  some  show  of  authority  from  the  Governor  of  Connecticut,  had  visited 
the  towns  upon  the  west  end  of  Long  Island,  where  was  a  mixed  population  of. 
Dutch  and  English,  and  where  he  claimed  to  have  purchased  large  tracts  of 
land,  and  had  persuaded  them  to  unite  under  his  authority  in  setting  up  a 
government  of  their  own.  He  visited  England  and  "  petitioned  the  King  to  be 
invested  with  the  government  of  Long  Island,  or  that  the  people  thereof  be 
allowed  to  choose  yearly  a  Governor  and  Assistants."  By  his  representation, 
an  inquiry  was  instituted  by  the  King's  council,  "as  to  his  majesty's  title  to  the 
premises;  the  intrusions  of  the  Dutch;  their  deportment;  management  of  the 
country;  strength,  trade  and  government;  and  lastly,  of  the  means  necessary 
to  induce  or  force  them  to  acknowledge  the  King,  or  if  necessary,  to  expel 
them  together  from  the  country. "  The  visit  of  Scott,  and  his  prayer  to  the 
King  for  a  grant  of  Long  Island,  was  the  occasion  of  inaugurating  a  policy, 
which  resulted  in  the  overthrow  of  Dutch  rule  in  America.  But  the  attention 
of  English  statesmen  had  for  some  time  been  turned  to  the  importance  of  the 
territory  which  the  Dutch  colonies  had  occupied,  and  a  belief  that  Dutch  trade 
in  the  New  World  was  yielding  great  returns,   stimulated  inquiry.     James, 


Duke  of  York,  brother  of  the  King,  who  afterward  himself  became  King,  was 
probably  at  this  time  the  power  behind  the- throne  that  was  urging  on  action 
looking  to  the  dispossession  of  the  Dutch.  The  motive  which  seemed  to  actuate 
him  was  the  acquisition  of  personal  wealth  and  power.  He  saw,  as  he 
thought,  a  company  of  merchants  in  Amsterdam  accumulating  great  wealth  out 
of  these  colonies,  and  he  meditated  the  transfer  of  this  wealth  to  himself.  He 
was  seconded  in  this  project  by  the  powerful  influence  of  Sir  George  Downing, 
who  had  been  Envoy  at  The  Hague,  under  Cromwell,  and  was  now  under  Charles 
II.  "Keen,  bold,  subtle,  active,  and  observant,  but  imperious  and  unscrupulous, 
disliking  and  distrusting  the  Dutch,"  he  had  watched  every  movement  of  the 
company's  granted  privileges  by  the  States  General,  and  had  reported  every- 
thing to  his  superiors  at  home.  "The  whole  bent,"  says  O'Calaghan,''  of  this 
man's  mind  was  constantly  to  hold  up  before  the  eyes  of  his  countrymen  the 
growing  power  of  Holland  and  her  commercial  companies,  their  immense 
wealth  and  ambition,  and  the  danger  to  England  of  permitting  these  to  pro- 
gress onward  unchecked.'' 

After  giving  his  testimony  before  the  council,  Scott  returned  to  America 
with  a  letter  from  the  King  recommending  his  interests  to  the  co-operation  and 
protection  of  the  New  England  colonies.  On  arriving  in  Connecticut,  he  was 
commissioned  by  the  Governor  of  that  colony  to  incorporate  Long  Island  under 
Connecticut  jurisdiction.  But  the  Baptists,  Quakers  and  Menuonites,  who  formed 
a  considerable  part  of  the  population, "  dreaded  falling  into  the  hands  of  the 
Puritans."  In  a  quaint  document  commencing,  "In  the  behalf e  of  sum  hun- 
dreds of  English  here  planted  on  the  west  end  of  Long  Island  wee  address, 'r 
etc. , "  they  besought  Scott  to  come  and  settle  their  difficulties.  On  his  arrival 
he  acquainted  them  with  the  fact,  till  then  unknown,  that  King  Charles  had 
granted  the  island  to  the  Duke  of  York,  who  would  soon  assert  his  rights. 
Whereupon  the  towns  of  Hemstede,  Newwarke,  Crafford,  Hastings,  Folestone 
and  Gravesend,  entered  into  a  "combination"  as  they  termed  it,  resolved  to 
elect  deputies  to  draw  up  laws,  choose  magistrates,  and  empowered  Scott  to 
act  as  their  President;  in  short  set  up  the  first  independent  State  in  America. 
Scott  immediately  set  out  at  the  head  of  150  men,  horse  and  foot,  to  subdue 
the  island. 

On  the  22d  of  March,  1664,  Charles  II  made  a  grant  of  the  whole  of  Long 
Island,  and  all  the  adjoining  country  at  the  time  in  possession  of  the  Dutch, 
to  the  Duke  of  York.  Borrowing  four  men-of-war  of  the  king,  James  sent 
them  in  command  of  Col.  Richard  Nicholls,  an  old  officer,  with  whom  was  as- 
sociated Sir  Robert  Carr,  Sir  George  Cartwright,  and  Samuel  Maverick,  Esq., 
and  a  force  of  450  men,  to  dispossess  the  Dutch.  To  insure  the  success  of  the 
expedition,  letters  were  addressed  to  each  of  the  Governors  of  the  New  England 
colonies,  enjoining  upon  them  to  unite  in  giving  aid  by  men  and  material  to 
Nicholls.  The  fleet  sailed  directly  for  Boston,  where  it  was  expected,  and 
whence,  through  one  Lord,  the  Dutch  were  notified  of  its  coming.  The  great- 
est consternation  was  aroused  upon  the  receipt  of  this  intelligence,  and  the 
most  active  preparations  were  making  for  defense.  But  in  the  midst  of  these 
preparations,  notice  was  received  from  the  Chambers  at  Amsterdam,  doubtless 
inspired  by  the  English,  that  "  no  apprehension  of  any  public  enemy  or  dan- 
ger from  England  need  be  entertained.  That  the  King  was  only  desirous  to 
reduce  the  colonies  to  uniformity  in  church  and  state,  and  with  this  view  was 
dispatching  some  Commissioners  with  two  or  three  frigates  to  New  England  to 
introduce  Episcopacy  in  that  quarter. "  Thrown  completely  off  his  guard  by 
this  announcement,  the  Director  General,  Stuyvesant  abandoned  all  preparations 
for  resistance,  and  indulged  in  no  anticipations  of  a  hostile  visitation.      Thus 


were  three  full  weeks  lost  in  which  the  colonies  might  have  been  put  in  a  very- 
good  state  of  defense. 

Nicholls  on  arriving  in  American  waters,  touched  at  Boston  and  Connecti- 
cut, where  some  aid  was  received,  and  then  hastened  foward  to  Manhattan. 
Stuyvesant  had  but  a  day  or  two  before  learned  of  the  arrival,  and  of  tbe  hos- 
tile intent.  Scarcely  had  he  issued  orders  for  bringing  out  his  forces  and  for 
fortifying  before  Nicholls  scattered  proclamations  through  the  colony  promis- 
ing to  protect  all  who  submitted  to  his  Brittanic  majesty  in  the  undisturbed 
possession  of  their  property,  and  made  a  formal  summons  upon  Stuyvesant  to 
surrender  the  country  to  the  King  of  Great  Britain.  The  Director  found  that 
he  had  an  entirely  different  enemy  to  treat  with  from  Rysingh,  and  a  few  half- 
armed  Swedes  and  Fins  upon  the  Delaware.  Wordy  war  ensued  between  the 
Commissioners  and  the  Director,  and  the  English  Governor  finding  that  Stuy- 
vesant not  in  the  temper  to  yield,  landed  a  body  of  his  soldiers  upon  the  lower  end 
of  the  island,  and  ordered  Hyde,  the  commander  of  the  fleet,  to  lay  the  frigates 
broadside  before  the  city.  It  was  a  critical  moment.  Stuyvesant  was  stand- 
ing on  one  of  the  points  of  the  fort  when  he  saw  the  frigates  approaching. 
The  gunner  stood  by  with  burning  match,  prepared  to  lire  on  the  fleet,  and 
Stuyvesant  seemed  on  the  point  of  giving  the  order.  But  he  was  restrained, 
and  a  further  communication  was  sent  to  Nicholls,  who  would  listen  to  nothing 
short  of  the  full  execution  of  his  mission.  Still  Stuyvesant  held  out.  The 
inhabitants  implored,  but  rather  than  surrender  "  he  would  be  carried  a  corpse 
to  his  grave."  The  town  was,  however,  in  no  condition  to  stand  a  siege.  The 
powder  at  the  fort  would  only  suffice  for  one  day  of  active  operations.  Pro- 
visions were  scarce.  The  inhabitants  were  not  disposed  to  be  sacrificed,  and 
the  disaffection  among  them  spread  to  the  soldiers.  They  were  overheard  mut- 
tering, "  Now  we  hope  to  pepper  those  devilish  traders  who  have  so  long 
salted  us;  we  know  where  booty  is  to  be  found,  and  where  the  young  women 
live  who  wear  gold  chains. " 

The  Rev.  Jannes  Myapoleuses  seems  to  have  been  active  in  negotiations  and 
opposed  to  the  shedding  of  blood.  A  remonstrance  drawn  by  him  was  finally 
adopted  and  signed  by  the  principal  men,  and  presented  to  the  Director  Gen- 
eral, in  which  the  utter  hopelessness  of  resistance  was  set  forth,  and  Stuyve- 
sant finally  consented  to  capitulate.  Favorable  terms  were  arranged,  and 
Nicholls  promised  that  if  it  should  be  finally  agreed  between  the  English  and 
Dutch  governments  that  the  province  should  be  given  over  to  Dutch  rule,  he 
would  peacefully  yield  his  authority.  Thus  without  a  gun  being  fired,  the  En- 
glish made  conquest  of  the  Manhattoes. 

Sir  Robert  Carr,  with  two  frigates  and  an  ample  force,  was  dispatched  to- 
the  Delaware  to  reduce  the  settlements  there  to  English  rule.       The  planters, 
whether  Dutch  or  Swedes,  were  to  be  insured  in  the  peaceable  possession  of 
their  property,  and  the  magistrates  were  to  be  continued  in  office. 

Sailing  past  the  fort,  he  disseminated  among  the  settlers  the  news  of  the 
surrender  of  Stuyvesant,  and  the  promises  of  protection  which  Nicholls  had 
made  use  of.  But  Gov.  D'Hinoyossa  was  not  disposed  to  heed  the  demand 
for  surrender  without  a  struggle.  "Whereupon  Carr  landed  his  forces  and 
stormed  the  place.  After  a  fruitless  but  heroic  resistance,  in  which  ten  were 
wounded  and  three  were  killed,  the  Governor  was  forced  to  surrender.  Thus 
was  the  complete  subversion  of  the  State's  General  in  America  consummated, 
and  the  name  of  New  Amsterdam  gave  place  to  that  of  New  York,  from  the 
name  of  the  English  proprietor,  James,  Duke  of  York. 

The  resistance  offered  by  D'Hinoyossa  formed  a  pretext  for  shameless 
plunder.     Carr,  in  his  report  which  shows  him  to  have  been  a  lawless  fel- 


low,  says,  "  Ye  soldiers  never  stoping  untill  they  stormed  ye  fort,  and  sae  con- 
sequently to  plundering;  the  seamen,  noe  less  given  to  that  sport,  were  quickly 
within,  and  have  giton  good  store  of  booty."  Carr  seized  the  farm  of 
D'Hinoyossa,  hir  brc&er,  John  Carr,  that  of  Sheriff  Sweringen,  and  Ensign 
Stock  that  of  Peter  Alrichs.  The  produce  of  the  land  for  that  year  was  seized, 
together  with  a  cargo  of  goods  that  was  unsold.  "  Even  the  inoffensive  Men- 
nonists,  though  non-combatant  from  principle,  did  not  escape  the  sack  and 
plunder  to  which  the  whole  river  was  subjected  by  Carr  and  his  marauders. 
A  boat  was  dispatched  to  their  settlement,  which  was  stripped  of  everything, 
to  a  very  naile." 

Nieholls,  on  hearing  of  the  rapacious  conduct  of  his  subordinate,  visited 
the  Delaware,  removed  Carr,  and  placed  Kobert  Needham  in  command.  Pre- 
vious to  dispatching  his  fleet  to  America,  in  June,  1664,  the  Duke  of  York  had 
granted  to  John,  Lord  Berkeley,  Baron  of  Stratton,  and  Sir  George  Carteret, 
of  Saltrum  in  Devon,  the  territory  of  New  Jersey,  bounded  substantially  as  the 
present  State,  and  this,  though  but  little  settled  by  the  Dutch,  had  been  in- 
cluded in  the  terms  of  surrender  secured  by  Nieholls.  In  many  ways,  he 
showed  himself  a  man  of  ability  and  discretion.  He  drew  up  with  signal 
success  a  body  of  laws,  embracing  most  of  the  provisions  which  had  been  in 
force  in  the  English  colonies,  which  were  designated  the  Duke's  Laws. 

In  May,  1667,  Col.  Francis  Lovelace  was  appointed  Governor  in  place  of 
Nieholls,  and  soon  after  taking  charge  of  affairs,  drew  up  regulations  for  the 
government  of  the  territory  upon  the  Delaware,  and  dispatched  Capt.  John 
Carr  to  act  there  as  his  Deputy  Governor.  It  was  provided  that  whenever 
complaint  duly  sworn  to  was  made,  the  Governor  was  to  summon  "  the  schout, 
Hans  Block,  Israel  Helm,  Peter  Rambo,  Peter  Cock  and  Peter  Alrichs,  or  any 
two  of  them,  as  counsellors,  to  advise  him,  and  determine  by  the  major  vote 
what  is  just,  equitable  and  necessary  in  the  case  in  question. "  It  was  further 
provided  that  all  men  should  be  punished  in  an  exemplary  manner,  though 
with  moderation;  that  the  laws  should  be  frequently  communicated  to  the 
counsellors,  and  that  in  cases  of  difficulty  recourse  should  be  had  to  the  Gov- 
ernor and  Council  at  New  York. 

In  1 668,  two  murders  were  perpetrated  by  Indians,  which  caused  consider- 
able disturbance  and  alarm  throughout  the  settlements.  These  capital  crimes 
appear  to  have  been  committed  while  the  guilty  parties  were  maddened  by 
liquor.  So  impressed  were  the  sachems  and  leading  warriors  of  the  baneful 
effects  of  strong  drink,  that  they  appeared  before  the  Council  and  besought  its 
authority  to  utterly  prohibit  the  sale  of  it  to  any  of  their  tribes.  These  re- 
quests were  repeated,  and  finally,  upon  the  advice  of  Peter  Alrichs,  "  the 
Governor  (Lovelace)  prohibited,  on  pain  of  death,  the  selling  of  powder,  shot 
and  strong  liquors  to  the  Indians,  and  writ  to  Carr  on  the  occasion  to  use  the 
utmost  vigilance  and  caution." 

The  native  murderers  were  not  apprehended,  as  it  was  difficult  to  trace 
them;  but  the  Indians  themselves  were  determined  to  ferret  them  out.  One 
was  taken  and  shot  to  death,  who  was  the  chief  offender,  but  the  other  escaped 
and  was  never  after  heard  of.  The  chiefs  summoned  their  young  men,  and  in 
presence  of  the  English  warned  them  that  such  would  be  the  fate  of  all  offend- 
ers. Proud  justly  remarks:  "This,  at  a  time  when  the  Indians  were  numer- 
ous and  strong  and  the  Europeans  few  and  weak,  was  a  memorable  act  of  jus- 
tice, and  a  proof  of  true  friendship  to  the  English,  greatly  alleviating  the 
fear,  for  which  they  had  so  much  reason  among  savages,  in  this  then  wilder- 
ness country." 

In  1669,  a  reputed  son  of  the  distinguished   Swedish  General,  Connings- 


marke,  commonly  called  the  Long  Fin,  with  another  of  his  nationality,  Henry 
Coleman,  a  man  of  property,  and  familiar  with  the  language  and  habits  of  the 
Indians,  endeavored  to  incite  an  insurrection  to  throw  off  the  English  rule  and 
establish  the  Swedish  supremacy.  The  Long  Fin  was  apprehended,  and  was 
condemned  to  die;  but  upon  reconsideration  his  sentence  was  commuted  to 
whipping  and  to  branding  with  the  letter  B.  He  was  brought  in  chains  to 
New  York,  where  he  was  incarcerated  in  the  Stadt-house  for  a  year,  and  was 
then  transported  to  Barbadoes  to  be  sold.  Improvements  in  the  modes  of 
administering  justice  were  from  time  to  time  introduced.  New  Castle  was 
made  a  corporation,  to  be  governed  by  a  Bailiff  and  six  associates.  Duties  on 
importations  were  laid,  and  Capt.  Martin  Pringer  was  appointed  to  collect  and 
make  due  returns  of  them  to  Gov.  Lovelace. 

In  1673,  the  French  monarch,  Louis  XIV,  declared  war  against  the  Neth- 
erlands, and  with  an  army  of  over  200,000  men  moved  down  upon  that  de- 
voted country.  In  conjunction  with  the  land  force,  the  English,  with  a  power- 
ful armament,  descended  upon  the  Dutch  waters.  The  aged  Du  Buyter  and 
the  youthful  Van  Tromp  put  boldly  to  sea  to  meet  the  invaders.  Three  great 
naval  battles  were  fought  upon  the  Dutch  coast  on  the  7th  and  14th  of  June, 
and  the  6th  of  August,  in  which  the  English  forces  were  finally  repulsed  and 
driven  from  the  coast.  In  the  meantime,  the  inhabitants,  abandoning  their 
homes,  cut  the  dikes  which  held  back  the  sea,  and  invited  inundation.  Deem 
ing  this  a  favorable  opportunity  to  regain  their  possessions  wrenched  from  them 
in  the  New  World,  the  Dutch  sent  a  small  fleet  under  Commodores  Cornelius 
Evertse  and  Jacobus  Benkes,  to  New  York,  to  demand  the  surrender  of  all 
their  previous  possessions.  Gov.  Lovelace  happened  to  be  absent,  and  his 
representative,  Capt.  John  Manning,  surrendered  with  but  brief  resistance, 
and  the  magistrates  from  Albany,  Esopus,  East  Jersey  and  Long  Island,  on 
being  summoned  to  New  York,  swore  fealty  to  the  returning  Dutch  power. 
Anthony  Colve,  as  Governor,  was  sent  to  Delaware,  where  the  magistrates 
hastened  to  meet  him  and  submit  themselves  to  his  authority.  Property  in 
the  English  Government  was  confiscated;  Gov.  Lovelace  returned  to  England, 
and  many  of  the  soldiers  were  carried  prisoners  to  Holland.  Before  their  de- 
parture, Commodores  Evertse  and  Benkes,  who  styled  themselves  "The  honora- 
ble and  awful  council  of  war,  for  their  high  mightinesses,  the  State's  General 
of  the  United  Netherlands,  and  his  Serene  Highness,  the  Prince  of  Orange," 
commissioned  Anthony  Colve,  a  Captain  of  foot,  on  the  12th  of  August,  1673, 
to  be  Governor  General  of  "New  Netherlands,  with  all  its  appendences, " 
and  on  the  19th  of  September  following,  Peter  Alrichs,  who  had  manifested 
his  subserviency  and  his  pleasure  at  the  return  of  Dutch  ascendancy,  was  ap- 
pointed by  Colve  Deputy  Governor  upon  the  Delaware.  A  body  of  laws  was 
drawn  up  for  his  instruction,  and  three  courts  of  justice  were  established,  at 
New  Castle,  Chester  and  Lewistown.  Capt.  Manning  on  his  return  to  En- 
gland was  charged  with  treachery  for  delivering  up  the  fort  at  New  York  with- 
out resistance,  and  was  sentenced  bv  a  court  martial  "to  have  his  sword  broken 
over  his  head  in  public,  before  the  city  hall,  and  himself  rendered  incapable 
of  wearing  a  sword  and  of  serving  his  Majesty  for  the  future  in  any  public 
trust  in  the  Government. " 

But  the  revolution  which  had  been  affected  so  easily  was  of  short  duration. 
On  the  9th  of  February,  1674,  peace  was  concluded  between  England  and 
Holland,  and  in  the  articles  of  pacification  it  was  provided  "that  whatsoever 
countries,  islands,  towns,  ports,  castles  or  forts,  have  or  shall  be  taken,  on  both 
sides,  since  the  time  that  the  late  unhappy  war  broke  out,  either  in  Europe,  or 
elsewhere,  shall  be  restored  to  the  former  lord  and  proprietor,  in  the  same  con- 


dition  they  shall  be  in  when  the  peace  itself  shall  be  proclaimed,  after  which 
time  there  shall  be  no  spoil  nor  plunder  of  the  inhabitants,  no  demolition 
of  fortifications,  nor  carrying  away  of  guns,  powder,  or  other  military  stores 
which  belonged  to  any  castle  or  port  at  the  time  when  it  was  taken."  This 
left  no  room  for  controversy  about  possession.  But  that  there  might  be  no  legal 
bar  nor  loophole  for  question  of  absolute  right  to  his  possessions,  the  Duke  of 
York  secured  from  the  King  on  tbe  29th  of  June  following,  a  new  patent  cov- 
ering the  former  grant,  and  two  days  thereafter  sent  Sir  Edmund  Andros,  to 
possess  and  govern  the  country.  He  arrived  at  New  York  and  took  peaceable 
possession  on  the  31st  of  October,  and  two  days  thereafter  it  was  resolved  in 
council  to  reinstate  all  the  officers  upon  Delaware  as  they  were  at  the  surrender 
to  the  Dutch,  except  Peter  Alrichs,  who  for  his  forwardness  in  yielding  his 
power  was  relieved.  Capt.  Edmund  Cantwell  and  William  Tom  were  sent  to 
occupy  the  fort  at  New  Castle,  in  the  capacities  of  Deputy  Governor  and  Sec- 
retary. In  May,  3675,  Gov.  Andros  visited  the  Delaware,  and  held  court  at 
New  Castle  "  in  which  orders  were  made  relative  to  the  opening  of  roads,  th»» 
regulation  of  church  property  and  the  support  of  preaching,  the  prohibition 
of  the  sale  of  liquors  to  the  Indians,  and  the  distillation  thereof  by  the  inhab- 
itants.'' On  the  23d  of  September,  1676,  Cantwell  was  superseded  by  John 
Collier,  as  Vice  Governor,  when  Ephraim  Hermans  became  Secretary. 

As  was  previously  observed,  Gov.  Nicholis,  in  1664,  made  a  complete  di- 
gest of  all  the  laws  and  usages  in  "force  in  the  English-speaking  colonies  in 
America,  which  were  known  as  the  Duke's  Laws.  That  these  iniodit  now  be 
made  the  basis  of  judicature  throughout  the  Duke's  possessions,  they  were,  on 
the  25th  of  September,  1676,  formally  proclaimed  and  published  by  Gov. 
Lovelace,  with  a  suitable  ordinance  introducing  them.  It  may  here  be  ob- 
served, that,  in  the  administration  of  Gov.  Hartranft,  by  act  of  the  Legislature 
of  June  12,  1878,  the  Duke's  Laws  were  published  in  a  handsome  volume,  to- 
gether with  the  Charter  and  Laws  instituted  by  Perm,  and  historical  notes 
covering  the  early  history  of  the  State,  under  the  direction  of  John  B.  Linn, 
Secretary  of  the  commonwealth,  edited  by  Staughton  George,  Benjamin  M. 
Nead,  and  Thomas  McCamant,  from  an  old  copy  preserved  among  the  town  rec- 
ords of  Hempstead,  Long  Island,  the  seat  of  the  independent  State  which 
had  been  set  up  there  by  John  Scott  before  the  coming  of  Nicholis.  The  num- 
ber of  taxable  male  inhabitants  between  ihn  ages  of  sixteen  and  sixty  years, 
in  1677,  for  Uplandt  and  New  Castle,  was  443,  which  by  the  usual  estimate  of 
seven  to  one  would  give  the  population  3,101  for  this  district.  Gov.  Collier 
having  exceeded  his  authority  by  exercising  judicial  functions,  was  deposed 
by  Andros,  and  Capt.  Christopher  Billop  was  appointed  to  succeed  him.  But 
the  change  resulted  in  little  benefit  to  the  colony;  for  Billop  was  charged 
with  many  irregularities,  "  taking  possession  of  the  fort  and  turning  it  into 
a  stable,  and  the  court  room  above  into  a  hay  and  fodder  loft;  debarring  the 
court  from  sitting  in  its  usual  place  in  the  fort,  and  making  use  of  soldiers  for 
his  own  private  purposes." 

The  hand  of  the  English  Government  bore  heavily  upon  the  denomination 
of  Christians  called  Friends  or  Quakers,  and  the  earnest-minded,  conscientious 
worshipers,  uncompromising  in  their  faith,  were  eager  for  homes  in  a  land 
where  they  should  be  absolutely  free  to  worship  the  Supreme  Being.  Berke- 
ley and  Carteret,  who  had  bought  New  Jersey,  were  Friends,  and  the  settle- 
ments made  in  their  territory  were  largely  of  that  faith.  In  1675,  Lord  Ber- 
keley sold  his  undivided  half  of  the  province  to  John  Fenwicke,  in  trust  for 
EHward  Byllinge,  also  Quakers,  and  Fenwicke  sailed  in  the  Griffith,  with  a 
company  of  Friends  who  settled  at  Salem,  in  West  Jersey.      Byllinge,  having 


become  involved  in  debt,  made  an  assignment  of  his  interest  for  the  benefit  of 
his  creditors,  and  William  Penn  was  induced  to  become  trustee  jointly  with 
Gowen  Lawrie  and  Nicholas  Lucas.  Penn  was  a  devoted  Quaker,  and  he  was 
of  that  earnest  nature  that  the  interests  of  his  friends  and  Christian  devotees 
were  like  his  own  personal  interests.  Hence  he  became  zealous  in  promoting 
the  welfare  of  the  colony.  For  its  orderly  government,  and  that  settlers  might 
have  assurance  of  stability  in  the  management  of  affairs,  Penn  drew  up  "  Con- 
cessions and  agreements  of  the  proprietors,  freeholders  and  inhabitants  of  West 
New  Jersey  in  America"  in  forty- four  chapters.  Foreseeing  difficulty  from 
divided  authority,  Penn  secured  a  division  of  the  province  by  "  a  line  of  par- 
tition from  the  east  side  of  Little  Egg  Harbor,  straight  north,  through  the 
country  to  the  utmost  branch  of  the  Delaware  River."  Penn's  half  was  called 
New  West  Jersey,  along  the  Delaware  side,  Carteret's  New  East  Jersey  along  the 
ocean  shore.  Penn's  purposes  and  disposition  toward  the  settlers,  as  the 
founder  of  a  State,  are  disclosed  by  a  letter  which  he  wrote  at  this  time  to  a 
Friend,  Richard  Hartshorn,  then  in  America:  "We  lay  a  foundation  for 
after  ages  to  understand  their  liberty,  as  men  and  Christians;  that  they  may 
not  be  brought  into  bondage,  but  by  their  own  consent;  for  we  put  the  power 
in  the  people.  *  *  So  every  man  is  capable  to  choose  or  to  be  chosen ;  no  man 
to  be  arrested,  condemned,  or  molested,  in  his  estate,  or  liberty,  but  by  twelve 
men  of  the  neighborhood;  no  man  to  lie  in  prison  for  debt,  but  that  his  estate 
satisfy,  as  far  as  it  will  go,  and  he  be  set  at  liberty  to  work;  no  man  to  be 
called  in  question,  or  molested  for  his  conscience "  Lest  any  should  be  in- 
duced to  leave  home  and  embark  in  the  enterprise  of  settlement  unadvisedly, 
Penn  wrote  and  published  a  letter  of  caution,  "  That  in  whomsoever  a  desire  to 
be  concerned  in  this  intended  plantation,  such  would  weigh  the  thing  before 
the  Lord,  and  not  headily,  or  rashly,  conclude  on  any  such  remove,  and  that 
they  do  not  offer  violence  to  the  tender  love  of  their  near  kindred  and  relations, 
but  soberly,  and  conscientiously  endeavor  to  obtain  their  good  wills;  that 
whether  they  go  or  stay,  it  may  be  of  good  savor  before  the  Lord  and  good 


Sir  Edmund  Andros,  1674-81— Edmund  Cantwell,  1674-76— John  Collier,  1676- 

77— Christopher  Billop,  1677-81. 

WILLIAM  PENN,  as  Trustee,  and  finally  as  part  owner  of  New  Jersey, 
became  much  interested  in  the  subject  of  colonization  in  America. 
Many  of  his  people  had  gone  thither,  and  he  had  given  much  prayerful  study 
and  meditation  to  the  amelioration  of  their  condition  by  securing  just  laws  for 
their  government.  His  imagination  pictured  the  fortunate  condition  of  a 
State  where  the  law-giver  should  alone  study  the  happiness  of  his  subjects,  and 
his  subjects  should  be  chiefly  intent  on  rendering  implicit  obedience  to 
just  laws.  From  his  experience  in  the  management  of  the  Jerseys,  he  had 
doubtless  discovered  that  if  he  would  carry  out  his  ideas  of  government  suc- 
cessfully, he  must  have  a  province  where  his  voice  would  be  potential  and  his 
will  supreme.  He  accordingly  cast  about  for  the  acquirement  of  such  a  land  in 
the  New  World. 

Penn  had  doubtless  been  stimulated  in  his  desires  by  the  very  roseate  ac- 
counts of  the  beauty  and  excellence  of  the  country,  its  salubrity  of  climate,  its 


balmy  airs,  the  fertility  of  its  soil,  and  the  abundance  of  the  native  fish,  flesh 
and  fowl.  In  1680,  one  Malhon  Stacy  wrote  a  letter  which  was  largely  circu- 
lated in  England,  in  which  he  says:  "Ifcisa  country  that  produceth  all  things 
for  the  support  and  furtherance  of  man,  in  a  plentiful  manner.  *  *  *  I 
have  seen  orchards  laden  with  fruit  to  admiration;  their  very  limbs  torn  to 
pieces  with  weight,  most  delicious  to  the  taste,  and  lovely  to  behold.  I  have 
seen  an  apple  tree,  from  a  pippin-kernel,  yield  a  barrel  of  curious  cider;  and 
peaches  in  such  plenty  that  some  people  took  their  carts  a  peach  gathering;  I 
could  not  but  smile  at  the  conceit  of  it;  they  are  very  delicious  fruit,  and  hang 
almost  like  our  onions,  that  are  tied  on  ropes.  I  have  seen  and  know,  this 
summer,  forty  bushels  of  bold  wheat  of  one  bushel  sown.  From  May  till 
Michaelmas,  great  store  of  very  good  wild  fruits  as  strawberries,  cranberries 
and  hurtleberries,  which  are  like  our  billberries  in  England,  only  far  sweeter; 
the  cranberries,  much  like  cherries  for  color  and  bigness,  which  may  be 
kept  till  frnit  comes  again;  an  excellent  sauce  is  made  of  them  for  venison, 
turkeys,  and  other  great  fowl,  and  they  are  better  to  make  tarts  of  than  either 
gooseberries  or  cherries;  we  have  them  brought  to  our  houses  by  the  Indians 
in  great  plenty.  My  brother  Robert  had  as  many  cherries  this  year  as  would 
have  loaded  several  carts.  As  for  venison  and  fowls,  we  have  great  plenty; 
we  have  brought  home  to  our  countries  by  the  Indians,  seven  or  eight  fat  bucks 
in  a  day.  We  went  into  the  river  to  catch  herrings  after  the  Indian  fashion. 
*  *  *  We  could  have  filled  a  three-bushel  sack  of  as  good  large  hei'rings 
as  ever  I  saw.  And  as  to  beef  and  pork,  here  is  great  plenty  of  it,  and  good 
sheep.  The  common  grass  of  this  country  feeds  beef  very  fat.  Indeed,  the 
couatry,  take  it  as  a  wilderness,  is  a  brave  country." 

The  father  of  William  Perm  had  arisen  to  distinction  m  tne  British  Navy. 
He  was  sent  in  Cromwell's  time,  with  a  considerable  sea  and  land  force,  to  the 
West  Indies,  where  he  reduced  the  Island  of  Jamaica  under  English  rule.  At 
the  restoration,  he  gave  in  his  adhesion  to  the  royal  cause.  Under  James, 
Duke  of  York,  Admiral  Penn  commanded  the  English  fleet  which  descended 
upon  the  Dutch  coast,  and  gained  a  great  victory  over  the  combined  naval 
forces  led  by  Van  Opdam.  For  this  great  service  to  his  country,  Penn  was 
knighted,  and  became  a  favorite  at  court,  the  King  and  his  brothor,  the  Duke, 
holding  him  in  cherished  remembrance.  At  his  death,  there  was  due  him 
from  the  crown  the  sum  of  £16,000,  a  portion  of  which  he  himself  had  ad- 
vanced for  the  sea  service.  Filled  with  the  romantic  idea  of  colonization,  and 
enamored  with  the  sacred  cause  of  his  people,  the  son,  who  had  come  to  be  re- 
garded with  favor  for  his  great  father's  sake,  petitioned  King  Charles  II  to 
grant  him,  in  liquidation  of  this  debt,  "  a  tract  of  land  in  America,  lying 
north  of  Maryland,  bounded  east  by  the  Delaware  River,  on  the  west  limited 
as  Maryland,  and  northward  to  extend  as  far  as  plantable."  There  were  con- 
flicting interests  at  this  time  which  were  being  warily  watched  at  court.  The 
petition  was  submitted  to  the  Privy  Council,  and  afterward  to  the  Lords  of 
the  committee  of  plantations.  The  Duke  of  York  already  held  the  counties  of 
New  Castle,  Kent  and  Sussex.  Lord  Baltimore  held  a  grant  upon  the  south, 
with  an  indefinite  northern  limit,  and  the  agents  of  both  these  territories 
viewed  with  a  jealous  eye  any  new  grant  that  should  in  any  way  trench  upon 
their  rights.  These  claims  were  fully  debated  and  heard  by  the  Lords,  and, 
being  a  matter  in  which  the  King  manifested  special  interest,  the  Lord  Chief 
Justice,  North,  and  the  Attorney  General,  Sir  William  Jones,  were  consulted 
both  as  to  the  grant  itself,  and  the  form  or  manner  of  making  it.  Finally, 
after  a  careful  study  of  the  whole  subject,  it.  was  determined  by  the  highest 
authority  in  the  Government  to  grant  to  Penn  a  larger  tract  than  he  had  asked 


for,  and  the  charter  was  drawn  with  unexampled  liberality,  in  unequivocal 
terms  of  gift  and  perpetuity  of  holding,  and  with  remarkable  minuteness  of 
detail,  and  t'hat  Penn  should  have  the  advantage  of  any  double  meaning  con- 
veyed in  the  instrument,  the  twenty-third  and  last  section  provides:  "And, 
if  perchance  hereafter  any  doubt  or  question  should  arise  concerning  the  true 
sense  and  meaning  of  any  word,  clause  or  sentence  contained  in  this  our  present 
charter,  we  will  ordain  and  command  that  at  all  times  and  in  all  things  such 
interpretation  be  made  thereof,  and  allowed  in  any  of  our  courts  whatsoever 
as  shall  be  adjudged  most  advantageous  and  favorable  unto  the  said  William 
Penn,  his  heirs  and  assigns." 

It  was  a  joyful  day  for  Penn  when  he  finally  reached  the  consummation  of 
his  wishes,  and  saw  himself  invested  with  almost  dictatorial  power  over  a 
country  as  large  as  England  itself,  destined  to  become  a  populous  empire. 
But  his  exultation  was  tempered  with  the  most  devout  Christian  spirit,  fearful 
lest  in  the  exercise  of  his  great  power  he  might  be  led  to  do  something  that 
should  be  displeasing  to  God.  To  his  dear  friend,  Robert  Turner,  he  writes 
in  a  modest  way:  "  My  true  love  in  the  Lord  salutes  thee  and  dear  friends 
that  love  the  Lord's  precious  truth  in  those  parts.  Thine  I  have,  and  for  my 
business  here  know  that  after  many  waitings,  watchings,  solicitings  and  dis- 
putes in  council,  this  day  my  country  was  confirmed  to  me  under  the  great  seal 
of  England,  with  large  powers  and  privileges,  by  the  name  of  Pennsylvania,  a 
name  the  King  would  give  it  in  honor  of  my  father.  I  chose  New  Wales,  be- 
ing, as  this,  a  pretty  hilly  country;  but  Penn  being  Welsh  for  a  head,  as  Pen- 
manmoire  in  Wales,  and  Penrith  in  Cumberland,  and  Penn  in  Buckingham- 
shire, the  highest  land  ia  England,  called  this  Pennsylvania,  which  is  the  high 
or  head  woodlands;  for  I  proposed,  when  the  Secretary,  a  Welshman,  refused 
to  have  it  called  New  Wales,  Sylvania,  and  they  added  Penn  to  it;  and  though 
I  much  opposed  it,  and  went  to  the  King  to  have  it  struck  out  and  altered,  he 
said  it  was  past,  and  would  take  it  upon  him;  nor  could  twenty  guineas  move 
the  Under  Secretary  to  vary  the  name ;  for  I  feared  iest  it  should  be  looked  on 
as  a  vanity  in  me,  and  not  as  a  respect  in  the  King,  as  it  truly  was  to  my 
father,  whom  he  often  mentions  with  praise.  Thou  mayest  communicate  my 
grant  to  Friends,  and  expect  shortly  my  proposals.  It  is  a  clear  and  just 
thing,  and  my  God,  that  has  given  it  me  through  many  difficulties,  will,  I  be- 
lieve, bless  and  make  it  the  seed  of  a  nation.  I  shall  have  a  tender  care  to  the 
government,  that  it  be  well  laid  at  first." 

Penn  had  asked  that  the  western  boundary  should  be  the  same  as  that  of 
Maryland;  but  the  King  made  the  width  from  east  to  west  five  full  degrees. 
The  charter  limits  were  "  all  that  tract,  or  part,  of  land,  in  America,  with  the 
islands  therein  contained  as  the  same  is  bounded,  on  the  east  by  Delaware 
River,  from  twelve  miles  distance  northwards  of  New  Castle  town,  unto  the 
three  and  fortieth  degree  of  northern  latitude.  *  *  *         * 

The  said  land  to  extend  westward  five  degrees  in  longitude,  to  be  computed 
from  the  said  eastern  bounds;  and  the  said  lands  to  be  bounded  on  the  north 
by  the  beginning  of  the  three  and  fortieth  degree  of  northern  latitude,  and, 
on  the  south,  by  a  circle  drawn  at  twelve  miles  distance  from  New  Castle 
northward  and  westward  unto  the  beginning  of  the  fortieth  degree  of  northern 
latitude;  ^nd  then  by  a  straight  line  westward  to  the  limits  of  longitude  above 

It  is  evident  that  tne  royal  secretaries  did  not  well  understand  the  geogra- 
phy of  this  section,  for  by  reference  to  a  map  it  will  be  seen  that  the  begin- 
ning of  the  fortieth  degree,  that  is,  the  end  of  the  thirty-ninth,  cuts  the 
District  of  Columbia,  and  hence  Baltimore,  and  the  greater  part  of  Maryland 


and  a  good  slice  of  Virginia  would  have  been  included  in  the  clear  terras  of 
the  chartered  limits  of  Pennsylvania.  But  the  charters  of  Maryland  and  Vir- 
ginia antedated  this  of  Pennsylvania.  Still,  the  terms  of  the  Penn  charter 
wei-e  distinct,  the  beginning  of  the  fortieth  degree,  whereas  those  of  Maryland 
were  ambiguous,  the  northern  limit  being  fixed  at  the  fortieth  degree;  but  whether 
at  the  beginning  or  at  the  ending  of  the  fortieth  was  not  stated.  Penn 
claimed  three  full  degrees  of  latitude,  and  when  it  was  found  that  a  contro- 
versy was  likely  to  ensue,  the  King,  by  the  hand  of  his  royal  minister,  Con- 
way, issued  a  further  declaration,  dated  at  Whitehall,  April  2,  1681,  in  which 
the  wording  of  the  original  chartered  limits  fixed  for  Pennsylvania  were 
quoted  verbatim,  and  his  royal  pleasure  declared  that  these  limits  should  be 
respected  "  as  they  tender  his  majesty's  displeasure."  This  was  supposed  to 
settle  the  matter.  But  Lord  Baltimore  still  pressed  his  claim,  and  the  ques- 
tion of  southern  boundary  remained  an  open  one,  causing  much  disquietude 
to  Penn,  requiring  watchful  care  at  court  for  more  than  half  a  century,  and 
until  after  the  proprietor's  death. 

We  gather  from  the  terms  of  the  charter  itself  that  the  King,  in  making 
the  grant,  was  influenced  "by  the  commendable  desire  of  Penn  to  enlarge  our 
British  Empire,  and  promote  such  useful  commodities  as  may  be  of  benefit 
to  us  and  our  dominions,  as  also  to  reduce  savage  nations  by  just  and  gentle 
manners,  to  the  love  of  civil  society  and  Christian  religion,"  and  out  of  "re- 
gard to  the  memory  and  merits  of  his  late  father,  in  divers  services,  and  par- 
ticularly to  his  conduct,  courage  and  discretion,  under  our  dearest  brother, 
James,  Duke  of  York,  in  the  signal  battle  and  victory,  fought  and  obtained, 
against  the  Dutch  fleet,  commanded  by  the  Herr  Van  Opdam  in  1665." 

The  motive  for  obtaining  it  on  the  part  of  Penn  may  be  gathered  from  the 
following  extract  of  a  letter  to  a  friend:  "  For  my  country  I  eyed  the  Lord  in 
obtaining  it;  arid  more  was  I  drawn  inward  to  look  to  Him,  and  to  owe  it  to  His 
hand  and  power  than  to  any  other  way.  I  have  so  obtained  and  desire  to  keep 
it,  that  I  may  be  unworthy  of  His  love,  but  do  that  which  may  answer  His 
kind  providence  and  people." 

The  charter  of  King  Charles  II  was  dated  April  2,  1681.  Lest  any 
trouble  might  arise  in  the  future  from  claims  founded  on  the  grant  previously 
made  to  the  Duke  of  York,  of  <<rLong  Island  and  adjacent  territories  occupied 
by  the  Dutch,"  the  prudent  forethotight  of  Penn  induced  him  to  obtain  a  deed, 
dated  August  31,  1682,  of  the  Duke,  for  Pennsylvania,  substantially  in  the 
terms  of  the  royal  charter.  But  Penn  was  still  not  satisfied.  He  was  cut  off 
from  the  ocean  except  by  the  uncertain  navigation  of  one  narrow  stream.  He 
therefore  obtained  from  the  Duke  a  grant  cf  New  Castle  and  a  district  of 
twelve  miles  around  it,  dated  on  the  24th  of  August,  1682,  and  on  the  same 
day  a  further  grant  from  the  Duke  of  a  tract  extending  to  Cape  Henlopen, 
embracing  the  two  counties  of  Kent  and  Sussex,  the  two  grants  comprising 
what  were  known  as  the  territories,  or  the  three  lower  counties,  which  were 
for  many  years  a  part  of  Pennsylvania,  but  subsequently  constituted  the  State 
of  Delaware. 

Being  now  satisfied  with  his  province,  and  that  his  titles  were  secure,  Penn 
drew  up  such  a  description  of  the  country  as  from  his  knowledge  he  was  able 
to  give,  which,  together  with  the  royal  chaiter  and  proclamation,  terms  of 
settlement,  and  other  papers  pertaining  thereto,  he  published  and  spread 
broadcast  through  the  kingdom,  taking  special  pains  doubtless  to  have  the 
documents  reach  the  Friends.  The  terms  of  sale  of  lands  were  40  shillings  for 
100  acres,  and  1  shilling  per  acre  rental.  The  question  has  been  raised,  why 
exact  the  annual  payment  of  one  shilling  per  acre.    The  terms  of  the  grant  by 





the  royal  charter  to  Perm  were  made  absolute  on  the  "  payment  therefor  to  us, 
our  heirs  and  successors,  two  beaver  skins,  to  be  delivered  at  our  castle  in 
"Windsor,  on  the  1st  day  of  January  in  every  year,"  and  contingent  payment 
of  one-fifth  part  of  all  gold  and  silver  which  shall  from  time  to  time  happen 
to  be  found  clear  of  all  charges."  Penn,  therefore,  held  his  title  only  upon 
the  payment  of  quit-rents.  He  could  consequently  give  a  valid  title  only  by 
the  exacting  of  quit -rents. 

Having  now  a  gveat  province  of  his  own  to  manage,  Penn  was  obliged  to 
relinquish  his  share  in  West  New  Jersey.  He  had  given  largely  of  his  time  and 
energies  to  its  settlement;  he  had  sent  1,400  emigrants,  many  of  them  people 
of  high  character;  had  seen  farms  reclaimed  from  the  forest,  the  town  of 
Burlington  built,  meeting  houses  erected  in  place  of  tents  for  worship,  good 
Government  established,  and  the  savage  Indians  turned  to  peaceful  ways. 
With  satisfaction,  therefore,  he  could  now  give  himself  to  reclaiming  and  set- 
tling his  own  province.  He  had  of  coarse  in  his  published  account  of  the 
country  made  it  appear  a  desirable  place  for  habitation.  But  lest  any  should 
regret  having  gone  thither  when  it  was  too  late,  he  added  to  his  description  a 
caution,  "  to  consider  seriously  the  premises,  as  well  the  inconveniency  as 
future  ease  and  plenty;  that  so  none  may  move  rashly  or  from  a  fickle,  but  from 
a  solid  mind,  having  above  all  things  an  eye  to  the  providence  of  God  in  the 
disposing  of  themselves."  Nothing  more  surely  points  to  the  goodness  of 
heart  of  William  Penn,  the  great  founder  of  our  State,  than  this  extreme 
solicitude,  lest  he  might  induce  any  to  go  to  the  new  country  who  should  af- 
terward regret  having  gone. 

The  publication  of  the  royal  charter  and  his  description  of  the  country 
attracted  attention,  and  many  purchases  of  land  were  made  of  Penn  before 
leaving  England.  That  these  purchasers  might  have  something  binding  to 
rely  upon,  Penn  drew  up  what  he  termed  "  conditions  or  concessions  "  between 
himself  as  proprietor  and  purchasers  in  the  province.  These  related  to  the 
settling  the  country,  laying  out  towns,  and  especially  to  the  treatment  of  the 
Indians,  who  were  to  have  the  same  rights  and  privileges,  and  careful  regard 
as  the  Europeans.  And  jvhat  is  perhaps  a  remarkable  instance  of  provident 
forethought,  the  eighteenth  article  provides  "  That,  in  clearing  the  ground, 
care  be  taken  to  leave  one  acre  of  trees  for  every  five  acres  cleared,  especially 
to  preserve  oak  and  mulberries,  for  silk  and  shipping."  It  could  be  desired 
that  such  a  provision  might  have  remained  operative  in  the  State  for  all 

Encouraged  by  the  manner  in  which  his  proposals  for  settlement  were 
received,  Penn  now  drew  up  a  frame  of  government,  consisting  of  twenty- 
four  articles  and  forty  laws.  These  were  drawn  in  a  spirit  of  unexampled 
fairness  and  liberality,  introduced  by  an  elaborate  essay  on  the  just  rights  of 
government  and  governed,  and  with  such  conditions  and  concessions  that  it 
should  never  be  in  the  power  of  an  unjust  Governor  to  take  advantage  of  the 
people  and  practice  injustice.  "  For  the  matter  of  liberty  and  privilege,  I  pur- 
pose that  which  is  extraordinary,  and  leave  myself  and  successors  no  power  of 
doing  mischief,  that  the  will  of  one  man  may  not  hinder  that  of  a  whole  coun- 
try. This  frame  gave  impress  to  the  character  of  the  early  government.  It  im- 
planted in  the  breasts  of  the  people  a  deep  sense  of  duty,  of  right,  and  of  obli- 
gation in  all  public  affairs,  and  the  relations  of  man  with  man,  and  formed  a 
framework  for  the  future  constitution.  Penn  himself  had  felt  the  heavy  hand 
of  government  for  religious  opinions  and  practice'  sake.  He  determined,  for 
the  matter  of  religion,  to  leave  all  free  to  hold  such  opinions  as  they  might 
elect,  and  hence  enacted  for  his  State    that  all  who  "  hold  themselves  obliged 



in  conscience,  to  live  peaceably  and  justly  in  civil  society,  shall,  in  no  "ways, 
be  molested,  nor  prejudiced,  for  their  religious  persuasion,  or  practice,  in  mat- 
ters of  faith  and  worship,  nor  shall  they  be  compelled,  at  any  time,  to  fre- 
quent, or  maintain,  any  religious  worship,  place,  or  ministry  whatever. "  At 
this  period,  such  governmental  liberality  in  matters  of  religion  was  almost  un- 
known, though  Roger  Williams  m  the  colony  of  Rhode  Island  had  previously, 
under  similar  circumstances,  and  having  just  escaped  a  like  persecution,  pro- 
claimed it,  as  had  likewise  Lord  Baltimore  in  the  Catholic  colony  of  Mary- 

The  mind  of  Penn  was  constantly  exercised  upon  the  affairs  of  his  settlement 
Indeed,  to  plant  a  colony  in  a  new  country  had  been  a  thought  of  his  boyhood, 
for  he  says  in  one  of  his  letters:  "I  had  an  opening  of  joy  as  to  these  parts  in 
the  year  1651,  at  Oxford,  twenty  years  since."  Not  being  in  readiness  to  go 
to  his  province  during  the  first  year,  he  dispatched  three  ship  loads  of  set- 
tlers, and  with  them  sent  his  cousin,  William  Markham,  to  take  formal  pos- 
session of  the  country  and  act  as  Deputy  Governor  Markham  sailed  for  New 
York,  and  upon  his  arrival  there  exhibited  his  commission,  bearing  date  March 
6, 1681,  and  the  King's  charter  and  proclamation.  In  the  absence  of  Gov.  An- 
dros,  who,  on  having  been  called  to  account  for  some  complaint  made  against 
him,  had  gone  to  England,  Capt.  Anthony  Brockholls,  Acting  Governor,  re- 
ceived Markham's  papers,  and  gave  him  a  letter  addressed  to  the  civil  officers 
on  the  Delaware,  informing  them  that  Markham's  authority  as  Governor  had 
been  examined,  and  an  official  record  made  of  it  at  New  York,  thanking  them 
for  their  fidelity,  and  requesting  them  to  submit  themselves  to  the  new  author- 
ity. Armed  with  this  letter,  which  was  dated  June  21,  1681,  Markham  pro- 
ceeded to  the  Delaware,  where,  on  exhibiting  his  papers,  he  was  kindly  re- 
ceived, and  allegiance  was  cheerfully  transferred  to  the  new  government.  In- 
deed so  frequently  had  the  power  changed  hands  that  it  had  become  quite  a 
matter  of  habit  to  transfer  obedience  from  one  authority  to  another,  and  they 
had  scarcely  laid  their  heads  to  rest  at  night  but  with  the  consciousness  that 
the  morning  light  might  bring  new  codes  and  new  officers. 

Markham  was  empowered  to  call  a  council  of  nine  citizens  to  assist  him  in 
the  government,  and  over  whom  he  was  to  preside.  He  brought  a  letter  ad- 
dressed to  Lord  Baltimore,  touching  the  boundary  between  the  two  grants,  and 
exhibiting  the  terms  of  the  charter  for  Pennsylvania.  On  receipt  of  this  let- 
ter, Lord  Baltimore  came  to  Upland  to  confer  with  Markham.  An  observation 
fixing  the  exact  latitude  of  Upland  showed  that  it  was  twelve  miles  south  of 
the  forty-first  degree,  to  which  Baltimore  claimed,  and  that  the  beginning  of 
the  fortieth  degree,  which  the  royal  charter  explicitly  fixed  for  the  southern 
boundary  of  Pennsylvania,  would  include  nearly  the  entire  State  of  Maryland, 
and  cut  the  limits  of  the  present  site  of  the  city  of  Washington.  "If  this  be 
allowed,"  was  significantly  asked  by  Baltimore,  "where  is  my  province?" 
He  returned  to  his  colony,  and  from  this  time  forward  an  active  contention 
was  begun  before  the  authorities  in  England  for  possession  of  the  disputed 
territory,  which  required  all  the  arts  and  diplomatic  skill  of  Penn. 

Markham  was  accompanied  to  the  province  by  four  Commissioners  sent 
out  by  Penn — William  Crispin,  John  Bezer,  William  Haige  and  Nathaniel 
Allen.  The  first  named  had  been  designated  as  Surveyor  General,  but  he 
having  died  on  the  passage,  Thomas  Holme  was  appointed  to  succeed  him. 
These  Commissioners,  in  conjunction  with  the  Governor,  had  two  chief  duties 
assigned  them.  The  first  was  to  meet  and  preserve  friendly  relations  with  the 
Indians  and  acquire  lands  by  actual  purchase,  and  the  second  was  to  select  the 
site  of  a  great  city  and  make  the  necessary  surveys.     That  they  might  hnve  a 


suitable  introduction  to  the  natives  from  him,  Penn  addressed  to  them  a  dec- 
laration of  his  purposes,  conceived  in  a  spirit  of  brotherly  love,  and  expressed 
in  such  simple  terms  that  these  children  of  the  forest,  unschooled  in  book 
learning,  would  have  no  difficulty  in  apprehending  his  meaning.  The  refer- 
ring the  source  of  all  power  to  the  Creator  was  fitted  to  produce  a  strong  im- 
pression upon  their  naturally  superstitious  habits  of  thought.  "There  is  a 
great  God  and  power,  that  hath  made  the  world,  and  all  things  therein,  to 
whom  you  and  I,  and  all  people  owe  their  being,  and  well  being;  and  to  whom 
you  and  I  must  one  day  give  an  account  for  all  that  we  do  in  the  world.  This 
great  God  hath  written  His  law  in  our  hearts,  by  which  we  are  taught  and  com- 
manded to  love,  and  help,  and  do  good  to  one  another.  Now  this  great  God  hath 
been  pleased  to  make  me  concerned  in  your  part  of  the  world,  and  the  King 
of  the  country  where  I  live  hath  given  me  a  great  province  therein;  but  I  de- 
sire to  enjoy  it  with  your  love  and  consent,  that  we  may  always  live  together, 
as  neighbors  and  friends;  else  what  would  the  great  God  do  to  us,  who  hath 
made  us,  not.  to  devour  and  destroy  one  another,  but  to  live  soberly  and  kindly 
together  in  the  world?  Now  I  would  have  you  well  observe  that  I  am  very 
sensible  of  the  unkindness  and  injustice  that  have  been  too  much  exercised 
toward  you  by  the  people  of  these  parts  of  the  world,  who  have  sought  them- 
selves, and  to  make  great  advantages  by  you,  rather  than  to  be  examples  of 
goodness  and  patience  unto  you,  which  I  hear  hath  been  a  matter  of  trouble 
to  you,  and  caused  great  grudging  and  animosities,  sometimes  to  the  shedding 
of  blood,  which  hath  made  the  great  God  angry.  But  I  am  not  such  a  man, 
as  is  well  known  in  my  own  country.  I  have  great  love  and  regard  toward 
you,  and  desire  to  gain  your  love  and  friendship  by  a  kind,  just  and  peaceable 
life,  and  the  people  I  send  are  of  the  same  mind,  and  shall  in  all  things  be- 
have themselves  accordingly;  and  if  in  anything  any  shall  offend  you  or 
your  people,  you  shall  have  a  full  and  speedy  satisfaction  for  the  same  by  an 
equal  number  of  just  men  on  both  sides  that  by  no  means  you  may  have  just 
occasion  of  being  offended  against  them.  I  shall  shortly  come  to  you  myself, 
at  which  time  we  may  more  largely  and  freely  confer  and  discourse  of  these 
matters.  In  the  meantime,  I  have  sent  my  Commissioners  to  treat  with  you 
about  land,  and  form  a  league  of  peace.  Let  me  desire  you  to  be  kind  to 
them  and  their  people,  and  receive  these  presents  and  tokens  which  I  have  sent 
you  as  a  testimony  of  my  good  will  to  you,  and  my  resolution  to  live  justly, 
peaceably  and  friendly  with  you." 

In  this  plain  but  sublime  statement  is  embraced  the  whole  theory  of  Will 
iam  Penn's  treatment  of  the  Indians.  It  was  the  doctrine  which  the  Savior 
of  mankind  came  upon  earth  to  promulgate — the  estimable  worth  of  every 
human  soul.  And  when  Penn  came  to  propose  his  laws,  one  was  adopted 
which  forbade  private  trade  with  the  natives  in  which  they  might  be  overreached; 
but  it  was  required  that  the  valuable  skins  and  furs  they  had  to  sell  should  be 
hung  up  in  the  market  place  where  all  could  see  them  and  enter  into  compe- 
tition for  their  purchase.  Penn  was  offered  £6,000  for  a  monopoly  of  trade. 
But  he  well  knew  the  injustice  to  which  this  would  subject  the  simple-minded 
natives,  and  he  refused  it  saying:  "As  the  Lord  gave  it  me  over  all  and 
great  opposition,  I  would  not  abuse  His  love,  nor  act  unworthy  of  His  provi- 
dence, and  so  defile  what  came  to  me  clean  " — a  sentiment  worthy  to  be  treas- 
ured with  the  best  thoughts  of  the  sages  of  old.  And  to  his  Commissioners  he 
gave  a  letter  of  instructions,  in  which  he  says:  "Be  impartially  just  to  all; 
that  is  both  pleasing  to  the  Lord,  and  wise  in  itself.  Be  tender  of  offending 
the  Indians,  and  let  them  know  that  you  come  to  sit  down  lovingly  among 
them.     Let  my  letter  and  conditions  be  read  in  their  tongue,  that  they  may  see 


we  have  their  good  in  our  eye.  Be  grave,  they  love  not  to  be  smiled  on." 
Acting  upon  these  wise  and  just  considerations,  the  Commissioners  had  no  diffi- 
culty in  making  large  purchases  of  the  Indians  of  lands  on  the  right  bank'  of 
the  Delaware  and  above  the  mouth  of  the  Schuylkill. 

But  they  found  greater  difficulty  in  settling  the  piace  for  the  new  city. 
Penn  had  given  very  minute  instructions  about  this,  and  it  was  not  easy 
to  find  a  tract  which  answered  all  the  conditions.  For  seven  weeks  they  kept 
up  their  search.  Penn  had  written,  "  be  sure  to  make  your  choice  where  it  is 
most  navigable,  high,  dry  and  healthy;  that  is,  where  most  ships  may  bestride, 
of  deepest  draught  of  water,  if  possible  to  load  and  unload  at  the  bank  or 
key's  side  without  boating  and  lightening  of  it.  It  would  do  well  if  the  river 
coming  into  that  creek  be  navigable,  at  least  for  boats  up  into  the  country, 
and  that  the  situation  be  high,  at  least  dry  and  sound  and  not  swampy,  which 
is  best  known  by  digging  up  two  or  three  earths  and  seeing  the  bottom."  By 
his  instructions,  the  site  of  the  city  was  to  be  between  two  navigable  streams, 
and  embrace  10,000  acres  in  one  block.  "  Be  sure  to  settle  the  figure  of  the 
town  so  that  the  streets  hereafter  may  be  uniform  down  to  the  water  from  the 
country  bounds.  Let  every  house  be  placed,  if  the  person  pleases,  in  the 
middle  of  its  plat,  as  to  the  breadth  way  of  it,  that  so  there  may  be  ground  on 
each  side  for  gardens  or  orchards  or  fields,  that  it  may  be  a  green  country  town, 
which  will  nef^er  be  burnt  and  always  wholesome."  The  soil  was  examined, 
the  streams  were  sounded,  deep  pits  were  dug  that  a  location  might  be  found 
which  should  gratify  the  desires  of  Penn.  All  the  eligible  sites  were  inspected 
from  the  ocean  far  up  into  the  country.  Penn  himself  had  anticipated  that 
Chester  or  Upland  would  be  adopted  from  all  that  he  could  learn  of  it;  but 
this  was  rejected,  as  was  also  the  ground  upon  Poquessing  Creek  and  that  at 
Pennsbury  Manor  above  Bristol  which  had  been  carefully  considered,  and  the 
present  site  of  Philadelphia  was  finally  adopted  as  coming  nearest  to  the 
requirements  of  the  proprietor.  It  had  not  10,000  acres  in  a  solid  square,  but 
it  was  between  two  navigable  streams,  and  the  soil  was  high  and  dry,  being  for 
the  most  part  a  vast  bed  of  gravel,  excellent  for  drainage  and  likely  to  prove 
healthful.  The  streets  were  laid  out  regularly  and  crossed  each  other  at 
right  angles.  As  the  ground  was  only  gently  rolling,  the  grading  was  easily 
accomplished.  One  broad  street,  Market,  extends  from  river  to  river  through 
the  midst  of  it,  which  is  crossed  at  right  angles  at  its  middle  point  by  Broad 
street  of  equal  width.  It  is  120  miles  from  (he  ocean  by  the  course  of  the 
river,  and  only  sixty  in  a  direct  line,  eighty-seven  miles  from  New  York, 
ninety-five  from  Baltimore.  136  from  Washington,  100  from  Harrisburg  and 
300  from  Pittsburgh,  and  lies  in  north  latitude  39°  56'  54",  and  longitude  75° 
8'  45"  west  from  Greenwich  The  name  Philadelphia  (brotherly  love),  was 
one  that  Penn  had  before  selected,  as  this  founding  a  city  was  a  project  which 
he  had  long  dreamed  of  and  contemplated  with  never-ceasing  interest. 



William  Markham,  1681-82— William  Penn,  1682-84. 

HAVING  now  made  necessary  preparations  and  settled  his  affairs  in  En- 
gland, Penn  embarked  on  board  the  ship  Welcome,  in  August,  1682,  in 
company  with  about  a  hundred  planters,  mostly  from  his  native  town  of  Sussex, 
and  set  his  prow  for  the  New  "World.  Before  leaving  the  Downs,  he  addressed 
a  farewell  letter  to  his  friends  whom  he  left  behind,  and  another  to  his  wife 
and  children,  giving  them  much  excellent  advice,  and  sketching  the  way  of 
life  he  wished  them  to  lead.  With  remarkable  care  and  minuteness,  he  points 
out  the  way  in  which  he  would  have  his  children  bred,  and  educated,  married, 
and  live.  A  single  passage  from  this  remarkable  document  will  indicate  its 
general  tenor.  "  Be  sure  to  observe,"  in  educating  his  children,  "  their  genius, 
and  do  not  cross  it  as  to  learning  ;  let  them  not  dwell  too  long  on  one  thing  ; 
but  let  their  change  be  agreeable,  and  let  all  their  diversions  have  some  little 
bodily  labor  in  them.  When  grown  big,  have  most  care  for  them  ;  for  then 
there  are  more  snares  both  within  and  without.  When  marriageable,  see  that 
they  have  worthy  persons  in  their  eye  ;  of  good  life  and  good  fame  for  piety 
and  understanding.  I  need  no  wealth  but  sufficiency  ;  and  be  sure  their  love 
be  dear,  fervent  and  mutual,  that  it  may  be  happy  for  them."  And  to  his 
children  he  said,  "  Betake  yourselves  to  some  honest,  industrious  course  of 
life,  and  that  not  of  sordid  covetousness,  but  for  example  and  to  avoid  idle- 
ness. *****  Love  not  money  nor  the  world  ;  use  them  only, 
and  they  will  serve  you  ;  but  if  you  love  them  you  serve  them,  which  will 
debase  your  spirits  as  well  as  offend  the  Lord.  *****  Watch 
against  anger,  neither  speak  nor  act  in  it ;  for,  like  drunkenness,  it  makes  a 
man  a  beast,  and  throws  people  into  desperate  inconveniences."  The  entire 
letters  are  so  full  of  excellent  counsel  that  they  might  with  great  profit  be 
committed  to  memory,  and  treasured  in  the  heart. 

The  voyage  of  nearly  six  weeks  was  prosperous  ;  but  they  had  not  been 
long  on  the  ocean  before  that  loathed  disease — the  virulent  small-pox — broke, 
out,  of  which  thirty  died,  nearly  a  third  of  the  whole  company.  This,  added 
to  the  usual  discomforts  and  terrors  of  the  ocean,  to  most  of  whom  this  was 
probably  their  first  experience,  made  the  voyage  a  dismal  one.  And  here  was 
seen  the  nobility  of  Penn.  "  For  his  good  conversation  "  says  one  of  them, 
"  was  very  advantageous  to  all  the  company.  His  singular  care  was  manifested 
in  contributing  to  the  necessities  of  many  who  were  sick  with  the  small-pox 
then  on  board." 

His  arrival  upon  the  coast  and  passage  up  the  river  was  hailed  with  dem- 
onstrations of  joy  by  all  classes,  English,  Dutch,  Swedes,  and  especially  by  his 
own  devoted  followers.  He  landed  at  New  Castle  on  the  24th  of  October,  1682, 
and  on  the  following  day  summoned  the  people  to  the  court  house,  where  pos- 
session of  the  country  was  formally  made  over  jo  him,  and  he  renewed  the 
commissions  of  the  magistrates,  to  whom  and  to  the  assembled  people  he  an- 
nounced the  design  of  his  coming,  explained  the  nature  and  end  of  truly  good 
government,  assuring  them  that  their  religious  and  civil  rights  should  be  re- 
spected, and  recommended  them  to  live  in  sobriety  and  peace.       He  then  pro- 


ceeded  to  Upland,  hencefoward  known  as  Chester,  where,  on  the  4th  of  Novem- 
ber, he  called  an  assembly  of  the  people,  in  which  an  equal  number  of  votes 
was  allowed  to  the  province  and  the  territories.  Nicholas  Moore,  President  of 
the  Free  Society  of  Traders,  was  chosen  speaker.  As  at  New  Castle,  Penn 
addressed  the  assembly,  giving  them  assurances  of  his  beneficent  intentions, 
for  which  they  returned  their  grateful  acknowledgments,  the  Swedes  beio.g 
especially  demonstrative,  deputing  one  of  their  number,  Lacy  Cock,  to  say 
"  That  they  would  love,  serve  and  obey  him  with  all  they  had,  and  that  this 
was  the  best  day  they  ever  saw. "  We  can  well  understand  with  what  satisfac- 
tion the  settlers  upon  the  Delaware  hailed  the  prospect  of  a  stable  government 
established  in  their  own  midst,  after  having  been  so  long  at  the  mercy  of  tne 
government  in  New  York,  with  allegience  trembling  between  the  courts  of 
Sweden,  Holland  and  Britain. 

The  proceedings  of  this  first  assembly  were  conducted  with  great  decorum, 
and  after  the  usages  of  the  English  Parliament.  On  the  7th  of  December, 
1682,  the  three  lower  counties,  what  is  now  Delaware,  which  had  previously 
been  under  the  government  of  the  Duke  of  York,  were  formerly  annexed  to  the 
province,  and  became  an  integral  part  of  Pennsylvania.  The  frame  of  govern- 
ment, which  had  been  drawn  with  much  deliberation,  was  submitted  to  the 
assembly,  and,  after  some  alterations  and  amendments,  was  adopted,  and  be- 
came the  fundamental  law  of  the  State.  The  assembly  was  in  session  only 
three  days,  but  the  work  they  accomplished,  how  vast  and  far-reaching  in  its 
influence ! 

The  Dutch,  Swedes  and  other  foreigners  were  then  naturalized,  and  the 
government  was  launched  in  fair  running  order:  That  some  idea  may  be  had 
of  its  character,  the  subjects  treated  are  here  given:  1,  Liberty  of  conscience; 
2,  Qualification  of  officers;  3,  Swearing  by  God,  Christ  or  Jesus;  4,  Swearing 
by  any  other  thing  or  name;  5,  Profanity;  6,  Cursing;  7,  Fornication;  8,  In- 
cest; 9,  Sodomy;  10,  Rape;  11,  Bigamy;  12,  Drunkenness;  13,  Suffering 
drunkenness;  14,  Healths  drinking;  15,  Selling  liquor  to  Indians;  16,  Arson; 
17,  Burglary;  18,  Stolen  goods;  19,  Forcible  entry;  20,  Riots;  21,  Assaulting 
parents:  22,  Assaulting  Magistrates;  23,  Assaulting  masters;  24,  Assault  and 
battery;  25,  Duels;  26,  Riotous  sports,  as  plays;  27,  Gambling  and  lotteries; 
28,  Sedition;  29,  Contempt;  30,  Libel;  31,  Common  scolds;  32,  Charities; 
33,  Prices  of  beer  and  ale;  34,  Weights  and  measures;  35,  Names  of  days  and 
months;  36,  Perjury;  37,  Court  proceedings  in  English;  38,  Civil  and  crim- 
inal trials;  39,  Fees,  salaries,  bribery  and  extortion;  40,  Moderation  of  fines; 
41,  Suits  avoidable;  42,  Foreign  arrest;  43,  Contracts:  44,  Charters,  gifts, 
grants,  conveyances,  bills,  bonds  and  deeds,  when  recorded;  45,  Wills;  46, 
Wills  of  non  compos  mentis;  47,  Registry  of  Wills;  48,  Registry  for  servants; 
49,  Factors;  50,  Defacers,  corruptors  and  embezzlers  of  charters,  conveyances 
and  records;  51,  Lands  and  goods  to  pay  debts;  52,  Bailable  offenses;  53, 
Jails  and  jailers;  54,  Prisons  to  be  workhouses;  55,  False  imprisonment;  56, 
Magistrates  may  elect  between  fine  or  imprisonment;  57,  Freemen;  58,  Elec- 
tions; 59,  No  money  levied  but  in  pursuance  of  law;  60,  Laws  shall  be  printed 
and  taught  in  schools;  61,  All  other  things,  not.  provided  for  herein,  are  re- 
ferred to  the  Governor  and  freemen  from  time  to  time. 

Very  soon  after  his  arrival  io  the  colony,  after  the  precept  had  been  issued, 
but  before  the  convening  of  the  Assembly,  Penn,  that  he  might  not  be  wanting 
in  respect  to  the  Duke  of  York,  made  a  visit  to  New  York,  where  he  was  kind- 
ly received,  and  also  after  the  adjournment  of  the  Assembly,  journeyed  to  Mary- 
land, where  he  was  entertained  by  Lord  Baltimore  with  great  ceremony.  The 
settlement  of  the  disputed  boundaries  was  made  the  subject  of  formal  confer- 


ence.  But  after  two  days  spent  in  fruitless  discussion,  the  weather  becoming 
severely  cold,  and  thus  precluding  the  possibility  of  taking  observations  or 
making  the  necessary  surveys,  it  was  agreed  to  adjourn  further  consideration 
of  the  subject  until  the  milder  weather  of  the  spring.  We  may  imagine  that 
the  two  Governors  were  taking  the  measure  of  each  other,  and  of  gaining  all 
possible  knowledge  of  each  other's  claims  and  rights,  preparatory  to  that 
struggle  for  possession  of  this  disputed  fortieth  degree  of  latitude,  which  was 
desiined  to  come  before  the  home  government. 

With  all  his  cares  in  founding  a  State  and  providing  a  government  over  a 
new  people,  Penn  did  not  forget  to  preach  the  "blessed  Gospel,"  and  wherever 
he  went  he  was  intent  upon  his  "  Master's  business."  On  his  return  from 
Maryland,  Lord  Baltimore  accompanied  him  several  miles  to  the  house  of 
William  Richardson,  and  thence  to  Thomas  Hooker's,  where  was  a  religious 
meeting,  as  was  also  one  held  at  Choptauk.  Penn  himself  says:  "  I  have 
been  also  at  New  York,  Long  Island,  East  Jersey  and  Maryland,  in  which  I 
have  had  good  and  eminent  service  for  the  Lord."  And  again  he  says;  "As  to 
outward  things,  we  are  satisfied — the  land  good,  the  air  clear  and  sweet,  tho 
springs  plentiful,  and  provisions  good  and  easy  to  come  at,  an  innumerable 
quantity  of  wild  fowl  and  fish;  in  fine,  here  is  what  an  Abraham,  Isaac  and 
Jacob  would  be  well  contented  with,  and  service  enough  for  God:  for  the 
fields  are  here  white  for  the  harvest.  O,  how  sweet  is  the  quiet  of  these  parts, 
freed  from  the  anxious  and  troublesome  solicitations,  hurries  and  perplexities 
of  woeful  Europe!  *  *  *  Blessed  be  the  Lord,  that  of  twenty-three  ships, 
none  miscarried;  only  two  or  three  had  the  small- pox;  else  healthy  and  swift 
passages,  generally  such  as  have  not  been  known;  some  but  twenty-eight  days, 
and  few  longer  than  six  weeks.  Blessed  be  God  for  it;  my  soul  fervently 
breathes  that  in  His  heavenly  guiding  wisdom,  we  may  be  kept,  that  we  may 
serve  Him  in  our  day,  and  lay  down  our  heads  in  peace."  And  then,  as  if  re- 
proached for  not  having  mentioned  another  subject  of  thankfulness,  he  adds  in 
a  postscript,  "  Many  women,  in  divers  of  the  ships,  brought  to  bed;  they  and 
their  children  do  well." 

Penn  made  it  his  first  care  to  take  formal  possession  of  his  province,  and 
adopt  a  frame  of  government.  When  this  was  done,  his  chief  concern  was 
to  look  to  the  establishment  of  his  proposed  new  city,  the  site  of  which  had 
already  been  determined  on  by  his  Commissioners.  Accordingly,  early  in 
November,  at  a  season  when,  in  this  section,  the  days  are  golden,  Penn  em- 
barked in  an  open  barge  with  a  number  of  his  friends,  and  was  wafted 
leisurely  up  the  Delaware  to  the  present  site  of  the  city  of  Philadel- 
phia, which  the  natives  called  Coaquannock.  Along  the  river  was  a  bold  shore, 
fringed  with  lofty  pines,  which  grew  close  down  to  the  water's  edge,  so  much 
so  that  when  the  first  ship  passing  up  with  settlers  for  West  Jersey  had  brushed 
against  the  branches,  the  passengers  remarked  that  this  would  be  a  good  place 
for  a  city.  It  was  then  in  a  wild  state,  the  deer  browsing  along  the  shore  and 
sipping  the  stream,  and  the  coneys  burrowing  in  the  banks.  The  scattered 
settlers  had  gathered  in  to  see  and  welcome  the  new  Governor,  and  when  he 
stepped  upon  the  shore,  they  extended  a  helping  hand  in  assisting  him  up  the 
rugged  bluff.  Three  Swedes  had  already  taken  up  tracts  within  the  limits  of 
the  block  of  land  chosen  for  the  city.  But  they  were  given  lands  in  exchange, 
and  readily  relinquished  their  claims.  The  location  was  pleasing  to  Penn,  and 
was  adopted  without  further  search,  though  little  could  be  seen  of  this  then 
forest-encumbered  country,  where  now  is  the  home  of  countless  industries,  the 
busy  mart,  the  river  bearing  upon  its  bosom  the  commerce  of  many  climes, 
and  the  abiding  place  of  nearly  a  million  of  people.     But  Penn  did  not  con- 


sider  that  he  had  as  yet  any  just  title  to  the  soil,  holding  that  the  Indians 
were  its  only  rightful  possessors,  and  until  it  was  fairly  acquired  by  purchase 
from  them,  his  own  title  was  entirely  void. 

Hence,  he  sought  an  early  opportunity  to  meet  the  chiefs  of  the  tribes  and 
cultivate  friendly  relations  with  them.  Tradition  fixes  the  first  great  treaty 
or  conference  at  about  this  time,  probably  in  November,  and  the  place  under 
the  elm  tree,  known  as  the  "  Treaty  Tree,"  at  Kensington.  It  was  at  a  sea- 
son when  the  leaves  would  still  be  upon  the  trees,  and  the  assembly  was  called 
beneath  the  ample  shade  of  the  wide-sweeping  branches,  which  was  pleasing 
to  the  Indians,  as  it  was  their  custom  to  hold  all  their  great  deliberations  and 
smoke  the  pipe  of  peace  in  the  open  air.  The  letter  which  Penn  had  sent  had 
prepared  the  minds  of  these  simple-hearted  inhabitants  of  the  forest  to  regard 
him  with  awe  and  reverence,  little  less  than  that  inspired  by  a  descended  god. 
His  coming  had  for  a  long  time  been  awaited,  and  it  is  probable  that  it  had 
been  heralded  and  talked  over  by  the  wigwam  fire  throughout  the  remotest 
bounds  of  the  tribes.  And  when  at  length  the  day  came,  the  whole  popula- 
tion far  around  had  assembled. 

It  is  known  that  three  tribes  at  least  were  represented — the  Lenni  Lenape, 
living  along  the  Delaware;  the  Shawnees,  a  tribe  that  had  come  up  from  the 
South,  and  were  seated  along  the  Lower  Susquehanna;  and  the  Mingoes, 
sprung  from  the  Six  Nations,  and  inhabiting  along  the  Conestoga.  Penn  was 
probably  accompanied  by  the  several  officers  of  his  Government  and  his  most 
trusted  friends.  There  were  no  implements  of  warfare,  for  peace  was  a  cardi- 
nal feature  of  the  Quaker  creed 

No  veritable  account  of  this,  the  great  treaty,  is  known  to  have  been  made; 
but  from  the  fact  that  Penn  not  lung  after,  in  an  elaborate  treatise  upon  the 
country,  the  inhabitants  and  the  natives,  has  given  the  account  of  the  manner 
in  which  the  Indians  demean  themselves  in  conference,  we  may  infer  that  he 
had  this  one  in  mind,  and  hence  we  may  adopt  it  as  his  own  description  of  the 

"  Their  order  is  thus:  The  King  sits  in  the  middle  of  a  half  moon,  and 
hath  his  council,  the  old  and  wise,  on  each  hand;  behind  them,  or  at  a  little 
distance,  sit  the  younger  fry  in  the  same  figure.  Having  consulted  and  re- 
solved their  business,  the  King  ordered  one  of  them  to  speak  to  me.  He  stood 
up,  came  to  me,  and,  in  the  name  of  the  King,  saluted  me;  then  took  me  by 
the  hand  and  told  me  he  was  ordered  by  the  King  to  speak  to  me;  and  now  it 
was  not  he,  but  the  King  that  spoke,  because  what  he  would  say  was  the 
King's  mind.  *  *  *  *  During  the  time  that  this  person  spoke,  not 
a  man  of  them  was  observed  to  whisper  or  smile;  the  old  grave,  the  young 
reverant,  in  their  deportment.  They  speak  little,  but  fervently,  and  with  ele- 
gance. " 

In  response  to  the  salutation  from  the  Indians,  Penn  makes  a  reply  in 
suitable  terms:  "The  Great  Spirit,  who  made  me  and  you,  who  rules  the 
heavens  and  the  earth,  and  who  knows  the  innermost  thoughts  of  men,  knows 
that  I  and  my  friends  have  a  hearty  desire  to  live  in  peace  and  friendship 
with  you,  and  to  serve  you  to  the  uttermost  of  our  power.  It  is  not  our  custom 
to  use  hostile  weapons  against  our  fellow- creatures,  for  which  reason  we  have 
come  unarmed.  Our  object  is  not  to  do  injury,  and  thus  provoke  the  Great 
Spirit,  but  to  do  good.  We  are  met  on  the  broad  pathway  of  good  faith  and 
good  will,  so  that  no  advantage  is  to  be  taken  on  either  side;  but  all  to  be  open- 
ness, brotherhood  and  love."  Having  unrolled  his  parchment,  he  explains  to 
them  through  an  interpreter,  article  by  article,  the  nature  of  the  business,  and 
laying  it  upon  the  ground,  observes  that  the  ground  shall  be   for  the  use  of 


both  people.  "I  will  not  do  as  the  Marylanders  did,  call  you  children,  or 
brothers  only;  for  parents  are  apt  to  whip  their  children  too  severely,  and 
brothers  sometimes  will  differ;  neither  will  I  compare  the  friendship  between 
us  to  a  chain,  for  the  rain  may  rust  it,  or  a  tree  may  fall  and  break  it;  but.  I 
will  consider  you  as  the  same  flesh  and  blood  with  the  Christians,  and  the  same 
as  if  one  man's  body  were  to  be  divided  into  two  parts."  Having  ended  his 
business,  the  speaker  for  the  King  comes  forward  and  makes  great  promises 
"of  kindness  and  good  neighborhood,  and  that  the  Indians  and  English  must 
live  in  love  as  long  as  the  sun  gave  light."  This  ended,  another  Indian  makes 
a  speech  to  his  own  people,  first  to  explain  to  them  what  had  been  agreed  on, 
and  then  to  exhort  them  "to  love  the  Christians,  and  particularly  live  in  peace 
with  me  and  the  people  under  my  government,  that  many  Governors  had  been 
in  the  river,  but  that  no  Governor  had  come  himself  to  live  and  stay  here  be- 
fore, and  having  now  such  an  one,  that  had  treated  them  well,  they  should  never 
do  him  nor  his  any  wrong."  At  every  sentence  they  shouted,  as  much  as  to 
say,  amen. 

The  Indians  had  no  system  of  writing  by  which  they  could  record  their 
dealings,  but  their  memory  of  events  and  agreements  was  almost  miraculous. 
Heckewelder  records  that  in  after  years,  they  were  accustomed,  by  means  of 
strings,  or  belts  of  wampum,  to  preserve  the  recollection  of  their  pleasant  in- 
terviews with  Penn,  after  he  had  departed  for  England.  He  says,  "  They  fre- 
quently assembled  together  in  the  woods,  in  some  shady  spot,  as  nearly  as  pos- 
sible similar  to  those  where  they  used  to  meet  their  brother  Miquon  (Penn),  and 
there  lay  all  his  words  and  speeches,  with  those  of  his  descendants,  on  a 
blanket,  or  clean  piece  of  bark,  and  with  great  satisfaction  go  successively 
over  the  whole.  This  practice,  which  I  have  repeatedly  witnessed,  continued 
until  the  year  1780,  when  disturbances  which  took  place  put  an  end  to  it, 
probably  forever." 

The  memory  of  this,  the  "Great  Treaty,"  was  long  preserved  by  the  na- 
tives, and  the  novel  spectacle  was  reproduced  upon  canvas  by  the  genius  of 
Benjamin  West.  In  this  picture,  Penn  is  represented  as  a  corpulent  old  man, 
whereas  he  was  at  this  time  but  thirty-eight  years  of  age,  and  in  the  very 
height  of  manly  activity.  The  Treaty  Tree  was  preserved  and  guarded  from 
injury  with  an  almost  superstitious  care.  During  the  Revolution,  when  Phila- 
delphia was  occupied  by  the  British,  and  their  parties  were  scouring  the  coun- 
try for  firewood,  Gen.  Simcoe  had  a  sentinel  placed  at  this  tree  to  protect  it 
from  mutilation.  It  stood  until  1810,  when  it  was  blown  down,  and  it  was 
ascertained  by  its  annual  concentric  accretions  to  be  283  years  old,  and  was, 
consequently,  155  at  the  time  of  making  the  treaty.  The  Penn  Society  erected 
a  substantial  monument  on  the  spot  where  it  stood. 

Penn  drew  up  his  deeds  for  lands  in  legal  form,  and  had  them  duly  exe- 
cuted and  made  of  record,  that,  in  the  dispute  possible  to  arise  in  after  times, 
there  might  be  proof  definite  and  positive  of  the  purchase.  Of  these  purchases 
there  are  two  deeds  on  record  executed  in  1683.  One  is  for  land  near  Nesha- 
miny  Creek,  and  thence  to  Penypack,  and  the  other  for  lands  lying  between 
Schuylkill  and  Chester  Rivers,  the  first  bearing  the  signature  of  the  great 
chieftain,  Taminend.  In  one  of  these  purchases  it  is  provided  that  the  tract 
"  shall  extend  back  as  far  as  a  man  could  walk  in  three  days. "  Tradition 
runs  that  Penn  himself,  with  a  number  of  his  friends,  walked  out  the  half  this 
purchase  with  the  Indians,  that  no  advantage  should  be  taken  of  them  by  mak- 
ing a  great  walk,  and  to  show  his  consideration  for  them,  and  that  he  was  not 
above  the  toils  and  fatigues  of  such  a  duty."  They  began  to  walk  out  this 
land  at  the  mouth  of  the  Neshaminy,  and  walked  up  the  Delaware;  in  one  day 


and  a  half  they  got  to  a  spruce  tree  near  the  mouth  of  Baker's  Creek,  when 
Penn,  concluding  that  this  would  include  as  much  land  as  he  would  want  at 
present,  a  line  was  run  and  marked  from  the  spruce  tree  to  Neshaminy,  and 
the  remainder  left  to  be  walked  when  it  should  be  wanted.  They  proceed- 
ed after  the  Indian  manner,  walking  leisurely,  sitting  down  sometimes  to 
smoke  their  pipes,  eat  biscuit  and  cheese,  and  drink  a  bottle  of  wine.  In  the 
day  and  a  half  they  walked  a  little  less  than  thirty  miles.  The  balance  of  the 
purchase  was  not  walked  until  September  20,  11'6'd,  when  the  then  Governor  of 
Pennsylvania  offered  a  prize  of  500  acres  of  land  and  £6  for  the  man  who 
would  walk  the  farthest.  A  distance  of  eighty-six  miles  was  covered,  in 
marked  contrast  with  the  kind  consideration  of  Penn. 

During  the  first  year,  the  country  upon  the  Delaware,  from  the  falls  of 
Trenton  as  far  as  Chester,  a  distance  of  nearly  sixty  miles,  was  rapidly  taken  up 
and  peopled.  The  large  proportion  of  these  were  Quakers,  and  devotedly  attached 
to  their  religion  and  its  proper  observances.  They  were,  hence,  morally,  of  the 
best  classes,  and  though  they  were  not  generally  of  the  aristocracy,  yet  many 
of  them  were  in  comfortable  circumstances,  had  valuable  properties,  were  of 
respectable  families,  educated,  and  had  the  resources  within  themselves  to  live 
contented  and  happy.  They  were  provident,  industrious,  and  had  come  hither 
with  no  fickle  purpose.  Many  brought  servants  with  them,  and  well  supplied 
wardrobes,  and  all  necessary  articles  which  they  wisely  judged  would  be  got 
in  a  new  country  with  difficulty. 

Their  religious  principles  were  so  peaceful  and  generous,  and  the  govern- 
ment rested  so  lightly,  that  the  fame  of  the  colony  and  the  desirableness  of 
settlement  therein  spread  rapidly,  and  the  numbers  coming  hither  were  unpar- 
alleled in  the  history  of  colonization,  especially  when  we  consider  that  a  broad 
ocean  was  to  be  crossed  and  a  voyage  of  several  weeks  was  to  be  endured.  In 
a  brief  period,  ships  with  passengers  came  from  London,  Bristol,  Ireland, 
Wales,  Cheshire,  Lancashire,  Holland,  Gerinan}r,  to  the  number  of  about  fifty. 
Among  others  came  a  company  of  German  Quakers,  from  Krisheim,  near 
Worms,  in  the  Palatinate.  These  people  regarded  their  lot  as  particularly 
fortunate,  in  which  they  recognized  the  direct  interposition  and  hand  of  Provi- 
dence. For,  not  long  afterward,  the  Palatinate  was  laid  waste  by  the  French 
army,  and  many  of  their  kindred  whom  they  had  left  behind  were  despoiled  of 
their  possessions  and  reduced  to  penury.  There  came  also  from  Wales  a  com- 
pany of  the  stock  of  aucient  Britons. 

So  large  an  influx  of  population,  coming  in  many  cases  without  due  pro- 
vision for  variety  of  diet,  caused  a  scarcity  in  many  kinds  of  food,  especially 
of  meats.  Time  was  required  to  bring  forward  flocks  and  herds,  more  than 
for  producing  grains.  But  Providence  seemed  to  have  graciously  considered 
their  necessities,  and  have  miraculously  provided  for  them,  as  of  old  was  pro 
vision  made  for  the  chosen  people.  For  it  is  recorded  that  the  "wild  pigeons 
flame  in  such  great  numbers  that  the  sky  was  sometimes  darkened  by  their 
flight,  and,  flying  low,  they  were  frequently  knocked  down  as  they  flew,  in 
great  quantities,  by  those  who  had  no  other  means  to  take  them,  whereby  the) 
supplied  themselves,  and,  having  salted  those  which  they  could  not  immedi- 
ately use,  they  preserved  them,  both  for  bread  and  meat."  The  Indians  were 
kind,  and  often  furnished  them  with  game,  for  which  they  would  receive  no 

Their  first  care  on  landing  was  to  bring  their  household  goods  to  a  place 
of  safety,  often  to  the  simple  protection  of  a  tree.  For  some,  this  was  their 
only  shelter,  lumber  being  scarce,  and  in  many  places  impossible  to  obtain. 


Some  made  for  themselves  caves  in  the  earth  uritil  better  habitations  could  be 

John  Key,  who  was  said  to  have  been  tho  first  child  born  of  English  par- 
ents in  Philadelphia,  and  that  in  recognition  of  which  William  Penn  gave 
him  a  lot  of  ground,  died  at  Kennet,  in  Chester  County,  on  July  5,  17G8, 
in  tho  eighty-fifth  year  of  his  age.  He  was  born  in  one  of  these  caves  upon 
the  river  bank,  long  afterward  known  by  the  name  of  Penny-pot,  near  Sassa- 
fras street.  About  six  years  before  his  death,  he  walked  from  Kennot  to  the 
city,  about  thirty  miles,  in  one  day.  In  the  latter  part  of  his  life  he  went 
under  the  name  of  D'irst  Born. 

The  contrasts  between  the  comforts  and  conveniences  of  an  old  settled 
country  and  this,  where  the  heavy  forests  must  be  cleared  away  and  severe  la- 
bors must  be  endured  before  the  sun  could  be  let  in  sufficiently  to  produce 
anything,  must  have  been  very  marked,  and  caused  repining.  But  they  had 
generally  come  with  meek  and  humble  hearts,  and  they  willingly  endured 
hardship  and  privation,  and  labored  on  earnestly  for  the  spiritual  comfort 
which  they  enjoyed.  Thomas  Makin,  in  some  Latin  verses  upon  the  early  set- 
tlement, says  (we  quote  the  metrical  translation): 

"Its  fame  to  distant  countries  far  has  spread, 
And  some  for  peace,  and  some  for  profit  led, 
Born  in  remotest  climes,  to  settle  here 
They  leave  their  native  soil  and  all  that's  dear, 
And  still  will  flock  from  far,  here  to  be  free, 
Such  powerful  charms  has  lovely  liberty." 

But  for  their  many  privations  and  sufferings  there  were  some  compensat- 
ing conditions.  The  soil  was  fertile,  the  air  mostly  clear  and  healthy,  the 
streams  of  water  were  good  and  plentiful,  wood  for  fire  and  building  unlimit- 
ed, and  at  certain  seasons  of  the  year  game  in  the  forest  was  abundant.  Rich- 
ard Townsend,  a  settler  at  Germantown,  who  came  over  in  the  ship  with  Penn, 
in  writing  to  his  friends  in  England  of  his  first  year  in  America,  says:  "I, 
with  Joshua  Tittery,  made  a  net,  and  caught  great  quantities  of  fish,  so  that, 
notwithstanding  it  was  thought  near  three  thousand  persons  came  in  the  first 
year,  we  were  so  providentially  provided  for  that  we  could  buy  a  deer  for 
about  two  shillings,  and  a  large  turkey  for  about  one  shilling,  and  Indian  corn 
for  about  two  shillings  sixpence  a  bushel." 

In  the  same  letter,  the  writer  mentions  that  a  young  deer  came  out  of  the 
forest  into  the  meadow  where  he  was  mowing,  and  looked  at  him,  and  when 
he  went  toward  it  would  retreat;  and,  as  he  resumed  his  mowing,  would  come 
back  to  gaze  upon  him,  and  finally  ran  forcibly  against  a  tree,  which  so 
stunned  it  that  he  was  able  to  overmaster  it  and  bear  it  away  to  his  home,  and 
as  this  was  at  a  time  when  he  was  suffering  for  the  lack  of  meat,  he  believed 
it  a  direct  interposition  of  Providence. 

In  the  spring  of  1683,  there  was  great  activity  throughout  the  colony,  and 
especially  in  the  new  city,  in  selecting  lands  and  erecting  dwellings,  thb  Sur- 
veyor General,  Thomas  Holme,  laying  out  and  marking  the  streets.  In  the 
center  of  tho  city  was  a  public  square  of  ten  acres,  and  in  each  of  the  four 
quarters  one  of  eight  acres.  A  large  mansion,  which  had  been  undertaken  be- 
fore his  arrival,  was  built  for  Penn,  at  a  point  twenty-six  miles  up  the  river, 
called  Pennsbury  Manor,  where  he  sometimes  resided,  and  where  he  often  met 
the  Indian  sachems.  At  this  time,  Penn  divided  the  colony  into  counties, 
three  for  the  province  (Bucks,  Philadelphia  and  Chester)  and  three  for  the 
Territories  (New  Castle,  Kent  and  Sussex).  Having  appointed  Sheriffs  and 
other  proper  officers,  he  issued  writs  for  the  election  of  members  of  a  General 


Assembly,  three  from  each  county  for  the  Council  or  Upper  House,  and  cine 
from  each  county  for  the  Assembly  or  Lower  House.* 

This  Assembly  convened  and  organized  for  business  on  the  10th  of  Jan- 
uary, 3683,  at  Philadelphia.  One  of  the  first  subjects  considered  was  the 
revising  some  provisions  of  the  frame  of  government  which  was  effected,  re- 
ducing the  number  of  members  of  both  Houses,  the  Council  to  18  the  As- 
sembly to  36,  and  otherwise  amending  in  unimportant  particulars.  In 
an  assembly  thus  convened,  and  where  few,  if  any,  had  had  any  experience  in 
serving  in  a  deliberative  body,  we  may  reasonably  suppose  that  many  crude 
and  impracticable  propositions  would  be  presented.  As  aD  example  of  these 
the  following  may  be  cited  as  specimens:  That  young  men  should  be  obliged 
to  marry  at,  or  before,  a  certain  age;  that  two  sorts  of  clothes  only  shall  be 
worn,  one  for  winter  and  the  other  for  summer.  The  session  lasted  twenty  two 

The  first  grand  jury  in  Pennsylvania  was  summoned  for  the  2d  of  Feb- 
ruary, 1683,  to  inquire  into  the  cases  of  some  persons  accused  of  issuing 
counterfeit  money.  The  Governor  and  Council  sat  as  a  court.  One  Picker- 
ing was  convicted,  and  the  sentence  was  significant  of  the  kind  and  patriarchal 
nature  of  the  government,  "that  he  should  make  full  satisfaction,  in  good 
and  current  pay,  to  every  person  who  should,  within  the  space  of  one  month, 
bring  in  any  of  this  false,  base  and  counterfeit  coin,  and  that  the  money 
brought  in  should  be  melted  down  before  it  was  returned  to  him,  and  that  he 
should  pay  a  fine  of  forty  pounds  toward  the  building  a  court  huuse,  stand 
committed  till  the  same  was  paid,  and  afterward  find  security  for  his  good 

The  Assembly  and  courts  having  now  adjourned,  Penn  gave  his  attention 
to  the  grading  and  improving  the  streets  of  the  new  city,  and  the  managing 
the  affairs  of  his  land  office,  suddenly  grown  to  great  importance.  For  every 
section  of  land  taken  up  in  the  wilderness,  the  purchaser  was  entitled  to  a 
certain  plot  in  the  new  city.  The  .River  Delaware  at  this  time  was  nearly  a 
mile  broad  opposite  the  city,  and  navigable  for  ships  of  the  largest  tonnage. 
The  tide  rises  about  six  feet  at  this  point,  and  flows  back  to  the  falls  of 
Trenton,  a  distance  of  thirty  miles.  The  tide  in  the  Schuylkill  flows  only 
about  five  miles  above  its  confluence  with  the  Delaware.  The  river  bank  along 
the  Delaware  was  intended  by  Penn  as  a  common  or  public  resort.  But  in 
his  time  the  owners  of  lots  above  Front  street  pressed  him  to  allow  them  to 
construct  warehouses  upon  it,  opposite  their  properties,  which  importunity  in- 
duced him  to  make  the  following  declaration  concerning  it:  "The  bank  is  a 
top  common,  from  end  to  end;  the  rest  next  the  water  belongs  to  front- lot 
men  no  more  than  back-lot  men.  The  way  bounds  them;  they  may  build  stairs, 
and  the  top  of  the  bank  a  common  exchange,  or  wall,  and  against  the  street, 
common  wharfs  may  be  built  freely;  but  into  the  water,  and  the  shore  is  no 
purchaser's."  But  in  future  time,  this  liberal  desire  of  the  founder  was  dis- 
regarded, and  the  bank  has  beeu  covered  with  immense  warehouses. 

*It  may  be  a  matter  of  curiosity  to  know  the  names  of  the  members  of  this  first  regularly  elected  Legis- 
lature in  Pennsylvania,  and  they  are  accordingly  appended  as  given  in  official  records: 

Council:  William  Markham,  Christopher  Taylor,  Thomas  Holme,  Lacy  Cock,  William  Ilaige,  John  Moll, 
Raiph  Withers,  John  Simcock,  Edward  Cant  well,  William  Clayton,  William  Biles,  James  Harrison,  William 
Clark,  Francis  Whitewell,  John  Richardson.  John  Hillyard. 

Assembly:  From  Bucks,  William  Yardly,  Samuel  Darke,  Robert  Lucas,  Nicholas  Walne,  John  Wood,  John 
Howes,  Thomas  Fitzwater,  Robert  Hall,  James  Boyden  ;  from  Philadelphia.  John  Longhurst,  John  Hart,  Wal- 
ter King,  Andros  Binkson,  John  Moon,  Thomas  Wynne  (Speaker),  Griffith  Jones,  William  Warner,  Swan  Swan- 
son;  from  Chester,  John  Hoskius,  Robert  Wade,  George  Wood,  John  Blunston,  Dennis  Rochford,  Thomas 
Bracy,  John  Bezer,  John  Harding,  Joseph  Phipps ;  from  New  Castle,  John  Cann,  John  Darby,  Valentine  Holl- 
ingswovth,  Gasparus  Herman  John  Dehoaef,  James  Williams,  William  Guest,  Peter  Alrich,  Henrick  Williams; 
from  Kent,  John  Biggs,  Simon  Irons,  Thomas  HafTbld  John  Curtis,  Bobert  Bedwell,  William  Windsmore,  John 
Brinkloe,  Daniel  Brown,  Benony  Bishop;  from  Sussex,  Luke  Watson,  Alexander  Draper,  William  Futcher, 
Henry  Bowman,  Alexander  Moleston,  John  Hill,  Robert  Bracy,  John  Kipshaven,  Cornelius  Verhoof. 


Seeing  now  his  plans  of  government  and  settlement  fairly  in  operation,  as 
autumn  approached,  Penn  wrote  a  letter  to  the  Free  Society  of  Traders  in 
London,  which  had  been  formed  to  promote  settlement  in  his  colony,  in  which 
he  touched  upon  a  great  variety  of  topics  regarding  his  enterprise,  extending  to 
quite  a  complete  treatise.  The  great  interest  attaching  to  the  subjects  dis- 
cussed, and  the  ability  with  which  it  was  drawn,  makes  it  desirable  to  insert 
the  document  entire;  but  its  great  length  makes  its  use  incompatible  with  the 
plan  of  this  work.  A  few  extracts  and  a  general  plan  of  the  letter  is  all  that 
can  be  given.  He  first  notices  the  injurious  reports  put  in  circulation  in  En- 
gland during  his  absence:  "  Some  persons  have  had  so  little  wit  and  so  much 
malice  as  to  report  my  death,  and,  to  mend  the  matter,  dead  a  Jesuit,  too. 
One  might  have  reasonably  hoped  tha^  this  distance,  like  death,  would  have 
been  a  protection  against  spite  and  envy.  *  *  *  However,  to  the  great  sorrow 
and  shame  of  the  inventors,  I  am  still  alive  and  no  Jesuit,  and,  I  thank  God, 
very  well."  Of  the  air  and  waters  bH  says:  "  The  air  is  sweet  and  clear,  the 
heavens  serene,  like  the  south  parts  of  France,  rarely  overcast.  The  waters 
are  generally  good,  for  the  rivers  and  brooks  have  mostly  gravel  and  stony  bot- 
toms, and  in  number  hardly  credible.  We  also  have  mineral  waters  that 
operate  in  the  same  manner  with  Barnet  and  North  Hall,  not  two  miles  from 
Philadelphia."  He  then  treats  at  length  of  the  four  seasons,  of  trees,  fruits, 
grapes,  peaches, grains, garden  produce:  of  animals, beasts,  birds, fish,  whale  fish 
ery,  horses  and  cattle,  medicinal  plants,  flowers  of  the  woods;  of  the  Indians 
and  their  persons.  Of  their  language  he  says:  "It  is  lofty,  yet  narrow;  but, 
like  the  Hebrew,  in  signification,  full,  imperfect  in  their  tenses,  wanting  in  their 
moods,  participles,  adverbs,  conjunctions,  interjections.  I  have  made  it  my  busi- 
ness to  understand  it,  and  I  must  say  that  I  know  not  a  language  spoken  in  Europe 
that  hath  words  of  more  sweetness  or  greatness  in  accent  and  emphasis  than 
theirs."  Of  their  customs  and  their  children :  "  Tbe  children  will  go  very  young, 
at  nine  months, commonly;  if  boys, they  go  a  fishing,  till  ripe  for  the  woods, which 
is  about  fifteen;  then  they  hunt,  and,  after  having  given  some  proofs  of  their 
manhood  by  a  good  return  of  skins,  they  may  marry,  else  it  is  a  shame  to  think 
of  a  wife.  The  girls  stay  with  their  mother  and  help  to  hoe  the  ground,  plant 
corn  and  carry  burdens.  When  the  young  women  are  fit  for  marriage,  they 
wear  something  upon  their  heads  as  an  advertisment;  but  so,  as  their  faces  hardly 
to  be  seen,  but  when  they  please.  The  age  they  marry  at,  if  women,  is  about 
thirteen  and  fourteen;  if  men,  seventeen  and  eighteen;  they  are  rarely  elder." 
In  a  romantic  vein  he  speaks  of  their  houses,  diet,  hospitality,  revengefulness 
and  concealment  of  resentment,  great  liberality,  free  manner  of  life  and 
customs,  late  love  of  strong  liquor,  behavior  in  sickness  and  death,  their  re- 
ligion, their  feastings,  their  government,  their  mode  of  doing  business,  their 
manner  of  administering  justice,  of  agreement  for  settling  difficulties  entered  into 
with  the  pen,  their  susceptibility  to  improvement,  of  the  origin  of  the  Indian  race 
their  resemblance  to  the  Jews.  Of  the  Dutch  and  Swedes  whom  he  found  set- 
tled here  when  he  came,  he  says:  "  The  Dutch  applied  themselves  to  traffick. 
the  Swedes  and  Finns  to  husbandry.  The  Dutch  mostly  inhabit  those  parts 
that  lie  upon  the  bay,  and  the  Swedes  the  freshes  of  the  Delaware.  They  are 
a  plain,  strong,  industrious  people;  yet  have  made  no  great  progress  in  culture 
or  propagation  of  fruit  trees.  They  are  a  people  proper,  and  strong  of  body, 
so  they  have  fine  children,  and  almost  every  house  full;  rare  to  find  one  of  them 
without  three  or  four  boys  and  as  many  girls — some,  six,  seven  and  eight  sons, 
and  I  must  do  them  that  right,  I  see  few  young  men  more  sober  and  laborious." 
After  speaking  at  length  of  the  organization  of  the  colony  and  its  manner  of 
government,  he  concludes  with  his  own  opinion  of  the  country:     "I  say  little 


of  the  town  itself;  but  this  I  will  say,  for  the  good  providence  of  God,  that 
of  all  the  many  places  I  have  seen  in  the  world,  I  remember  not  one  better 
seated,  so  that  it  seems  to  me  to  have  been  appointed  for  a  town,  whether  we 
regard  the  rivers  or  the  eonvenieney  of  the  coves,  docks,  springs,  the  loftiness 
and  soundness  of  the  land  and  the  air,  held  by  the  people  of  these  parts  to  be 
very  good.  It  is  advanced  within  less  than  a  year  to  about  fourscore  bouses 
and  cottages,  where  merchants  and  handicrafts  are  following  their  vocations 
as  fast  as  they  can,  while  the  countrymen  are  close  at  their  farms.  *  *  *  I 
bless  God  I  am  fully  satisfied  with  the  country  and  entertainment  I  got  in  it; 
for  I  find  that  particular  content,  which  hath  always  attended  me,  where  God  in 
His  providence  hath  made  it  my  place  and  service  to  reside." 

As  we  have  seen,  the  visit  of  Penn  to  Lord  Baltimore  soon  after  his  arrival 
in  America,  for  the  purpose  of  settling  the  boundaries  of  the  two  provinces,  after 
a  two  days'  conference,  proved  fruitless,  and  an  adjournment  was  had  for  the 
winter,  when  the  efforts  for  settlement  were  to  be  resumed.  Early  in  the 
spring,  an  attempt  was  made  on  the  part  of  Penn,  but  was  prevented  till  May, 
when  a  meeting  was  held  at  New  Castle.  Penn  proposed  to  confer  by  the  aid 
of  counselors  and  in  writing.  But  to  this  Baltimore  objected,  and,  complain- 
ing of  the  sultryness  of  the  weather,  the  conference  was  broken  up.  In  the 
meantime,  it  had  come  to  the  knowledge  of  Penn  that  Lord  Baltimore  had 
issued  a  proclamation  offering  settlers  more  land,  and  at  cheaper  rates  than 
Penn  had  done,  in  portions  of  the  lower  counties  which  Penn  had  secured 
from  the  Duke  of  York,  but  which  Baltimore  now  claimed.  Besides,  it  was 
ascertained  that  an  agent  of  his  had  taken  an  observation,  and  determined  the 
latitude  without  the  knowledge  of  Penn,  and  had  secretly  made  an  ex  parte 
statement  of  the  case  before  the  Lords  of  the  Committee  of  Plantations  in  En- 
gland, and  was  pressing  for  arbitrament.  This  state  of  the  case  created  much 
uneasiness  in  the  mind  of  Penn.  especially  as  the  proclamation  of  Lord  Balti- 
more was  likely  to  bring  the  two  governments  into  conflict  on  territory  mutu- 
ally claimed.  But  Lord  Baltimore  was  not  disposed  to  be  content  with  diplo- 
macy. He  determined  to  pursue  an  aggressive  policy.  He  accordingly  com- 
missioned his  agent,  Col.  George  Talbot,  under  date  of  September  17,  1683, 
to  go  to  Schuylkill,  at  Delaware,  and  demand  of  William  Penn  "  all  that  part 
of  the  land  on  the  west  side  of  the  said  river  that  lyeth  to  the  southward  of 
the  fortieth  degree."  This  bold  demand  would  have  embraced  the  entire  colony, 
both  the  lower  counties,  and  the  three  counties  in  the  province,  as  the  fortieth 
degree  reaches  a  considerable  distance  above  Philadelphia.  Penn  was  absent 
at  the  time  in  New  York,  and  Talbot  made  his  demand  upon  Nicholas  Moore, 
the  deputy  of  Penn.  Upon  his  return,  the  proprietor  made  a  dignified  but 
earnest  rejoinder.  While  he  felt  that  the  demand  could  not  be  justly  sus- 
tained, yet  the  fact  that  a  controversy  for  the  settlement  of  the  boundary  was 
likely  to  arise,  gave  him  disquietude,  and  though  he  was  gratified  with  the 
success  of  his  plans  for  acquiring  lands  of  the  Indians  and  establishing  friendly 
relations  with  them,  the  laying-out  of  his  new  city  and  settling  it,  the  adop- 
tion of  a  stable  government  and  putting  it  in  successful  operation,  and,  more 
than  all,  the  drawing  thither  the  large  number  of  settlers,  chiefly  of  his  own 
religious  faith,  and  seeing  them  contented  and  happy  in  the  new  State,  he 
plainly  foresaw  that  his  skill  and  tact  would  be  taxed  to  the  utmost  to  defend 
and  hold  his  claim  before  the  English  court.  If  the  demand  of  Lord  Balti- 
more were  to  prevail,  all  that  he  had  done  would  be  lost,  as  his  entire  colony 
would  be  swallowed  up  by  Maryland. 

The  anxiety  of  Penn  to  hold  from  the  beginniug  of  the  40 D  of  latitude  was 
not  to  increase  thereby  his  territory  by   so  much,  for  two  degrees  which  he 


securely  had,  so  far  as  amount  of  land  was  concerned,  would  have  entirely 
satisfied  him;  but  he  wanted  this  degree  chiefly  that  he  might  have  the  free 
navigation  of  Delaware  Bay  and  River,  and  thus  open  communication  with  the 
ocean.  lie  desired  also  to  hold  the  lower  counties,  which  were  now  well 
settled,  as  well  as  his  own  counties  rapidly  being  peopled,  and  his  new  city  of 
Philadelphia,  which  he  regarded  as  the  apple  of  his  eye.  So  anxious  was  he 
to  hold  the  land  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Delaware  to  the  open  ocean,  that  at 
his  second  meeting,  he  asked  Lord  Baltimore  to  set  a  prico  per  square  mile  on 
this  disputed  ground,  and  though  he  had  purchased  it  once  of  the  crown  and 
held  the  King's  charter  for  it,  and  the  Duke  of  York's  deed,  yet  rather  than 
have  any  further  wrangle  over  it,  he  was  willing  to  pay  for  it  again.  But  this 
Lord  Baltimore  refused  to  do. 

Bent  upon  bringing  matters  to  a  crisis,  and  to  force  possession  of  his 
claim,  early  in  the  year  1684  a  party  from  Maryland  made  forcible  entry 
upon  the  plantations  in  the  lower  counties  and  drove  off  the  owners.  The 
Governor  and  Council  at  Philadelphia  sent  thither  a  copy  of  the  answer  of 
Penn  to  Baltimore's  demand  for  the  land  south  of  the  Delaware,  with  orders 
to  William  Welch,  Sheriff  at  New  Castle,  to  use  his  influence  to  reinstate  the 
lawful  owners,  and  issued  a  declaration  succinctly  stating  the  claim  of  Penn, 
for  the  purpose  of  preventing  such  unlawful  incursions  in  future. 

The  season  opened  favorably  for  the  continued  prosperity  of  the  young 
colony.  Agriculture  was  being  prosecuted  as  never  before.  Goodly  flocks 
and  herds  gladdened  the  eyes  of  the  settlers.  An  intelligent,  moral  and  in- 
dustrious yeomanry  was  springing  into  existence.  Emigrants  were  pouring 
into  the  Delaware  from  many  lands.  The  Government  was  becoming  settled 
in  its  operations  and  popular  with  the  people.  The  proprietor  had  leisure  to 
attend  to  the  interests  of  his  religious  society,  not  only  in  his  own  dominions, 
but  in  the  Jerseys  and  in  New  York. 


Thomas  Lloyd,  1684-86— Five  Commissioners,  1686-88— John  Blackwell,  1688 
-90— Thomas  Lloyd,  1690-91— William  Markham,  1691-93— Benjamin 
Fletcher,  1693-95— William  Markham,  1693-99. 

BUT  the  indications,  constantly  thickening,  that  a  struggle  was  likely  soon 
to  be  precipitated  before  the  crown  for  possession  of  the  disputed  terri- 
tory, decided  Penn  early  in  the  summer  to  quit  the  colony  and  return  to  En- 
gland to  defend  his  imperiled  interests.  There  is  no  doubt  that  he  took  this 
step  with  unfeigned  regret,  as  he  was  contented  and  happy  in  his  new  country, 
and  was  most  usefully  employed.  There  were,  however,  other  inducements 
which  were  leading  him  back  to  England.  The  hand  of  persecution  was  at 
this  time  laid  heavily  upon  the  Quakers.  Over  1,400  of  these  pious  and  in- 
offensive people  were  now,  and  some  of  them  had  been  for  years,  languishing 
in  the  prisons  of  England,  for  no  other  offense  than  their  manner  of  worship. 
By  lis  friendship  with  James,  and  his  acquaintance  with  the  King,  he  might 
do  sc  icething  to  soften  the  lot  of  these  unfortunate  victims  of  bigotry. 

Hi  accordingly  empowered  the  Provincial  Council,  of  which  Thomas 
Lloyd  was  President,  to  act  in  his  stead,  commissioned  Nicholas  Moore,  Will- 
iam  Welch,  William    Wood,    Robert   Turner    and   John    Eckley,  Provincial 


Judges  for  two  years;  appointed  Thomas  Lloyd,  James  Claypole  and  Robert 
Turner  to  sign  land  patents  and  warrants,  and  William  Clark  as  Justice  of 
the  Peace  for  all  the  counties;  and  on  the  6th  of  June,  1684,  sailed  for  Europe. 
His  feelings  on  leaving  his  colony  are  exnibited  by  a  farewell  address  which 
he  issued  from  on  board  the  vessel  to  his  people,  of  which  the  following  are 
brief  extracts:  "My  love  and  my  life  is  to  you,  and  with  you,  and  no  water 
can  quench  it,  nor  distance  wear  it  out,  nor  bring  it  to  an  end.  I  have  been 
with  you,  cared  over  you  and  served  over  you  with  unfeigned  love,  and  you 
are  beloved  of  me,  and  near  to  me,  beyond  utterance.  I  bless  you  in  the 
name  and  power  of  the  Lord,  and  may  God  bless  you  with  His  righteousness, 
peace  and  plenty  all  the  land  over.  *  *  *  Oh!  now  are  you  come  to  a 
quiet  land;  provoke  not  the  Lord  to  trouble  it.  And  now  liberty  and  author- 
ity are  with  you,  and  in  your  hands.  Let  the  government  be  upon  His 
shoulders,  in  all  your  spirits,  that  you  may  rule  for  Him,  under  whom  the 
princes  of  this  world  will,  one  day,  esteem  their  honor  to  govern  and  serve  in 
their  places  *  *  *  And  thou,  Philadelphia,  the  virgin  settlement  of 
this  province,  named  before  thou  wert  born,  what  love,  what  care,  what  serv- 
ice and  what  travail  has  there  been,  to  bring  thee  forth, and  preserve  thee  from 
such  as  would  abuse  and  defile  thee!  *  *  *  So,  dear  friends,  my  love 
again  salutes  you  all,  wishing  that  grace,  mercy  and  peace,  with  all  temporal 
blessings,  may  abound  richly  among  you — so  says,  so  prays,  your  friend  and 
lover  in  the  truth.  William  Penn." 

On  the  6th  of  December  of  this  same  year,  1684,  Charles  II  died,  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  brother  James,  Duke  of  York,  under  the  title  of  James  II. 
James  was  a  professed  Catholic,  and  the  people  were  greatly  excited  all  over 
the  kingdom  lest  the  reign  of  Bloody  Mary  should  be  repeated,  and  that  the 
Catholic  should  become  the  established  religion.  He  had  less  ability  than 
his  brother,  the  deceased  King,  but  great  discipline  and  industry.  Penn  en- 
joyed the  friendship  and  intimacy  of  the  new  King,  and  he  determined  to  use 
his  advantage  for  the  relief  of  his  suffering  countrymen,  not  only  of  his  sect, 
the  Quakers,  but  of  all,  and  especially  for  the  furtherance  of  universal  liberty. 
But  there  is  no  doubt  that  he  at  this  time  meditated  a  speedy  return  to  his 
province,  for  he  writes:  "Keep  up  the  peoples'  hearts  and  loves;  I  hope  to  be 
with  them  next  fall,  if  the  Lord  prevent  not.  I  long  to  be  with  you.  Nc 
temptations  prevail  to  fix  me  here.  The  Lord  send  us  a  good  meeting."  By 
authority  of  Penn,  dated  18th  of  January,  1685,  William  Markham,  Penn's 
cousin,  was  commissioned  Secretary  of  the  province,  and  the  proprietor's  Sec- 

That  he  might  be  fixed  near  to  court  for  the  furtherance  of  his  private  as 
well  as  public  business,  he  secured  lodgings  for  himself  and  family,  in  1685,  at 
Kensington,  near  London,  and  cultivated  a  daily  intimacy  with  the  King,  who, 
no  doubt,  found  in  the  strong  native  sense  of  his  Quaker  friend,  a  valued  ad- 
viser upon  many  questions  of  difficulty.  His  first  and  chief  care  was  the  set- 
tlement of  his  disagreement  with  Lord  Baltimore  touching  the  boundaries  of 
their  provinces.  This  was  settled  in  November,  1685,  by  a  compromise,  by 
which  the  land  lying  between  the  Delaware  and  Chesepeake  Bays  was  divided 
into  two  equal  parts — that  upon  the  Delaware  was  adjudged  to  Penn,  and  that 
upon  the  Chesapeake  to  Lord  Baltimore.  This  settled  the  matter  in  theory; 
but  when  the  attempt  was  made  to  run  the  lines  according  to  the  language  of 
the  Royal  Act,  it  was  found  that  the  royal  secretaries  did  not  understand  the 
geography  of  the  country,  and  that  the  line  which  their  language  described  was 
an  impossible  one.  Consequently  the  boundary  remained  undetermined  till 
1732.      The  account  of  its  location  will  be  given  in  its  proper  place. 


Having  secured  this  important  decision  to  his  satisfaction,  Penn  applied 
himself  with  renewed  zeal,  r>ot  only  to  secure  the  release  of  his  people,  who 
were  languishing  in  prisons,  but  to  procure  for  all  Englishmen,  everywhere, 
enlarged  liberty  and  freedom  of  conscience.  His  relations  with  the  King  fa- 
vored his  designs.  The  King  had  said  to  Penn  before  he  ascended  the  throne 
that  he  was  opposed  to  persecution  for  religion.  On  tho  first  day  of  his  reign, 
he  made  an  address,  in  which  he  proclaimed  himself  opposed  to  all  arbitrary 
principles  in  government,  'and  promised  protection  to  the  Church  of  England. 
Early  in  the  year  1686,  in  consequence  of  the  King's  proclamation  for  a  gen- 
eral pardon,  over  thirteen  hundred  Quakers  were  set  at  liberty,  and  in  April, 
1687,  the  King  issued  a  declaration  for  entire  liberty  of  conscience,  and  sus- 
pending the  penal  laws  in  matters  ecclesiastical.  This  was  a  great  step  in  ad- 
vance, and  one  that  must  ever  throw  a  luster  over  the  brief  reign  of  this  un- 
fortunate monarch.  Penn,  though  holding  no  official  position,  doubtless  did 
as  much  toward  securing  the  issue  of  this  liberal  measure  as  any  Englishman. 

Upon  the  issue  of  these  edicts,  the  Quakers,  at  their  next  aonual  meeting, 
presented  an  address  of  acknowledgment  to  the  Ring,  which  opened  in  these 
words:  "  We  cannot  but  bless  and  praise  the  name  of  Almighty  God,  who 
hath  the  hearts  of  princes  in  His  hands,  that  He  hath  inclined  the  King  to  hear 
the  cries  of  his  suffering  subjects  for  conscience'  sake,  and  we  rejoice  that  he 
hath  given  us  so  eminent  an  occasion  to  present  him  our  thanks."  This  ad- 
dress was  presented  by  Penn  in  a  few  well -chosen  words,  and  the  King  re- 
plit  d  in  the  following,  though  brief,  yet  most  expressive,  language:  "  Gentle- 
men— I  thank  you  heartily  for  your  address.  Some  of  you  know  (I  am  sure 
you  do  Mr.  Penn),  that  it  was  always  my  principle,  that  conscience  ought  not 
to  be  forced,  and  that  all  men  ought  to  have  the  liberty  of  their  consciences. 
And  what  I  have  promised  in  my  declaration,  I  will  continue  to  perform  so 
long  as  I  live.  And  I  hope,  before  I  die,  to  settle  it  so  that  after  ages  shall 
have  r>o  reason  to  alter  it." 

It  would  have  been  supposed  that  such  noble  sentiments  as  these  from  a 
sovereign  would  have  been  hailed  with  delight  by  the  English  people.  But 
they  were  not.  The  aristocracy  of  Britain  at  this  time  did  not  want  liberty  of 
conscience.  They  wanted  nomformity  to  the  established  church,  and  bitter 
persecution  against  all  others,  as  in  the  reign  of  Charles,  whi.-h  filled  the 
prisons  with  Quakers.  The  warm  congratulations  to  James,  and  fervent  prayers 
for  his  welfare,  were  regarded  by  them  with  an  evil  eye.  Bitter  reproaches 
were  heaped  upon  Penn,  who  was  looked  upon  as  the  power  behind  the  throne 
that  was  moving  the  King  to  the  enforcing  of  these  principles.  He  was  ac- 
cused of  having  been  educated  at  St.  Omer's,  a  Catholic  college,  a  place  which 
he  never  saw  in  his  life,  of  having  taken  orders  as  a  priest  in  the  Catholic 
Church,  of  having  obtained  dispensation  to  marry,  and  of  being  not  only  a 
Catholic,  but  a  Jesuit  in  disguise,  all  of  which  were  pure  fabrications.  But  in 
the  excited  state  of  the  public  mind  they  were  believed,  and  caused  him  to  be 
regarded  with  bitter  hatred.  The  King,  too,  fell  rapidly  into  disfavor,  and  so 
completely  had  the  minds  of  his  people  become  alienated  from  him,  that  upon 
the  coming  of  the  Prince  of  Orange  and  his  wife  Mary,  in  1688,  James  was 
obliged  to  flee  to  France  for  safety,  and  they  were  received  as  the  rulers  of 

But  while  the  interests  of  the  colony  were  thus  prospering  at  court,  they 
were  not  so  cloudless  in  the  new  country.  There  was  needed  the  strong  hand 
of  Penn  to  check  abuses  and  guide  the  course  of  legislation  in  proper  chan- 
nels. He  had  labored  to  place  the  government  entirely  in  the  hands  of  the 
people — an  idea,  in  the  abstract,  most  attractive,  and  one  which,  were  the  entire 



population  wise  and  just,  would  result  fortunately:  yet,  in  practice,  he  found 
to  his  sorrow  the  results  most  vexatious.  The  proprietor  had  not  long  been 
gone  before  troubles  arose  between  the  two  Houses  of  the  Legislature  relative 
to  promulgating  the  laws  as  not  being  in  accordance  with  the  requirements  of 
the  charter  Nicholas  Moore,  the  Chief  Justice,  was  impeached  for  irregular- 
ities in  imposing  fines  and  in  other  ways  abusing  his  high  trust.  But  though 
formally  arraigned  and  directed  to  desist  from  exercising  his  functions,  he  suc- 
cessfully resisted  the  proceedings,  and  a  final  judgment  was  never  obtained. 
Patrick  Robinson,  Clerk  of  the  court,  for  refusing  to  produce  the  records  in  the 
trial  of  Moore,  was  voted  a  public  enemy.  These  troubles  in  the  government 
were  the  occasion  of  much  grief  to  Penn,  who  wrote,  naming  a  number  of  the 
most  influential  men  in  the  colony,  and  beseeching  them  to  unite  in  an  endeavor 
to  check  further  irregularities,  declaring  that  they  disgraced  the  province, 
"  that  their  conduct  had  struck  back  hundreds,  and  was  £10,000  out  of  his 
way,  and  £100,000  out  of  the  country." 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  year  1686,  seeing  that  the  whole  Council  was  too 
unwieldy  a  body  to  exercise  executive  power,  Penn  determined  to  contract  the 
number,  and  accordingly  appointed  Thomas  Lloyd,  Nicholas  Moore,  James 
Claypole,  Robert  Turner  and  John  Eckley,  any  three  of  whom  should  consti- 
tute a  quorum,  to  be  Commissioners  of  State  to  act  for  the  proprietor.  In 
place  of  Moore  and  Claypule,  Arthur  Cook  and  John  Simcock  were  appointed. 
They  were  to  compel  the  attendance  of  the  Council;  see  that  the  two  Houses 
admit  of  no  parley;  to  abrogate  oil  laws  except  the  fundamentals;  to  dismiss 
the  Assembly  and  call  a  new  one,  and  finally  he  solemnly  admonishes  them, 
"  Be  most  just,  as  in  the  sight  of  the  all-seeing,  all-searching  God."  In  a 
letter  to  these  Commissioners,  he  says:  "Three  things  occur  to  me  eminently: 
First,  that  you  be  watchful  that  none  abuse  the  King,  etc. ;  secondly,  that  you 
get  the  custom  act  revived  as  being  the  eqnalest  and  least  offensive  way  to 
support  the  government;  thirdly,  that  you  retrieve  the  dignity  of  courts  and 

In  a  letter  to  James  Harrison,  his  confidential  agent  at  Pennsbury  Manor, 
he  unbosoms  himself  more  freely  respecting  his  employment  in  London  than 
in  any  of  his  State  papers  or  more  public  communications,  and  from  it  can  be 
seen  how  important  were  his  labors  with  the  head  of  the  English  nation.  "  I 
am  engaged  in  the  public  business  of  the  nation  and  Friends,  and  those  in  au- 
thority would  have  me  see  the  establishment  of  the  liberty,  that  I  was  a  small 
instrument  to  begin  in  the  land.  The  Lord  has  given  me  great  entrance  and 
interest  with  the  King,  though  not  so  much  as  is  said;  and  I  confess  I  should 
rejoice  to  see  poor  old  England  fixed,  the  penal  laws  repealed,  that  are  now 
suspended,  and  if  it  goes  well  with  England,  it  cannot  go  ill  with  Pennsyl- 
vania, as  unkindly  used  as  I  am:  and  no  poor  slave  in  Turkey  desires  more 
earnestly,  I  believe,  for  deliverance,  than  I  do  to  be  with  you."  In  the  sum- 
mer of  1687,  Penn  was  in  company  with  the  King  in  a  progress  through  the 
counties  of  Berkshire,  Glocestersuire,  Worcestershire,  Shropshire,  Cheshire, 
Staffordshire,  Warwickshire,  Oxfordshire  and  Hampshire,  during  which  he 
held  several  religious  meetings  with  his  people,  in  some  of  which  the  King  ap- 
pears to  have  been  present,  particularly  in  Chester. 

Since  the  departure  of  Penn,  Thomas  Lloyd  had  acted  as  President  of 
the  Council,  and  later  of  the  Commissioners  of  State.  He  had  been  in  effect 
Governor,  and  held  responsible  for  the  success  of  the  government,  while  pos- 
sessing only  one  voice  in  the  disposing  of  affairs.  Tiring  of  this  anomalous 
position,  Lloyd  applied  to  be  relieved.  It  was  difficult  to  find  a  person  of 
sufficient  ability  to  fill  the  place:    but  Penn  decided  to   relieve  him,  though 


showing  his  entire  confidence  by  notifying  him  that  he  intended  soon  to  ap- 
point him  absolute  Governor.  In  his  place,  he  indicated  Samuel  Carpenter, 
or  if  he  was  unwilling  to  serve,  then  Thomas  Ellis,  but  not  to  be  President,  his 
will  being  that  each  should  preside  a  month  in  turn,  or  that  the  oldest  mem- 
ber should  be  chosen. 

Perm  foresaw  that  the  executive  power,  to  be  efficient,  must  be  lodged  in 
the  hands  of  oue  man  of  ability,  such  as  to  command  the  respect  of  his  people. 
Those  whom  he  most  trusted  in  the  colony  had  been  so  mixed  up  in  the  wran- 
gles of  the  executive  and  legislative  departments  of  the  government  that  he 
deemed  it  advisable  to  appoint  a  person  who  had  not  before  been  in  the  col 
ony  and  not  a  Quaker.  He  accordingly  commissioned  John  Blackwell,  July 
27,  1688,  to  be  Lieutenant  Governor,  who  was  at  this  time  in  New  England, 
and  who  had  the  esteem  and  confidence  of  Penn.  With  the  commission,  the 
proprietor  sent  full  instructions,  chiefly  by  way  of  caution,  the  last  one  being: 
"  Rule  the  meek  meekly;  and  those  that  will  not  be  ruled,  rule  with  authority." 
Though  Lloyd  had  been  relieved  of  power,  he  still  remained  in  the  Council, 
probably  because  neither  of  the  persons  designated  were  willing  to  serve. 
Having  seen  the  evils  of  a  many-headed  executive,  he  had  recommended  the 
appointment  of  one  person  to  exercise  executive  authority.  It  was  in  con 
formity  with  this  advice  that  Blackwell  was  appointed.  He  met  the  Assembly 
in  March,  1689;  but  either  his  conceptions  of  business  were  arbitrary  and  im- 
perious, or  the  Assembly  had  become  accustomed  to  great  latitude  and  lax 
discipline;  for  the  business  had  not  proceeded  far  before  the  several  branches 
of  the  government  were  at  variance.  Lloyd  refused  to  give  up  the  great  seal, 
alleging  that  it  had  been  given  him  for  life.  The  Governor,  arbitra- 
rily and  without  warrant  of  law,  imprisoned  officers  of  high  rank,  denied  the 
validity  of  all  laws  passed  by  the  Assembly  previous  to  his  administration,  and 
set  on  foot  a  project  for  organizing  and  equipping  the  militia,  under  the  plea 
of  threatened  hostility  of  France.  The  Assembly  attempted  to  arrest  his 
proceedings,  but  he  shrewdly  evaded  their  intents  by  organizing  a  party 
among  the  members,  who  persistently  absented  themselves.  His  reign 
was  short,  for  in  January,  1690,  he  left  the  colony  and  sailed  away  for  En- 
gland, whereupon  the  government  again  devolved  upon  the  Council,  Thomas 
Lloyd,  President.  Penn  had  a  high  estimation  of  the  talents  and  integrity 
of  Blackwell,  and  adds,  "  He  is  in  England  and  Ireland  of  great  repute  for 
ability,  integrity  and  virtue." 

Three  forms  of  administering  the  executive  department  of  the  government 
had  now  been  tried,  by  a  Council  consisting  of  eighteen  members,  a  commission  of 
five  members,  and  a  Lieutenant  Governor.  Desirous  of  leaving  the  government 
as  far  as  possible  in  the  hands  of  the  people  who  were  the  sources  of  all 
power,  Penn  left  it  to  the  Council  to  decide  which  form  should  be  adopted. 
The  majority  decided  for  a  Deputy  Governor.  This  was  opposed  by  the  mem- 
bers from  the  provinces,  who  preferred  a  Council,  and  who,  finding  themselves 
outvoted,  decided  to  withdraw,  and  determined  for  themselves  to  govern  the 
lower  counties  until  Penn  should  come.  This  obstinacy  and  falling  out  be- 
tween the  councilors  from  the  lower  counties  and  those  from  the  province 
was  the  beginning  of  a  controversy  which  eventuated  in  a  separation,  and 
finally  in  the  formation  of  Delaware  as  a  separate  commonwealth.  A  deputa- 
tion from  the  Council  was  sent  to  New  Castle  to  induce  the  seceding  members 
to  return,  but  without  success.  They  had  never  regarded  with  favor  the  re- 
moval of  the  sittings  of  the  Council  from  New  Castle,  the  first  seat  of  gov- 
ernment, to  Philadelphia,  and  they  were  now  determined  to  set  up  a  govern- 
ment for  themselves. 


In  1689,  the  Friends  Public  School  in  Philadelphia  was  first  incorporated, 
confirmed  by  a  patent  from  Penn  in  1701,  and  another  in  1708,  and  finarlly, 
with  greatly  enlarged  powers,  from  Penn  personally,  November  29,  171 1.  The 
preamble  to  the  charter  recites  that  as  "the  prosperity  and  welfare  oE  any 
people  depend,  in  great  measure,  upon  the  good  education  of  youth,  and  their 
early  introduction  in  the  principles  of  true  religion  and  virtue,  and  qualifying 
them  to  serve  their  country  and  themselves,  by  breeding  them  in  reading, 
writing,  and  learning  of  languages  and  useful  arts  and  sciences  suitable  to 
their  sex,  age  and  degree,  which  cannot  be  effected  in  any  manner  so  well  as 
by  erecting  public  schools,"  etc.  George  Keith  was  employed  as  the  first  mas- 
ter of  this  school.  He  was  a  native  of  Aberdeen,  Scotland,  a  man  of  learning, 
and  had  emigrated  to  East  Jersey  some  years  previous,  where  he  was  Surveyor 
General,  and  had  surveyed  and  marked  the  line  between  East  and  West  New 
Jersey.  He  only  remained  at  the  head  of  the  school  one  year,  when  he  was 
succeeded  by  his  usher,  Thomas  Makin.  This  was  a  school  of  considerable 
merit  and  pretension,  where  the  higher  mathematics  and  the  ancient  lan- 
guages were  taught,  and  was  the  first  of  this  high  grade.  A  school  of  a  pri- 
mary grade  had  been  established  as  early  as  1683,  in  Philadelphia,  when 
Enoch  Flower  taught  on  the  following  terms:  "To  learn  to  read  English, 
four  shillings  by  the  quarter;  to  write,  six  shillings  by  ditto;  to  read,  write  and 
cast  accounts,  eight  shillings  by  the  quarter;  boarding  a  scholar,  that  is  to 
say,  diet,  lodging,  washing  and  schooling,  £10  for  one  whole  year,"'  from  which 
it  will  be  seen  that  although  learning  might  be  highly  prized,  its  cost  in 
hard  cash  was  not  exorbitant. 

Penn's  favor  at  court  during  the  reign  of  James  II  caused  him  to  be  sus- 
pected of  disloyalty  to  the  government  when  William  and  Mary  had  come  to 
the  throne.  Accordingly  on  the  10th  of  December,  1688,  while  walking  in 
White  Hall,  he  was  summoned  before  the  Lords  of  the  Council,  and  though 
nothing  was  found  against  him,  was  compelled  to  give  security  for  his  appear- 
ance at  the  next  term,  to  answer  any  charge  that  might  be  made.  At  the  sec- 
ond sitting  of  the  Council  nothing  having  been  found  against  him,  he  was 
cleared  in  open  court'.  In  1690,  he  was  again  brought  before  the  Lords  on 
the  charge  of  having  been  in  correspondence  with  the  late  King.  He  ap- 
pealed to  King  William.,  who,  after  a  hearing  of  two  hours,  was  disposed  to 
release  him,  but  the  Lords  decided  to  hold  him  until  the  Trinity  term,  when 
he  was  again  discharged.  A  third  time  he  was  arraigned,  and  this  time  with 
eighteen  others,  charged  with  adhering  to  the  kingdom's  enemies,  but  was 
cleared  by  order  of  the  King's  Bench.  Being  now  at  liberty,  and  these  vexa- 
tious suits  apparently  at  an  end,  he  set  about  leading  a  large  party  of  settlers 
to  his  cherished  Pennsylvania.  Proposals  were  published,  and  the  Govern- 
ment, regarding  the  enterprise  of;  so  much  importance,  had  ordered  an  armed 
convoy,  when  he  was  again  met  by  another  accusation,  and  now,  backed  by 
the  false  oath  of  one  William  Fuller,  whom  the  Parliament  subsequently  de- 
clared a  "cheat  and  an  imposter."  Seeing  that  he  must  prepare  again  for  his 
defense,  he  abandoned  his  voyage  to  America,  after  having  made  expensive 
preparations,  and  convinced  that  his  enemies  were  determined  to  prevent  his 
attention  to  public  or  privato  affairs,  whether  in  England  or  America,  he  with- 
drew himself  during  the  ensuing  two  or  three  years  from  the  public  eye. 

But  though  not  participating  in  business,  which  was  calling  loudly  for  his 
attention,  his  mind  was  busy,  and  several  important  treatises  upon  religious 
and  civil  matters  were  produced  that  had  great  influence  upon  the  turn  of 
public  affairs,  which  would  never  have  been  written  but  for  this  forced  retire- 
ment.     In  his  address  to  the  yearly  meeting  of  Friends  in  London,  he  says: 


"  My  enemies  are  yours.      My  privacy  is  not   because  men  have  sworn  truly, 
but  falsely  against  me. " 

His  personal  grievances  in  England  were  the  least  which  he  suffered.  For 
lack  of  guiding  influence,  bitter  dissensions  had  sprung  up  in  his  colony, 
which  threatened  the  loss  of  all.  Desiring  to  secure  peace,  he  had  commis- 
sioned Thomas  Lloyd  Deputy  Governor  of  the  province,  and  William  Mark- 
ham  Deputy  Governor  of  tbe  lower  counties.  Penn's  grief  on  account  of  this 
division  is  disclosed  in  a  letter  to  a  friend  in  the  province:  "I  Jeft  it  to  them, 
to  choose  either  the  government  of  the  Council,  five  Commissioners- or  a  deputy. 
What  could  be  tenderer?  Now  I  perceive  Thomas  Lloyd  is  chosen  by  the 
three  upper,  but  not  the  three  lower  counties,  and  sits  down  with  this  broken 
choice.  This  has  grieved  and  wounded  me  and  mine,  I  fear  to  the  hazard  of 
aU  I  *  *  *  for  else  the  Governor  of  New  York  is  like  to  have  all,  if  he 
has  it  not  already." 

But  the  troubles  of  Penn  in  America  were  not  confined  to  civil  affairs' 
His  religious  society  was  torn  with  dissension.  George  Keith,  a  man  of  con- 
siderable power  in  argumentation,  but  of  overweaning  self -conceit,  attacked  the 
Friends  for  the  laxity  of  their  discipline,  and  drew  off  some  followers.  So 
venomous  did  he  become  that  on  the  20th  of  April,  1692,  a  testimony  of  de- 
nial was  drawn  up  against  him  at  a  meeting  of  ministers,  wherein  he  and  his 
conduct  were  publicly  disowned.  This  was  confirmed  at  the  next  yearly  meet- 
ing. He  drew  off  large  numbers  and  set  up  an  independent  society,  who 
termed  themselves  Christian  Quakers.  Keith  appealed  from  this  action  of  the 
American  Church  to  the  yearly  meeting  in  London,  but  was  so  intemperate  in 
speech  that  the  action  of  the  American  Church  was  confirmed.  Whereupon 
he  became  the  bitter  enemy  of  the  Quakers,  and,  uniting  with  the  Church  of 
England,  was  ordained  a  Vicar  by  the  Bishop  of  London.  He  afterward  re- 
turned to  America  where  he  wrote  against  his  former  associates,  but  was  final- 
ly fixed  in  a  benefice  in  Sussex,  England.  On  his  death  bed,  he  said,  "  I  wish 
I  had  died  when  I  was  a  Quaker,  for  then  I  am  sure  it  would  have  been  well 
with  my  soul." 

But  Keith  had  not  been  satisfied  with  attacking  the  principles  and  prac- 
tices of  his  church.  He  mercilessly  lampooned  the  Lieutenant  Governor,  say- 
ing that  :jHe  was  not  fit  to  be  a  Governor,  and  his  name  would  stink,"  and  of 
the  Council,  that  "He  hoped  to  God  he  should  shortly  see  their  power  taken 
from  them."  On  another  occasion,  he  said  of  Thomas  Lloyd,  who  was  reputed 
a  mild-tempered  man,  and  had  befriended  Keith,  that  he  was  "  an  impu- 
dent man  and  a  pitiful  Governor,''  and  asked  him  "why  he  did  not  send  him 
to  jail,"  saying  that  "his  back  (Keith's)  had  long  itched  for  a  whipping,  and 
that  he  would  print  and  expose  them  all  over  America,  if  not  over  Europe. " 
So  abusive  had  he  finally  become  that  the  Council  was  obliged  to  take  notice 
of  his  conduct  and  to  warn  him  to  desist. 

Penn,  as  has  been  shown,  was  silenced  and  thrown  into  retirement  in  En- 
gland. It  can  be  readily  seen  what  an  excellent  opportunity  these  troubles 
in  America,  the  separation  in  the  government,  and  the  schism  in  the  church, 
gave  his  enemies  to  attack  him.  They  represented  that  he  had  neglected  his 
colony  by  remaining  in  England  and  meddling  with  matters  in  which  he  had 
no  business-,  that  the  colony  in  consequence  had  fallen  into  great  disorder, 
and  that  ho  should  be  deprived  of  his  proprietary  rights.  These  complaints 
had  so  much  weight  with  William  and  Mary,  that,  on  the  21st  of  October,  1692, 
they  commissioned  Benjamin  Fletcher,  Governor  of  New  York,  to  take  the 
province  and  territories  under  his  government.  There  was  another  motive 
operating  at  this  time,  more  potent  than  those  mentioned  above,  to  induce  the 


King  and  Queen  to  put  the  government  of  Pennsylvania  under  the  Governor 
of  New  York.  The  French  and  Indians  from  the  north  were  threatening  the 
English.  Already  the  expense  for  defense  had  become  burdensome  to  New 
York.  It  was  believed  that  to  ask  aid  for  the  common  defense  from  Penn, 
with  his  peace  principles,  would  be  fruitless,  but  that  through  the  influence  of 
Gov.  Fletcher,  as  executive,  an  appropriation  might  be  secured. 

Upon  receiving  his  commission,  Gov.  Fletcher  sent  a  note,  dated  April  19, 
1693,  to  Deputy  Gov.  Lloyd,  informing  him  of  the  grant  of  the  royal  commis- 
sion and  of  his  intention  to  visit  the  colony  and  assume  authority  on  the  29th 
inst.  He  accordingly  came  with  great  pomp  and  splendor,  attended  by  a 
numerous  retinue,  and  soon  after  his  arrival,  submission  to  him  having  been 
accorded  without  question,  summoned  the  Assembly.  Some  differences  having 
arisen  between  the  Governor  and  tbe  Assembly  about  the  manner  of  calling  and 
electing  the  Representatives,  certain  members  united  in  an  address  to  the  Gov- 
ernor, claiming  that  the  constitution  and  laws  were  still  in  full  force  and 
must  be  administered  until  altered  or  repealed;  that;  Pennsylvania  had  just  as 
good  a  right  to  be  governed  according  to  the  usages  of  Pennsylvania  as  New 
York  had  to  be  governed  according  to  the  usages  of  that  province.  The  Leg- 
islature being  finally  organized,  Gov.  Fletcher  presented  a  letter  from  the 
Queen,  setting  forth  that  the  expense  for  the  preservation  and  defense  of  Albany 
against  the  French  was  intolerable  to  the  inhabitants  there,  and  that  as  this 
was  a  frontier  to  other  colonies,  it  was  thought  but  just  that  they  should  help 
bear  the  burden.  The  Legislature,  in  firm  but  respectful  terms,  maintained 
that  the  constitution  and  laws  enacted  under  them  were  in  full  force,  and 
when  he,  having  flatly  denied  this,  attempted  to  intimidate  them  by  the  threat 
of  annexing  Pennsylvania  to  New  York,  they  mildly  but  firmly  requested  that 
if  the  Governor  had  objections  to  the  bill  which  they  had  passed  and  would 
communicate  them,  they  would  try  to  remove  them.  The  business  was  now 
amicably  adjusted,  and  he  in  compliance  with  their  wish  dissolved  the  Assembly, 
and  after  appointing  William  Markham  Lieutenant  Governor,  departed  to  his 
government  in  New  York,  doubtless  well  satisfied  that  a  Quaker,  though  usu- 
ally mild  mannered,  is  not  easily  frightened  or  coerced. 

Gov.  Fletcher  met  the  Assembly  again  in  March,  1694,  and  during  this 
session,  having  apparently  failed  in  his  previous  endeavors  to  induce  the  Assem- 
bly to  vote  money  for  the  common  defense,  sent  a  communication  setting  forth 
the  dangers  to  be  apprehended  from  the  French  and  Indians,  and  concluding  in 
these  words :  "That  he  considered  their  principles ;  that  they  could  not  carry  arms 
nor  levy  money  to  make  war,  though  for  their  own  defense,  yet  he  hoped  that 
they  would  not  refuse  to  feed  the  hungry  and  clothe  the  naked;  that  was  to 
supply  the  Indian  nations  with  such  necessaries  as  may  influence  their  contin- 
ued friendship  to  their  provinces."  But  notwithstanding  the  adroit  sugar- 
coating  of  the  pill,  it  was  not  acceptable  and  no  money  was  voted.  This  and  a 
brief  session  in  September  closed  the  Governorship  of  Pennsylvania  by 
Fletcher.  It  would  appear  from  a  letter  written  by  Penn,  after  hearing  of 
the  neglect  of  the  Legislature  to  vote  money  for  the  purpose  indicated,  that 
he  took  an  entirely  different  view  of  the  subject  from  that  which  was  antici- 
pated; for  he  blamed  the  colony  for  refusing  to  send  money  to  New  York  for 
what  he  calls  the  common  defense. 

Through  the  kind  offices  of  Lords  Rochester,  Raoelagh,  Sidney  and  Somers, 
the  Duke  of  Buckingham  and  Sir  John  Trenchard,  the  king  was  asked  to 
h^ar  the  case  of  William  Penn,  against  whom  no  charge  was  proven,  and  who 
would  two  years  before  have  gone  to  his  colony  had  he  not  supposed  that  he 
would  have  been  thought  to  go  in  defiance  of  the  government.     King  William 


answered  that  William  Penn  was  his  old  acquaintance  as  well  as  theirs,  that 
he  might  follow  his  business  as  freely  as  ever,  and  that  he  had  nothing  to  say 
to  him.  Penn  was  accordingly  reinstated  in  his  government  by  letters  patent 
dated  on  the  20th  of  August,  1694,  whereupon  he  commissioned  William  Mark- 
ham  Lieutenant  Governor. 

When  Markham  called  the  Assembly,  he  disregarded  the  provisions  of  the 
charter,  assuming  that  the  removal  of  Penn  had  annulled  the  grant.  The 
Assembly  made  no  objection  to  this  action,  as  there  were  provisions  in  the  old 
charter  that  they  desired  to  have  changed.  Accordingly,  when  the  appropria- 
tion bill  was  considered,  a  new  constitution  was  attached  to  it  and  passed. 
This  was  approved  by  Markham  and  became  the  organic  law,  the  third  consti- 
tution adopted  under  the  charter  of  King  Charles.  By  the  provisions  of  this 
instrument,  the  Council  was  composed  of  twelve  members,  and  the  Assembly 
of  twenty-four.  During  the  war  between  France  and  England,  the  ocean 
swarmed  with  the  privateers  of  the  former.  When  peace  was  declared,  many  of 
these  crafts,  which  had  richly  profited  by  privateering,  were  disposed  to  con- 
tinue their  irregular  practices,  which  was  now  piracy.  Judging  that  the  peace 
principles  of  the  Quakers  would  shield  them  from  forcible  seizure,  they  were 
accustomed  to  run  into  the  Delaware  for  safe  harbor.  Complaints  coming 
of  the  depredations  of  these  parties,  a  proclamation  was  issued  calling  oa 
magistrates  and  citizens  to  unite  in  breaking  up  practices  so  damaging  to  the 
good  name  of  the  colony.  It  was  charged  in  England  that  evil-disposed  per- 
sons in  the  province  were  privy  to  these  practices,  if  not  parties  to  it,  and  that 
the  failure  of  the  Government  to  break  it  up  was  a  proof  of  its  inefficiency, 
and  of  a  radical  defect  of  the  principles  on  which  it  was  based.  Penn  was 
much  exercised  by  these  charges,  and  in  his  letters  to  the  Lieutenant  Governor 
and  to  his  friends  in  the  Assembly,  urged  ceaseless  vigilance  to  effect  reform. 


William    Penn,    1699-1701— Andrew      Hamilton,    1701-3— Edward    Shippen 
1703-4— John  Evans,  1704-9— Charles  Gookin,  1709-17. 

BEING  free  from  harassing  persecutions,  and  in  favor  at  court,  Penn  de- 
termined to  remove  with  his  family  to  Pennsylvania,  and  now  with  the  ex- 
pectation of  living  and  dying  h«re.  Accordingly,  in  July,  1699,  he  set  sail, 
and,  on  account  of  adverse  winds,  was  three  months  tossed  about  upon  the 
ocean.  Just  before  his  arrival  in  his  colony,  the  yellow  fever  raged  there  with 
great  virulence,  having  been  brought  thither  from  the  West  Indies,  but  had 
been  checked  by  the  biting  frosts  of  autumn,  and  had  now  disappeared.  An 
observant  traveler,  who  witnessed  the  effects  of  this  scourge,  writes  thus  of  it 
in  his  journal:  "  Great  was  the  majesty  and  hand  of  the  Lord.  Great  was 
the  fear  that  fell  upon  all  flesh.  I  saw  no  lofty  nor  airy  countenance,  nor 
heard  any  vain  jesting  to  move  men  to  laughter,  nor  witty  repartee  to  raise 
mirth,  nor  extravagant  feasting  to  excite  the  lusts  and  desires  of  the  flesh 
above  measure;  but  every  face  gathered  paleness,  and  many  hearts  were  hum- 
bled, and  countenances  fallen  and  sunk,  as  such  that  waited  every  moment  to 
be  summoned  to  the  bar  and  numbered  to  the  grave. " 

Great  joy  was  everywhere  manifested  throughout  the  province  at  the  arriv- 


al  of  the  proprietor  and  his  family,  fondly  believing  that  he  had  now  come  to 
stay.  He  met  the  Assembly  soon  after  landing,  but,  it  being  an  inclement 
season,  he  only  detained  them  long  enough  to  pass  two  measures  aimed  against 
piracy  and  illicit  trade,  exaggerated  reports  of  which,  having  been  spread 
broadcast  through  the  kingdom,  had  caused  him  great  uneasiness  and  vexation. 
At  the  first  monthly  meeting  of  Friends  in  1700,  he  laid  before  them  his 
concern,  which  was  for  the  welfare  of  Indians  and  Negroes,  and  steps  were 
taken  to  instruct  them  and  provide  stated  meetings  for  them  where  they  could 
hear  the  "Word.  It  is  more  than  probable  that  he  had  fears  from  the  first  that 
his  enemies  in  England  would  interfere  in  his  affairs  to  such  a  degree  as  to  re- 
quire his  early  return,  though  he  had  declared  to  his  friends  there  that  he 
never  expected  to  meet  them  again.  His  greatest  solicitude,  consequently, 
was  to  give  a  charter  to  his  colony,  and  also  one  to  his  city,  the  very  best  that 
human  ingenuity  could  devise.  An  experience  of  now  nearly  twenty  years 
would  be  likely  to  develop  the  weaknesses  and  impracticable  provisions  of  the 
first  constitutions,  so  that  a  frame  now  drawn  with  all  the  light  of  the  past, 
and  by  the  aid  and  suggestion  of  the  men  who  had  been  employed  in  admin- 
istering it,  would  be  likely  to  be  enduring,  and  though  he  might  be  called 
hence,  or  be  removed  by  death,  their  work  would  live  on  from  generation  to 
generation  and  age  to  age,  and  exert  a  benign  and  preserving  influence  while 
the  State  should  exist. 

In  February,  1701,  Penn  met  the  most  renowned  and  powerful  of  the  In- 
dian chief  tains,  reaching  out  to  the  Potomac,  the  Susquehanna  and  to  the  Ononda- 
goes  of  the  Five  Nations,  some  forty  in  number,  at  Philadelphia,  where  he 
renewed  with  them  pledges  of  peace  and  entered  into  a  formal  treaty  of  active 
friendship,  binding  them  to  disclose  any  hostile  intent,  confirm  sale  of  lands, 
be  governed  by  colonial  law,  all  of  which  was  confirmed  on  the  part  of  the  In- 
dians "by  five  parcels  of  skins;"  and  on  the  part  of  Penn  by  "several English 
goods  and  merchandises." 

Several  sessions  of  the  Legislature  were  held  in  which  great  harmony  pre- 
vailed, and  much  attention  was  giving  to  revising  and  recomposing  the  consti- 
tution. But  in  the  midst  of  their  labors  for  the  improvement  of  the  organic 
law,  intelligence  was  brought  to  Penn  that  a  bill  had  been  introduced  in  the 
House  of  Lords  for  reducing  all  the  proprietary  governments  in  America  to 
regal  ones,  under  pretence  of  advancing  the  prerogative  of  the  crown,  and 
the  national  advantage.  Such  of  the  owners  of  land  in  Pennsylvania  as  hap- 
pened to  be  in  England,  remonstrated  against  action  upon  the  bill  until  Penn 
could  return  and  be  heard,  and  wrote  to  him  urging  his  immediate  coming 
hither.  Though  much  to  his  disappointment  and  sorrow,  he  determined  to 
go  immediately  thither.  He  promptly  called  a  session  of  the  Assembly,  and 
in  his  message  to  the  two  Houses  said,  "I  cannot  think  of  such  a  voyage 
without  great  reluctancy  of  mind,  having  promised  myself  the  quietness  of  a 
wilderness.  For  my  heart  is  among  you,  and  no  disappointment  shall  ever  be 
able  to  alter  my  love  to  the  country,  and  resolution  to  return,  and  settle  my 
family  and  posterity  in  it.  *  *  Think  therefore  (since  all  men  are  mortal), 
of  some  suitable  expedient  and  provision  for  your  safety  as  well  in  your  privi- 
leges as  property.  Review  again  your  laws,  propose  new  ones,  and  you  will 
find  me  ready  to  comply  with  whatsoever  may  render  us  happy,  by  a  nearer 
union  of  our  interests."  The  Assembly  returned  a  suitable  response,  and  then 
proceeded  to  draw  up  twenty-one  articles.  The  first  related  to  ttie  appoint- 
ment of  a  Lieutenant  Governor.  Penn  proposed  that  the  Assembly  should 
choose  one.  But  this  they  declined,  preferring  that  he  should  appoint  one. 
Little  trouble  was  experienced  in  settling  everything  broached,  except   the 


union  of  the  province  and  lower  counties.  Penn  used  his  best  endeavors  to 
reconcile  them  to  the  union,  but  without  avail.  The  new  constitution  was 
adopted  on  the  28th  of  October,  1701.  The  instrument  provided  for  the 
union,  but  in  a  supplementary  article,  evidently  granted  with  great  reluctance, 
it  was  provided  that  the  province  and  the  territories  might  be  separated  at  any 
time  within  three  years.  As  his  last  act  before  leaving,  he  presented  the  city 
of  Philadelphia,  now  grown  to  be  a  considerable  place,  and  always  an  object 
of  his  affectionate  regard,  with  a  charter  of  privileges.  As  his  Deputy,  ho  ap- 
pointed Andrew  Hamilton,  one  of  the  proprietors  of  East  New  Jersey,  and 
sometime  Governor  of  both  East  and  AY  est  Jersey,  and  for  Secretary  of  the 
province  and  Clerk  of  the  Council,  he  selected  James  Logau,  a  man  of  sin- 
gular urbanity  and  strength  of  mind,  and  withal  a  scholar. 

Penn  set  sail  for  Europe  on  the  1st  of  November,  1701.  Soon  after  his 
arrival,  on  the  18th  of  January,  1702,  King  William  died,  and  Anne  of  Den- 
mark succeeded  him.  He  now  found  himsolf  in  favor  at  court,  and  that  he 
might  be  convenient  to  the  royal  residence,  he  again  took  lodgings,  at  Kensing- 
ton. The  bill  which  had  been  pending  before  Parliament,  that  had  given  him 
so  much  uneasiness,  was  at  the  succeeding  session  dropped  entirely,  and  was 
never  again  called  up.  During  his  leisure  hours,  be  now  busied  himself  in 
writing    "several  useful  and   excellent  treatises  on  divers  subjects." 

Gov.  Hamilton's  administration  continued  only  till  December,  1702,  when 
he  died.  He  was  earnest  in  his  endeavors  to  induce  the  territories  to  unite 
with  the  province,  they  having  as  yet  not  accepted  the  new  charter,  alleging 
that  they  had  three  years  in  which  to  make  their  decision,  but  without  success. 
He  also  organized  a  military  force,  of  which  George  Lowther  was  commander, 
for  the  safety  of  the  colony. 

The  executive  authority  now  devolved  upon  the  Council,  of  which  Edward 
Shippen  was  President.  Conflict  of  authority,  and  contention  over  the  due  in- 
terpretation of  some  provisions  of  the  new  charter,  prevented  the  accomplish- 
ment of  much,  by  way  of  legislation,  in  the  Assembly  which  convened  in  1703; 
though  in  this  body  it  was  finally  determined  that  the  lower  counties  should 
thereafter  act  separately  in  a  legislative  capacity.  This  separation  proved 
final,  the  two  bodies  never  again  meeting  in  common. 

Though  the  bill  to  govern  the  American  Colonies  by  regal  authority  failed, 
yet  the  clamor  of  those  opposed  to  the  proprietary  Governors  was  so  strong 
that  an  act  was  finally  passed  requiring  the  selection  of  deputies  to  have  the 
royal  assent.  Hence,  in  choosing  a  successor  to  Hamilton,  he  was  obliged  to 
consider  the  Queen's  wishes.  John  Evans,  a  man  of  parts,  of  Welsh  extrac- 
tion, only  twenty-six  years  old,  a  member  of  the  Queen's  household,  and  not  a 
Quaker,  nor  even  of  exemplary  morals,  was  appointed,  who  arrived  in  the  col- 
ony in  December,  1703.  He  was  accompanied  by  William  Penn,  Jr.,  who  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  Council,  the  number  having  been  increased  by  author- 
ity of  the  Governor,  probably  with  a  view  to  his  election. 

The  first  care  of  Evans  was  to  unite  the  province  and  lower  counties, 
though  the  final  separation  had  been  agreed  to.  He  presented  the  matter  so 
well  that  the  lower  counties,  from  which  the  difficulty  had  always  come,  were 
willing  to  return  to  a  firm  union.  But  now  the  provincial  Assembly,  having 
become  impatient  of  the  obstacles  thrown  in  the  way  of  legislation  by  the  dele- 
gates from  these  counties,  was  unwilling  to  receive  them.  They  henceforward 
remained  separate  in  a  legislative  capacity,  though  still  a  part  of  Pennsylvania, 
under  the  claim  of  Penn,  and  ruled  by  the  same  Governor,  and  thus  they  con- 
tinued until  the  20th  of  September,  1776,  when  a  constitution  was  adopted, 
and    they  were   proclaimed  a   separate    State  under  the  name  of   Delaware, 


During  two  years  of  the  government  of  Evans,  there  was  ceaseless  discord  be- 
tween the  Council,  headed  by  the  Governor  and  Secretary  Logan  on  the  one 
side,  and  the  Assembly  led  by  David  Lloyd,  its  Speaker,  on  the  other,  and 
little  legislation  was  effected. 

Realizing  the  defenseless  condition  of  the  colony,  Evans  determined  to 
organize  the  militia,  and  accordingly  issued  his  proclamation.  "In  obedience 
to  her  Majesty's  royal  command,  and  to  the  end  that  the  inhabitants  of  this 
government  may  be  in  a  posture  of  defense  and  readiness  to  withstand  and 
repel  all  acts  of  hostility,  I  do  hereby  strictly  command  and  require  all  per- 
sons residing  in  this  government,  whose  persuasions  will,  on  any  account,  per- 
mit them  to  take  up  arms  in  their  own  defense,  that  forthwith  they  do  pro- 
vide themselves  with  a  good  firelock  and  ammunition,  in  order  to  enlist  them- 
selves in  the  militia,  which  I  am  now  settling  in  this  government. "  The  Gov- 
ernor evidently  issued  this  proclamation  in  good  faith,  and  with  a  pure  pur- 
pose. The  French  and  Indians  had  assumed  a  threatening  aspect  upon  the  north, 
and  while  the  other  colonies  had  assisted  New  York  liberally,  Pennsylvania  had 
done  little  or  nothing  for  the  common  defense.  But  his  call  fell  stillborn. 
The  "  fire-locks"  were  not  brought  out,  and  none  enlisted. 

Disappointed  at  this  lack  of  spirit,  and  embittered  by  the  factious  temper  of 
the  Assembly,  Evans,  who  seems  not  to  have  had  faith  in  the  religious  prin- 
ciples of  the  Quakers,  and  to  have  entirely  mistook  the  nature  of  their  Christian 
zeal,  formed  a  wild  scheme  to  test  their  steadfastness  under  the  pressure  of 
threatened  danger.  In  conjunction  with  his  gay  associates  in  revel,  he  agreed 
to  have  a  false  alarm  spread  of  the  approach  of  a  hostile  force  in  the  river, 
whereupon  he  was  to  raise  the  alarm  in  the  city.  Accordingly,  on  the  day  of 
the  fair  in  Philadelphia,  16th  of  March,  1706,  a  messenger  came,  post  haste 
from  New  Castle,  bringing  the  startling  intelligence  that  an  armed  fleet  of  the 
enemy  was  already  in  the  river,  and  making  their  way  rapidly  toward  the  city. 
Whereupon  Evans  acted  his  part  to  a  nicety.  He  sent  emissaries  through  the 
town  proclaiming  the  dread  tale,  while  he  mounted  his  horse,  and  in  an  ex- 
cited manner,  and  with  a  drawn  sword,  rode  through  the  streets,  calling  upon  all 
good  men  and  true  to  rush  to  arms  for  the  defense  of  their  homes,  their  wives 
and  children,  and  all  they  held  dear.  The  rase  whs  so  well  played  that  it 
had  an  immense  effect.  "  The  suddenness  of  the  surprise,'"  says  Proud,  "  with 
the  noise  of  precipitation  consequent  thereon,  threw  many  of  the  people  into 
very  great  fright  and  consternation,  insomuch  that  it  is  said  some  threw  their 
plate  and  most  valuable  effects  down  their  wells  and  little  houses;  that  others 
hid  themselves,  in  the  best  manner  they  could,  while  many  retired  further  up 
the  river,  with  what  they  could  most  readily  carry  off;  so  that  some  of  the 
creeks  seemed  full  of  boats  and  small  craft;  those  of  a  larger  size  running  as 
far  as  Burlington,  and  some  higher  up  the  river;  several  women  are  said  to 
have  miscarried  by  the  fright  and  terror  into  which  they  were  thrown,  and 
much  mischief  ensued." 

The   more    thoughtful    of    the   people    are    said  to   have   understood  the 

deceit  from  the  first,  and  labored  to    allay  the    excitement;  but  the  seeming 

earnestness  of  the  Governor  and  the  zeal  of  his  emissaries  so  worked  upon  the 

more  inconsiderate    of  the   population  that  the  consternation  and  commotion 

was  almost  past  belief.     In  an  almanac  published  at  Philadelphia  for  the  next 

year  opposite  this  date  was  this  distich: 

"Wise  men  wonder.  good  men  grieve, 
Knaves  invent  find  tools  believe." 

Though  this  ruse  was   played  upon  all  classes  alike,  yet  it  was  generally 

believed  to  have  been  aimed  chiefly  at  the  Quakers,  to  trv  the  force  of  their 


principles,  and  see  if  they  would  not  rush  to  arms  when  danger  should  really 
appear.  But  in  this  the  Governor  was  disappointed.  For  it  is  said  that  only 
four  out  of  the  entire  population  of  this  religious  creed  showed  any  disposition 
to  falsify  their  faith.  It  was  the  day  of  their  weekly  meeting,  and  regardless 
of  the  dismay  and  consternation  which  were  everywhere  manifest  about  them, 
they  assembled  in  their  accustomed  places  of  worship,  and  engaged  in  their 
devotions  as  though  nothing  unusual  was  transpiring  without,  manifesting 
such  unshaken  faith,  as  Whittier  has  exemplified  in  verse  by  his  Abraham 
Davenport,  on  the  occasion  of  the  Dark  Day : 

Meanwhile  in  the  old  State  House,  dim  as  ghosts, 

Sat  the  law-givers  of  Connecticut, 

Trembling  beneath  their  legislative  robes. 

It  is  the  Lord's  a;reat  day!  Let  us  adjourn,' 

Some  said;  and  then,  as  with  one  accord, 

All  eyes  were  turned  on  Abraham  Davenport. 

He  rose,  slow,  cleaving  with  his  steady  voice 

The  intolerable  hush.     '  This  well  may  be 

The  Day  of  Judgment  which  the  world  awaits; 

But  be  it  so  or  not,  I  only  know 

My  present  duty,  and  my  Lord's  command 

To  occupy  till  He  come.     So  at  the  post. 

Where  He  hath  set  me  in  His  Providence, 

I  choose,  for  one,  to  meet  Him  face  to  face. 

No  faithless  servant  frightened  from  my  task, 

But  ready  when  the  Lord  of  the  harvest  calls; 

And  therefore,  with  all  reverence,  I  would  say, 

Let  God  do  His  work,  we  will  see  to  ours. 

Bring  in  the  candles.'     And  thejr  brought  them  in." 

In  conjunction  with  the  Legislature  of  the  lower  counties,  Evans  was  in- 
strumental in  having  a  law  passed  for  the  imposition  of  a  tax  on  the  tonnage 
of  the  river,  and  the  erection  of  a  fort  near  the  town  of  New  Castle  for  com- 
pelling obedience.  This  was  in  direct  violation  of  the  fundamental  compact, 
and  vexatious  to  commerce.  It  was  at  length  forcibly  resisted,  and  its  impo- 
sition abandoned.  His  administration  was  anything  but  efficient  or  peaceful, 
a  series  of  contentions,  of  charges  and  counter-charges  having  been  kept  up 
between  the  leaders  of  the  two  factions,  Lloyd  and  Logan,  which  he  was  pow- 
erless to  properly  direct  or  control.  "  He  was  relieved  in  1709.  Possessed  of 
a  good  degree  of  learning  and  refinement,  and  accustomed  to  the  gay  society 
of  the  British  metropolis,  he  found  in  the  grave  and  serious  habits  of  the 
Friends  a  type  of  life  and  character  which  he  failed  to  comprehend,  and  with 
which  he  could,  consequently,  have  little  sympathy.  How  widely  he  mistook 
the  Quaker  character  is  seen  in  the  result  of  his  wild  and  hair- brained  experi- 
ment to  test  their  faith.  His  general  tenor  of  life  seems  to  have  been  of  a 
piece  with  this.  Watson  says:  'The  Indians  of  Connestoga  complained  of 
him  when  there  as  misbehaving  to  their  women,  and  that,  in  1709,  Solomon 
Cresson,  going  his  rounds  at  night,  entered  a  tavern  to  suppress  a  riotous  as- 
sembly, and  found  there  John  Evans,  Esq. ,  the  Governor,  who  fell  to  beat- 
ing Cresson.' " 

The  youth  and  levity  of  Gov.  Evans  induced  the  proprietor  to  seek  for  a 
successor  of  a  more  sober  and  sedate  character.  He  had  thought  of  proposing 
his  son,  but  finally  settled  upon  Col.  Charles  Gookin,  who  was  reputed  to  be  a 
man  of  wisdom  and  prudence,  though  as  was  afterward  learned,  to  the  sorrow 
of  the  colony,  he  was  subject  to  fits  of  derangement,  which  toward  the  close  of 
his  term  were  exhibited  in  the  most  extravagant  acts.  He  had  scarcely  ar- 
rived in  the  colony  before  charges  were  preferred  against  the  late  Governor, 
and  he  was  asked  to  institute  criminal  proceedings,  which  he  declined.      This 


was  the  occasion  of  a  renewal  of  contentions  between  the  Governor  and  his 
Council  and  the  Assembly,  which  continued  during  the  greater  pare  of  his  ad- 
ministration. In  the  midst  of  them,  Logan,  who  was  at  the  head  of  the  Coun- 
cil, having  demanded  a  trial  of  the  charges  against  him,  and  failed  to  secure 
one,  sailed  for  Europe,  where  he  presented  the  difficulties  experienced  in  ad- 
ministering the  government  so  strongly,  that  Penn  was  seriously  inclined  to 
sell  his  interest  in  the  colony.  He  had  already  greatly  crippled  his  estate  by 
expenses  he  had  incurred  in  making  costly  presents  to  the  natives,  and  in  set- 
tling his  colony,  for  which  he  had  received  small  return.  In  the  year  1707, 
he  had  become  involved  in  a  suit  in  chancery  with  the  executors  of  his  former 
steward,  in  the  course  of  which  he  was  confined  in  the  Old  Baily  during  this 
and  a  part  of  the  following  year,  when  he  was  obliged  to  mortgage  his  colony 
in  the  sum  of  £6,600  to  relieve  himself.  Foreseeing  the  great  consequence 
it  would  be  to  the  crown  to  buy  the  rights  of  the  proprietors  of  the  several 
English  colonies  in  America  before  they  would  grow  too  powerful,  negotia- 
tions had  been  entered  into  early  in  the  reign  of  William  and  Mary  for  their 
purchase,  especially  the  ''fine  province  of  Mr.  Penn."  Borne  down  by  these 
troubles,  and  by  debts  and  litigations  at  home,  Penn  seriously  entertained  the 
proposition  to  sell  in  1712,  and  offered  it  for  £20,000.  The  sum  of  £12,000 
was  offered  on  the  part  of  the  crown,  which  was  agreed  upon,  but  before  the 
necessary  papers  were  executed,  he  was  stricken  down  with  apoplexy,  by  which 
he  was  incapacitated  for  transacting  any  business,  and  a  stay  was  put  to  fur- 
ther proceedings  until  the  Queen  should  order  an  act  of  Parliament  for  con- 
summating the  purchase. 

It  is  a  mournful  spectacle  to  behold  the  great  mind  and  the  great  heart  of 
Penn  reduced  now  in  his  declining  years,  by  the  troubles  of  government  and 
by  debts  incurred  in  the  bettering  of  his  colony,  to  this  enfeebled  condition. 
He  was  at  the  moment  writing  to  Logan  on  public  affairs,  when  his  hand  was 
suddenly  seized  by  lethargy  in  the  beginning  of  a  sentence,  which  he  never 
finished.  His  mind  was  touched  by  the  disease,  which  he  never  recovered, 
and  after  lingering  for  six  years,  he  died  on  the  30th  of  May,  1718,  in  the 
seventy- fourth  year  of  his  age.  With  great  power  of  intellect,  and  a  religious 
devotion  scarcely  matched  in  all  Christendom,  he  gave  himself  to  the  welfare 
of  mankind,  by  securing  civil  and  religious  liberty  through  the  operations  of 
organic  law.  Though  not  a  lawyer  by  profession,  he  drew  frames  of  govern- 
ment and  bodies  of  laws  which  have  been  the  admiration  of  succeeding  gener* 
ations,  and  are  destined  to  exert  a  benign  influence  in  all  future  time,  and  by 
his  discussions  with  Lord  Baltimore  and  before  the  Lords  in  Council,  he 
showed  himself  familiar  with  the  abstruse  principles  of  law.  Though  but  a 
private  person  and  of  a  despised  sect,  he  was  received  as  the  friend  and  confi- 
dential advisee  of  the  ruling  sovereigns  of  England,  and  some  of  the  princi- 
ples which  give  luster  to  British  law  were  engrafted  there  through  the  influ- 
ence of  the  powerful  intellect  and  benignant  heart  of  Penn.  He  sought  to 
know  no  philosophy  but  that  promulgated  by  Christ  and  His  disciples,  and 
this  he  had  sounded  to  its  depths,  and  in  it  were  anchored  his  ideas  of  public 
law  and  private  and  social  living.  The  untamed  savage  of  the  forest  bowed  in 
meek  and  loving  simplicity  to  his  mild  and  resistless  sway,  and  the  members 
of  the  Society  of  Friends  all  over  Europe  flocked  to  his  City  of  Brotherly  Love. 
His  prayers  for  the  welfare  of  his  people  are  the  beginning  and  ending  of  all 
his  public  and  private  correspondence,  and  who  will  say  that  they'have  not 
been  answered  in  the  blessings  which  have  attended  the  commonwealth  of  his 
founding?  And  will  not  the  day  of  its  greatness  be  when  the  inhabitants 
throughout  all   its  borders  shall  return  to  the  peaceful  and  loving  spirit  of 


Penn?  In  the  midst  of  a  licentious  court,  and  with  every  prospect  of  advance- 
ment in  its  sunshine  and  favor,  inheriting  a  great  name  and  an  independent 
patrimony,  he  turned  aside  from  this  brilliant  track  to  make  common  lot  with 
a  poor  sect  under  the  ban  of  Government;  endured  stripes  and  imprisonment 
and  loss  of  property;  banished  himself  to  the  wilds  of  the  American  continent 
that  he  might  secure  to  his  people  those  devotions  which  seemed  to  them  re- 
quired by  their  Maker,  and  has  won  for  himself  a  name  by  the  simple  deeds  of 
love  and  humble  obedience  to  Christian  mandates  which  shall  never  perish. 
Many  have  won  renown  by  deeds  of  blood,  but  fadeless  glory  has  come  to 
William  Penn  by  charity. 


Sir  William  Keith,  1717-2  >— Patrick  Gordon,  1726-36— James  Logan,  1736-38 
—George  Thomas,  1738-47— Anthony  Palmer,  1747-48— James  Hamilton, 

IN  1712,  Penn  had  made  a  will,  by  which  he  devised  to  his  only  surviving 
son,  William,  by  his  first  marriage,  all  his  estates  in  England,  amounting 
to  some  twenty  thousand  pounds.  By  his  first  wife,  Gulielma  Maria  Springett, 
he  had  issue  of  three  sons — William,  Springett  and  William,  and  four  daugh- 
ters— Gulielma,  Margaret,  Gulielma  and  Letitia;  and  by  his  second  wif§, 
Hannah  Callowhill,  of  four  sons — John,  Thomas,  Richard  and  Dennis.  To 
his  wife  Hannah,  who  survived  him,  and  whom  he  made  the  sole  executrix  of 
his  will,  he  gave,  for  the  equal  benefit  of  herself  and  her  children,  all  his 
personal  estate  in  Pennsylvania  and  elsewhere,  after  paying  all  debts,  and 
alloting  ten  thousand  acres  of  land  in  the  Province  to  his  daughter  Letitia,  by 
his  first  marriage,  and  each  of  the  three  children  of  his  son  William. 

Doubts  having  arisen  as  to  the  force  of  the  provisions  of  this  will,  it  was 
finally  determined  to  institute  a  suit  in  chancery  for  its  determination.  Before 
a  decision  was  reached,  in  March,  1720,  William  Penn,  Jr.,  died,  and  while 
still  pending,  his  son  Springett  died  also.  During  the  long  pendency  of  this 
litigation  for  nine  vears,  Hannah  Penn,  as  executrix  of  the  will,  assumed  the 
proprietary  powers,  issued  instructions  to  her  Lieutenant  Governors,  heard 
complaints  and  settled  difficulties  with  the  skill  and  the  assurance  of  a  veteran 
diplomatist.  In  1727,  a  decision  was  reached  that,  upon  the  death  of  William 
Penn,  Jr.,  and  his  son  Springett,  the  proprietary  rights  in  Pennsylvania  de 
scended  to  the  three  surviving  sons — John,  Thomas  and  Richard — issue  by  the 
second  marriage;  and  that  the  proprietors  bargain  to  sell  his  province  to  the 
crown  for  twelve  thousand  pounds,  made  in  1712,  and  on  which  one  thousand 
pounds  had  been  paid  at  the  confirmation  of  the  sale,  was  void.  Whereupon 
the  three  sons  became  the  joint  proprietors. 

A  year  before  the  death  of  Penn,  the  lunacy  of  Gov.  Gookin  having  be- 
come troublesome,  he  was  succeeded  in  the  Government  by  Sir  William  Keith, 
a  Scotchman  who  had  served  as  Surveyor  of  Customs  to  the  English  Govern 
ment,  in  which  capacity  he  had  visited  Pennsylvania  previously,  and  knew 
something  of  its  condition.  He  was  a  man  of  dignified  and  commanding 
bearing,  endowed  with  cunning,  of  an  accommdating  policy,  full  of  faithful 
promises,  and  usually  found  upon  the  stronger  side.  Hence,  upon  his 
arrival    in    the   colony,    he   did    not   summon    the    Assembly    immediately, 


assigning  as  a  reason  in  his  first  message  that  he  did  not  wish  to  inconvenience 
the  country  members  by  calling  them  in  harvest  time.  The  disposition  thus 
manifested  to  favor  the  people,  and  his  advocacy  of  popular  rights  on  several 
occasions  in  opposition  to  the  claims  of  the  proprietor,  gave  great  satisfaction 
to  the  popular  branch  of  the  Legislature  which  manifested  its  appreciation  of 
his  conduct  by  voting  him  liberal  salaries,  which  had  often  been  withheld  from 
his  less  accommodating  predecessors.  By  his  artful  and  insinuating  policy, 
he  induced  the  Assembly  to  pass  two  acts  which  had  previously  met  with  un- 
compromising opposition — one  to  establish  a  Court  of  Equity,  with  himself  as- 
Chancellor,  the  want  of  which  had  been  seriously  felt;  and  another,  for  organ- 
izing the  militia.  Though  the  soil  was  fruitful  and  produce  was  plentiful, 
yet,  for  lack  of  good  markets,  and  on  account  of  the  meagerness  of  the  cir- 
culating medium,  prices  were  very  low,  the  toil  and  sweat  of  the  husbandman 
being  little  rewarded,  and  the  taxes  and  payments  on  land  were  met  with  great 
difficulty.  Accordingly,  arrangements  were  made  for  the  appointment  of  in- 
spectors of  provisions,  who,  from  a  conscientious  discharge  of  duty,  soon 
caused  the  Pennsylvania  brands  of  best  products  to  be  much  sought  for,  and 
to  command  ready  sale  at  highest  prices  in  the  West  Indies,  whither  most  of 
the  surplus  produce  was  exported.  A  provision  was  also  made  for  the  issue  of 
a  limited  amount  of  paper  money,  on  the  establishment  of  ample  securities, 
which  tended  to  raise  the  value  of  the  products  of  the  soil  and  of  manufact- 
ures, and  encourage  industry. 

By  the  repeated  notices  of  the  Governors  in  their  messages  to  the  Legis- 
lature previous  to  this  time,  it  is  evident  that  Indian  hostilities  had  for  some- 
time been  threatened.  The  Potomac  was  the  dividing  line  between  the 
Northern  and  Southern  Indians.  But  the  young  men  on  either  side,  when  out 
in  pursuit  of  game,  often  crossed  the  line  of  the  river  into  the  territory  of  the 
other,  when  fierce  altercations  ensued.  This  trouble  had  become  so 
violent  in  1719  as  to  threaten  a  great  Indian  war,  in  which  the  pow- 
erful confederation,  known  as  the  Five  Nations,  would  take  a  hand. 
To  avert  this  danger,  which  it  was  foreseen  would  inevitably  involve 
the  defenseless  familes  upon  the  frontier,  and  perhaps  the  entire  colony, 
Gov.  Keith  determined  to  use  his  best  exertions.  He  accordingly  made 
a  toilsome  journey  in  the  spring  of  1721  to  confer  with  the  Governor  of 
Virginia  and  endeavor  to  employ  by  concert  of  action  such  means  as  would 
allay  further  cause  of  contention.  His  policy  was  well  devised,  and  enlisted 
the  favor  of  the  Governor.  Soon  after  his  return,  he  summoned  a  council  of 
Indian  Chieftains  to  meet  him  at  Conestoga,  a  point  about  seventy  miles  west 
of  Philadelphia.  He  went  in  considerable  pomp,  attended  by  some  seventy 
or  eighty  horsemen,  gaily  caparisoned,  and  many  of  them  armed,  arriving 
about  noon,  on  the  4th  of  July,  not  then  a  day  of  more  note  than  other  days. 
He  went  immediately  to  Capt.  Civility's  cabin,  where  were  assembled  four 
deputies  of  the  Five  Nations  and  representatives  of  other  tribes.  The  Gov- 
ernor said  that  he  had  come  a  long  distance  from  home  to  see  and  speak  to 
representatives  of  the  Five  Nations,  who  had  never  met  the  Governor  of  Penn- 
sylvania. They  said  in  reply  that  they  had  heard  much  of  the  Governor,  and 
would  have  come  sooner  to  pay  him  their  respects,  but  that  the  wild  conduct  of 
some  of  their  young  men  had  made  them  ashamed  to  show  their  faces.  In  the 
formal  meeting  in  the  morning,  Ghesaont,  chief  of  the  Senecas,  spoke  for  all 
the  Five  Nations.  He  said  that  they  now  felt  that  they  were  speaking  to  the 
same  effect  that  they  would  were  William  Penn  before  them,  that  they  had  not 
forgotten  Penn,  nor  the  treaties  made  with  him,  and  the  good  advice  he  gave 
them;  that  though  they  could  not  write  as  do  the  English,  yet  they  could  keep 


all  these  transactions  fresh  in  their  memories.  After  laying  down  a  belt  of 
wampum  upon  the  table  as  if  by  way  of  emphasis,  he  began  again,  declaring 
that  "all  their  disorders  arose  from  the  use  of  rum  and  strong  spirits,  which 
took  away  their  sense  and  memory,  that  they  had  no  such  liquors,"  and  desired 
that  no  more  be  sent  among  them.  Here  he  produced  a  bundle  of  dressed 
skins,  by  which  he  would  say,  "you  see  how  much  in  earnest  we  are  upon  this 
matter  of  furnishing  fiery  liquors  to  us."  Then  he  proceeds,  declaring  that 
the  Five  Nations  remember  all  their  ancient  treaties,  and  they  now  desire  that 
the  chain  of  friendship  may  be  made  so  strong  that  none  of  the  links  may 
ever  be  broken.  This  may  have  been  a  hint  that  they  wanted  high-piled 
and  valuable  presents;  for  the  Quakers  had  made  a  reputation  of  brightening 
and  strengthening  the  chain  of  friendship  by  valuable  presents  which  had 
reached  so  far  away  as  the  Five  Nations.  He  then  produces  a  bundle  of  raw 
skins,  and  observes  "that  a  chain  may  contract  rust  with  laying  and  become 
weaker;  wherefore,  he  desires  it  may  now  be  so  well  cleaned  as  to  remain 
brighter  and  stronger  than  ever  it  was  before."  Here  he  presents  another  par- 
cel of  skins,  and  continues,  "  that  as  in  the  firmament,  all  clouds  and  dark- 
ness are  removed  from  the  face  of  the  sun,  so  they  desire  that  all  misunder- 
standings may  be  fully  done  away,  so  that  when  they,  who  are  now  here,  shall 
be  dead  aDd  gone,  their  whole  people,  with  their  children  and  posterity,  may  en- 
joy the  clear  sunshine  with  us  forever."  Presenting  another  bundle  of  skins, 
he  says,  "that,  locking  upon  the  Governor  as  if  William  Penn  were  present, 
they  desire,  that,  in  case  any  disorders  should  hereafter  happen  between  their 
young  people  and  ours,  we  would  not  be  too  hasty  in  resenting  any  such  acci- 
dent, until  their  Council  and  ours  can  have  some  opportunity  to  treat  amicably 
upon  it,  and  so  to  adjust  all  matters,  as  that  the  friendship  between  us  may 
still  be  inviolably  preserved."  Here  he  produces  a  small  parcel  of  dressed 
skins,  and  concludes  by  saying  "  that  we  may  now  be  together  as  one  people, 
treating  one  another's  children  kindly  and  affectionately,  that  they  are  fully 
empowered  to  speak  for  the  Five  Nations,  and  they  look  upon  the  Governor  as 
the  representative  of  the  Great  King  of  England,  and  therefore  they  expect 
that  everything  now  stipulated  will  be  made  absolutely  firm  and  good  on  both 
sides."  And  now  he  presents  a  different  style  of  present  and  pulls  out  a 
bundle  of  bear  skins,  and  proceeds  to  put  in  an  item  of  complaint,  that  "  they 
get  too  little  for  their  skins  and  furs,  so  that  they  cannot  live  by  hunting  ; 
they  desire  us,  therefore,  to  take  compassion  on  them,  and  contrive  some  way 
to  help  them  in  that  particular.  Then  producing  a  few  furs,  he  speaks  only 
for  himself,  "to  acquaint  the  Governor,  that  the  Five  Nations  having  heard 
that  the  Governor  of  Virginia  wanted  to  speak  with  them,  he  himself,  with 
some  of  his  company  intended  to  proceed  to  Virginia,  but  do  not  know  the 
way  how  to  get  safe  thither." 

To  this  formal  and  adroitly  conceived  speech  of  the  Seneca  chief,  Gov. 
Keith,  after  having  brought  in  the  present  of  stroud  match  coats,  gunpowder, 
lead,  biscuit,  pipes  and  tobacco,  adjourned  the  council  till  the  following  day, 
when,  being  assembled  at  Conestoga,  he  answered  at  length  the  items  of  the 
chieftain's  speech.  His  most  earnest  appeal,  however,  was  made  in  favor  of 
peace.  "  I  nave  persuaded  all  my  [Indian]  brethren,  in  these  parts,  to  con- 
sider what  is  for  their  good,  and  not  to  go  out  any  more  to  war  ;  but  your 
young  men  [Five  Nations]  as  they  come  this  way,  endeavor  to  force  them  ; 
and,  because  they  incline  to  the  counsels  of  peace,  and  ihe  good  advice  of  their 
true  friends,  your  people  use  them  ill,  and  often  prevail  with  them  to  go  out 
to  their  own  destruction.  Thus  it  was  that  their  town  of  Conestoga  lost  their 
good  king  not  long  ago.     Their  young  children   are  left  vvithout  parents  ; 


their  wives  without  husbands  ;  the  old  men,  contrary  to  the  course  of  nature, 
mourn  the  death  of  their  young  ;  the  people  decay  and  grow  weak  ;  we  lose 
our  dear  friends  and  are  afflicted.  Surely  you  cannot  propose  to  get  either 
riches,  or  possessions,  by  going  thus  out  to  war  ;  for  when  you  kill  a  deer,  you 
have  the  flesh  to  eat,  and  the  skin  to  sell  ;  but  when  you  return  from  war,  you 
bring  nothing  home,  but  the  scalp  of  a  dead  man,  who  perhaps  was  husband 
to  a  kind  wife,  and  father  to  tender  children,  who  never  wronged  you,  though, 
by  losing  him,  you  have  robbed  them  of  their  help  and  protection,  and  at  the 
same  time  got  nothing  by  it.  If  I  were  not  your  friend,  I  would  not  take  the 
trouble  to  say  all  these  things  to  you."  When  the  Governor  had  concluded 
his  address,  he  called  the  Senaca  chieftain  (Ghesaont)  to  him,  and  presented  a 
gold  coronation  medal  of  King  George  I,  which  he  requested  should  be  taken 
to  the  monarch  of  the  Five  Nations,  "  Kannygooah,"  to  be  laid  up  and  kept  as 
a  token  to  our  children's  children,  that  an  entire  and  lasting  friendship  is  now 
established  forever  betwean  the  English  in  this  country  and  the  great  Five 
Nations."  Upon  the  return  of  the  Governor,  he  was  met  at  the  upper  ferry  of 
the  Schuylkill,  by  the  Mayor  and  Aldermen  of  the  city,  with  about  two  hun- 
dred horse,  and  conducted  through  the  streets  after  the  manner  of  a  conqueror 
of  old  returning  from  the  scenes  of  his  triumphs. 

Gov.  Keith  gave  diligent  study  to  the  subject  of  finance,  regulating  the 
currency  in  such  a  way  that  the  planter  should  have  it  in  his  power  to  dis- 
charge promptly  his  indebtedness  to  the  merchant,  that  their  mutual  interests 
might  thus  be  subserved.  He  even  proposed  to  establish  a  considerable  settle- 
ment on  his  own  account  in  the  colony,  in  order  to  carry  on  manufactures,  and 
thus  consume  the  grain,  of  which  there  was  at  this  time  abundance,  and  no 
profitable  market  abroad. 

In  the  spring  of  1722,  an  Indian  was  barbaromsly  murdered  within  the 
limits  of  the  colony,  which  gave  the  Governor  great  concern.  After  having 
cautioned  red  men  so  strongly  about  keeping  the  peace,  he  felt  that  the  honor 
of  himself  and  all  his  people  was  compromised  by  this  vile  act.  He  immedi- 
ately commissioned  James  Logan  and  John  French  to  go  to  the  scene  of  the 
iQurder  above  Conestoga,  and  inquire  into  the  facts  of  the  case,  quickly  appre- 
hended the  supposed  murderers,  sent  a  fast  Indian  runner  (Satcheecho),  to 
acquaint  the  Five  Nations  with  his  sorrow  for  the  act,  and  of  his  determination 
to  bring  the  guilty  parties  to  justice,  and  himself  set  out  with  three  of  his 
Council  (Hill,  Norris  and  Hamilton),  for  Albany,  where  he  had  been  invited 
by  the  Indians  for  a  conference  with  the  Governors  of  all  the  colonies,  and 
where  he  met  the  chiefs  of  the  Five  Nations,  and  treated  with  them  upon  the 
subject  of  the  murder,  besides  making  presents  to  the  Indians.  It  was  on  this 
occasion  that  the  grand  sachem  of  this  great  confederacy  made  that  noble, 
and  generous,  and  touching  response,  so  different  from  the  spirit  of  revenge 
generally  attributed  to  the  Indian  character.  It  is  a  notable  example  of  love 
that  begets  love,  and  of  the  mild  answer  that  turneth  away  wrath.  He  said  : 
"  The  great  king  of  the  Five  Nations  is  sorry  for  the  death  of  the  Indian 
that  was  killed,  for  he  was  of  his  own  flesh  and  blood.  He  believes  that  the 
Governor  is  also  sorry  ;  but,  now  that  it  is  done,  there  is  no  help  for  it,  and 
he  desires  that  Cartlidge  [the  murderer]  may  not  be  put  to  death,  nor  that  he 
should  be  spared  for  a  time,  and  afterward  executed  ;  one  life  is  enough  to  be 
lost ;  there  should  not  two  die.  The  King's  heart  is  good  to  the  Governor  and 
all  the  English." 

Though  Gov.  Keith,  during  the  early  part  of  his  term,  pursued  a  pacific 
policy,  yet  the  interminable  quarrels  which  had  been  kept  up  between  the  As- 
sembly and  Council  during  previous  administrations,  at  length  broke  out  with 

_  ,  g,  ■  trgw  ■''■■ 

t-*-C        C^flOu^^S^ 



more  virulence  than  ever,  and  he  who  in  the  first  flush  of  power  had  declared 
"That  he  should  pass  no  laws,  nor  transact  anything  of  moment  relating  to 
the  public  affairs  without  the  advice  and  approbation  of  the  Council,"  took  it 
upon  himself  finally  to  act  independently  of  the  Council,  and  even  went  so 
far  as  to  dismiss  the  able  and  trusted  representative  of  the  proprietary  inter- 
ests, James  Logan,  President  of  the  Council  and  Secretary  of  the  Province, 
from  the  duties  of  his  high  office,  and  even  refused  the  request  of  Hannah 
Penn,  the  real  Governor  of  the  province,  to  re-instate  him.  This  unwarranta- 
ble conduct  cost  him  his  dismissal  from  office  in  July,  1726.  Why  he  should 
have  assumed  so  headstrong  and  unwarrantable  a  course,  who  had  promised  at 
the  first  so  mild  and  considerate  a  policy,  it  is  difficult  to  understand,  unless  it 
be  the  fact  that  he  found  that  the  Council  was  blocking,  by  its  obstinacy, 
wholesome  legislation,  which  he  considered  of  vital  importance  to  the  pros- 
perity of  the  colony,  and  if,  as  he  alleges,  he  found  that  the  new  constitution 
only  gave  the  Council  advisory  and  not  a  voice  in  executive  power. 

The  administration  of  Gov.  Keith  was  eminently  successful,  as  he  did  not 
hesitate  to  grapple  with  important  questions  of  judicature,  finance,  trade, 
commerce,  and  the  many  vexing  relations  with  the  native  tribes,  and  right 
manfully,  and  judiciously  did  he  effect  their  solution.  It  was  at  a  time  when 
the  colony  was  filling  up  rapidly,  and  the  laws  and  regulations  which  had  been 
found  ample  for  the  management  of  a  few  hundred  families  struggling  for  a 
foothold  in  the  forest,  and  when  the  only  traffic  was  a  few  skins,  were  entirely 
inadequate  for  securing  protection  and  prosperity  to  a  seething  and  jostling 
population  intent  on  trade  and  commerce,  and  the  conflicting  interests  which 
required  wise  legislation  and  prudent  management.  No  colony  on  the  Ameri- 
can coast  made  such  progress  in  numbers  and  improvement  as  did  Pennsylvania 
during  the  nine  years  in  which  William  Keith  exei'cised  the  Gubernatorial 
office.  Though  not  himself  a  Quaker,  he  had  secured  the  passage  of  an  act  of 
Assembly,  and  its  royal  affirmation  for  allowing  the  members  of  the  Quaker 
sect  to  wear  their  hats  in  court,  and  give  testimony  under  affirmation  instead 
of  oath,  which  in  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne  had  been  with- 
held from  them.  After  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  office,  he  was  immedi- 
ately elected  a  member  of  the  Assembly,  and  was  intent  on  being  elected 
Speaker,  "  and  had  his  support  out- doors  in  a  cavalcade  of  eighty  mounted 
horsemen  and  the  resounding  of  many  guns  fired;"  yet  David  Lloyd  was 
elected  with  only  three  dissenting  voices,  the  outdoor  business  having  perhaps 
been  overdone. 

Upon  the  recommendation  of  Springett  Penn,  who  was  now  the  prospective 
heir  to  Pennsylvania,  Patrick  Gordon  was  appointed  and  confirmed  Lieutenant 
Governor  in  place  of  Keith,  and  arrived  in  the  colony  and  assumed  authority 
in  July,  1726.  He  had  served  in  the  army,  and  in  his  first  address  to  the 
Assembly,  which  he  met  in  August,  he  said  that  as  he  had  been  a  soldier,  he 
knew  nothing  of  the  crooked  ways  of  professed  politicians,  and  must  rely  on  a 
straightforward  manner  of  transacting  the  duties  devolving  upon  him.  George 
I  died  in  June,  1727,  and  the  Assembly  at  its  meeting  in  October  prepared 
and  forwarded  a  congratulatory  address  to  his  successor,  George  II.  By  the 
decision  of  the  Court  of  Chancery  in  1727,  Hannah  Penn's  authority  over  the 
colony  was  at  an  end,  the  proprietary  interests  having  descended  to  John, 
Richard  and  Thomas  Penn,  the  only  surviving  sons  of  William  Penn,  Sr. 
This  period,  from  the  death  of  Penn  in  1718  to  1727,  one  of  the  most  pros- 
perous in  the  history  of  the  colony,  was  familiarly  known  as  the  "  Reign  of 
Hannah  and  the  Boys." 

Gov.  Gordon  found  the  Indian  troubles  claiming  a  considerable  part  of  his 



attention.  In  1728,  worthless  bands,  who  had  strayed  away  from  their  proper 
tribes,  incited  by  strong  drink,  had  become  implicated  in  disgraceful  broils,  in 
which  several  were  killed  and  wounded.  The  guilty  parties  were  apprehended, 
but  it  was  found  difficult  to  punish  Indian  offenders  without  incurring  the 
wrath  of  their  relatives.  Treaties  were  frequently  renewed,  on  which  occa- 
sions the  chiefs  expected  that  the  chain  of  friendship  would  be  polished  "  with 
English  blankets,  broadcloths  and  metals."  The  Indians  found  that  this 
"brightening  the  chain"  was  a  profitable  business,  which  some  have  been  un- 
charitable enough  to  believe  was  the  moving  cause  of  many  of  the  Indian  diffi- 

As  early  as  1732,  the  French,  who  were  claiming  all  the  territory  drained 
by  the  Mississippi  and  its  tributaries,  on  the  ground  of  priority  of  discovery 
of  its  mouth  and  exploration  of  its  channel,  commenced  erecting  trading  posts 
in  Pennsylvania,  along  the  Allegheny  and  Ohio  Rivers,  and  invited  the  Indians 
living  on  these  streams  to  a  council  for  concluding  treaties  with  them  at  Mon- 
treal, Canada.  To  neutralize  the  influence  of  the  French,  these  Indians  were 
summoned  to  meet  in  council  at  Philadelphia,  to  renew  treaties  of  friendship, 
and  they  were  invited  to  remove  farther  east.  Bat  this  they  were  unwill- 
ing to  do.  A  treaty  was  also  concluded  with  the  Six  Nations,  in  which  they 
pledged  lasting  friendship  for  the  English. 

Hannah  Penn  died  in  1733,  when  the  Assembly,  supposing  that  the  pro- 
prietary power  was  still  in  her  hands,  refused  to  recognize  the  power  of  Gov.  Gor- 
don. But  the  three  sons,  to  whom  the  proprietary  possessions  had  descended, 
in  1727,  upon  the  decision  of  the  Chancery  case,  joined  in  issuing  a  new  com- 
mission to  Gordon.  In  approving  this  commission  the  King  directed  a  clause 
to  be  inserted,  expressly  reserving  to  himself  the  government  of  the  lower 
counties.  This  act  of  the  King  was  the  beginning  of  those  series  of  encroach- 
ments which  finally  culminated  in  the  independence  of  the  States  of  America. 
The  Judiciary  act  of  1727  was  annulled,  and  this  was  followed  by  an  attempt 
to  pass  an  act  requiring  the  laws  of  all  the  colonies  to  be  submitted  to  the 
Crown  for  approval  before  they  should  become  valid,  and  that  a  copy  of  all 
laws  previously  enacted  should  be  submitted  for  approval  or  veto.  The  agent 
of  the  Assembly,  Mr.  Paris,  with  the  agents  of  other  colonies,  made  so  vigor- 
ous a  defense,  that  action  was  for  the  time  stayed. 

In  1732,  Thomas  Penn,  the  youngest  son,  and  two  years  later,  John  Penn, 
the  eldest,  and  the  only  American  born,  arrived  in  the  Province,  and  were  re- 
ceived with  every  mark  of  respect  and  satisfaction.  Soon  after  the  arrival  of 
the  latter,  news  was  brought  that  Lord  Baltimore  had  made  application  to  have 
the  Provinces  transferred  to  his  colony.  A  vigorous  protest  was  made  against 
this  by  Quakers  in  England,  headed  by  Richard  Penn;  but  lest  this  protest 
might  prove  ineffectual,  John  Penn  very  soon  went  to  England  to  defend  the 
proprietary  rights  at  court,  and  never  again  returned,  he  having  died  a  bach- 
elor in  1746.  In  August,  1736,  Gov.  Gordon  died,  deeply  lamented,  as  an 
honest,  upright  and  straightforward  executive,  a  character  which  he  expressed 
the  hope  he  would  be  able  to  maintain  when  he  assumed  authority.  His  term 
had  been  one  of  prosperity,  and  the  colony  had  grown  rapidly  in  numbers, 
trade,  commerce  and  manufactures,  ship-building  especially  having  assumed  ex- 
tensive proportions. 

James  Logan  was  President  of  the  Council  and  in  effect  Governor,  during 
the  two  years  which  elapsed  between  the  death  of  Gordon  and  the  arrival  of 
his  successor.  The  Legislature  met  regularly,  but  no  laws  were  passed  for 
lack  of  an  executive.  It  was  during  this  period  that  serious  trouble  broke  out 
near   the    Maryland   border,  west  of  the  Susquehanna,  then    Lancaster,  now 


York  County.  A  number  of  settlers,  in  order  to  evade  the  payment  of  taxes, 
had  secured  titles  to  their  lands  from  Maryland,  and  afterward  sought  to  be 
reinstated  in  their  rights  under  Pennsylvania  authority,  and  plead  protection 
from  the  latter.  The  Sheriff  of  the  adjoining  Maryland  County,  with  300 
followers,  advanced  to  drive  these  settlers  from  their  homes.  On  hearing  of 
this  movement,  Samuel  Smith,  Sheriff  of  Lancaster  County,  with  a  hastily  sum- 
moned posse,  advanced  to  protect  the  citizens  in  their  rights.  Without  a  con- 
flict, an  agreement  was  entered  into  by  both  parties  to  retire.  Soon  afterward, 
however,  a  band  of  fifty  Mary  landers  again  entered  the  State  with  the  design 
of  driving  out  the  settlers  and  each  securing  for  himself  200  acres  of  land. 
They  were  led  by  one  Cressap.  The  settlers  made  resistance,  and  in  an  en- 
counter, one  of  them  by  the  name  of  Knowles  was  killed.  The  Sheriff  of 
Lancaster  again  advanced  with  a  posse,  and  in  a  skirmish  which  ensued  one 
of  the  invaders  was  killed,  and  the  leader  Cressap  was  wounded  and  taken 
prisoner.  The  Governor  of  Maryland  sent  a  commission  to  Philadelphia  to 
demand  the  release  of  the  prisoner.  Not  succeeding  in  this,  he  seized  four  of 
the  settlers  and  incarcerated  them  in  the  jail  at  Baltimore.  Still  determined 
to  effect  their  purpose,  a  party  of  Mary  landers,  under  the  leadership  of  one 
Higginbotham,  advanced  into  Pennsylvania  and  began  a  warfare  upon  the 
settlers.  Again  the  Sheriff  of  Lancaster  appeared  upon  the  scene,  and  drove 
out  the  invaders.  So  stubbornly  were  these  invasions  pushed  and  resented 
that  the  season  passed  without  planting  or  securing  the  usual  crops.  Finally 
a  party  of  sixteen  Marylanders,  led  by  Richard  Lowden,  broke  into  the  Lan- 
caster jail  and  liberated  the  Maryland  prisoners.  Learning  of  these  disturb- 
ances, the  King  in  Council  issued  an  order  restraining  both  parties  from  fur- 
ther acts  of  violence,  and  afterward  adopted  a  plan  of  settlement  of  the  vexed 
boundary  question. 

Though  not  legally  Governor,  Logan  managed  the  affairs  of  tbe  colony 
with  great  prudence  and  judgment,  as  he  had  done  and  continued  to  do  for  a 
period  of  nearly  a  half  century.  Ho  was  a  scholar  well  versed  in  the  ancient 
languages  and  the  sciences,  and  published  several  learned  works  in  the  Latin 
tongue.  His  Experimenta  Meleiemata  de  plantarum  generatione,  written  in 
Latin,  was  published  at  Leyden  in  1739,  and  afterward,  in  1747,  republished 
in  London,  with  an  English  version  on  the  opposite  page  by  Dr.  J.  Fothergill. 
Another  work  of  his  in  Latin  was  also  published  at  Leyden,  entitled,  Canonum 
pro  inveniendis  refraction um,  turn  simplicium  turn  in  lentibus  duplicum  focis, 
demonstrations  geometricae.  After  retiring  from  public  business,  he  lived  at 
his  country  seat  at  Stenton,  near  Germantown,  where  he  spent  his  time  among 
his  books  and  in  correspondence  with  the  literati  of  Europe.  In  his  old  age 
he  made  an  English  translation  of  Cicero's  De  Senectute,  which  was  printed  at 
Philadelphia  in  1744  with  a  preface  by  Benjamin  Franklin,  then  rising  into 
notice.  Logan  was  a  Quaker,  of  Scotch  descent,  though  born  in  Ireland,  and 
came  to  America  in  the  ship  with  William  Penn,  in  his  second  visit  in  169'J, 
when  about  twenty-five  years  old,  and  died  at  seventy-seven.  He  had  held  the 
offices  of  Chief  Commissioner  of  property,  Agent  for  the  purchase  and  sale  of 
lands,  Receiver  General,  Member  of  Council,  President  of  Council  and  Chief 
Justice.  He  was  the  Confidential  Agent  of  Penn,  having  charge  of  all  his  vast 
estates,  making  sales  of  lands,  executing  conveyances,  and  making  collections. 
Amidst  all  the  great  cares  of  business  so  pressing  as  to  make  him  exclaim,  "I 
know  not  what  any  of  the  comforts  of  life  are,"  he  found  time  to  devote  to  the 
delights  of  learning,  and  collected  a  large  library  of  standard  works,  which  he 
bequeathed,  at  his  death,  to  the  people  of  Pennsylvania,  and  is  known  as  the 
Loganian  Library. 


George  Thomas,  a  planter  from  the  West  Indies,  was  appointed  Governor 
in  1737,  but  did  not  arrive  in  the  colony  till  the  following  year.  His  first  care 
was  to  settle  tne  disorders  in  the  Cumberland  Valley,  and  it  was  finally  agreed 
that  settlers  from  either  colony  should  owe  allegiance  to  the  Governor  of  that 
colony  wherever  settled,  until  the  division  line  which  had  been  provided  for 
was  surveyed  and  marked.  War  was  declared  on  the  23d  of  October,  1739, 
between  Great  Britain  and  Spain.  Seeing  that  his  colony  was  liable  to  be 
encroached  upon  by  the  enemies  of  his  government,  he  endeavored  to  organ- 
ize the  militia,  but  the  majority  of  the  Assembly  was  of  the  peace  element,  and 
it  could  not  be  induced  to  vote  money.  Finally  he  was  ordered  by  the  home 
government  to  call  for  volunteers,  and  eigbt  companies  were  quickly  formed, 
and  sent  down  for  the  coast  defense.  Many  of  these  proved  to  be  servants  for 
whom  pay  was  demanded  and  finally  obtained.  In  1740,  the  great  evangelist, 
Whitefield,  visited  the  colony,  and  created  a  deep  religious  interest  among  all 
denominations.  In  his  first  intercourse  with  the  Assembly,  Gov.  Thomas  en- 
deavored to  coerce  it  to  his  views.  But  a  more  stubborn  set  of  men  never  met 
in  a  deliberative  body  than  were  gathered  in  this  Assembly  at  this  time. 
Finding  that  he  could  not  compel  action  to  his  mind,  he  yielded  and  con- 
sulted their  views  and  decisions.  The  Assembly,  not  to  be  outdone  in  mag- 
nanimity, voted  him  £1,500  arrearages  of  salary,  which  had  been  withheld  bo- 
cause  he  would  not  approve  their  legislation,  asserting  that  public  acts  should 
take  precedence  of  appropriations  for  their  own  pay.  In  March,  1744,  war 
was  declared  between  Great  Britain  and  France.  Volunteers  were  called 
for,  and  10,000  men  were  rapidly  enliste^  and  armed  at  their  own  expense. 
Franklin,  recognizing  the  defenseless  condition  of  the  colony,  issued  a  pamph- 
let entitled  Plain  Truth,  in  which  he  cogently  urged  the  necessity  of  organ- 
ized preparation  for  defense.  Franklin  was  elected  Colonel  of  one  of  the 
regiments,  but  resigned  in  favor  of  Alderman  Lawrence.  On  the  5th  of  May, 
1747,  the  Governor  communicated  intelligence  of  the  death  of  John  Penn,  the 
eldest  of  the  proprietors,  to  the  Assembly,  and  his  own  intention  to  retire  from 
the  duties  of  his  office  on  account  of  declining  health. 

Anthony  Palmer  was  President  of  the  Council  at  the  time  of  the  with- 
drawal of  Gordon,  and  became  the  Acting  Governor.  The  peace  party  in  the  As- 
sembly held  that  it  was  the  duty  of  the  crown  of  England  to  protect  the  colony, 
and  that  for  the  colony  to  call  out  volunteers  and  become  responsible  for  their 
payment  was  burdening  the  people  with  an  expense  which  did  not  belong  to 
them,  and  which  the  crown  was  willing  to  assume.  The  French  were  now 
deeply  intent  on  securing  firm  possession  of  the  Mississippi  Valley  and  the  en- 
tire basin,  even  to  the  summits  of  the  Alleghanies  in  Pennsylvania,  and  were 
busy  establishing  trading  posts  along  the  Ohio  and  Allegheny  Rivers.  They 
employed  the  most  artful  means  to  win  the  simple  natives  to  their  interests, 
giving  showy  presents  and  laboring  to  convince  them  of  their  great  value. 
Pennsylvania  had  won  a  reputation  among  the  Indians  of  making  presents  of 
substantial  worth.  Not  knowing  the  difference  between  steel  and  iron,  the 
French  distributed  immense  numbers  of  worthless  iron  hatohets,  which  the 
natives  supposed  were  the  equal  of  the  best  English  steel  axes.  The  Indians, 
however,  soon  came  to  distinguish  between  the  good  and  the  valueless.  Un- 
derstanding the  Pennsylvania  methods  of  securing  peace  and  friendship,  the 
the  natives  became  very  artful  in  drawing  out  "  well  piled  up  "  presents.  The 
government  at  this  time  was  alive  to  the  dangers  which  threatened  from  the 
insinuating  methods  of  the  French.  A  trusty  messenger,  Conrad  Weiser,  was 
sent  among  the  Indians  in  the  western  part  of  the  province  to  observe  the 
plans  of  the  French,  ascertain  the  temper  of  the  natives,  and  especially  to 


magnify  the  power  of  the  English,  and  the  disposition  of  Pennsylvania  to  give 
great  presents.  This  latter  policy  had  the  desired  effect,  and  worthless  and 
wandering  bands,  which  had  no  right  to  speak  for  the  tribe,  came  teeming  in, 
desirous  of  scouring  the  chain  of  friendship,  intimating  that  the  French  were 
making  great  offers,  in  order  to  induce  the  government  to  large  liberality, 
until  this  "  brightening  the  chain,"  became  an  intolerable  nuisance.  At  a  sin- 
gle council  held  at  Albany,  in  1747,  Pennsylvania  distributed  goods  to  the 
value  of  £1,000,  and  of  such  a  character  as  should  be  most  serviceable  to  the 
recipients,  not  worthless  gew-gaws,  but  such  as  would  contribute  to  their  last- 
ing comfort  and  well  being,  a  protection  to  the  person  against  the  bitter  frosts 
of  winter,  and  sustenance  that  should  minister  to  the  steady  wants  of  the 
body  and  alleviation  of  pain  in  time  of  sickness.  The  treaty  of  Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle,  which  was  concluded  on  the  1st  of  October,  1748,  secured  peace  between 
Great  Britain  and  France,  and  should  have  put  an  end  to  all  hostile  encoun- 
ters between  their  representatives  on  the  American  continent.  Palmer  re- 
mained at  the  head  of  the  government  for  a  little  more  than  two  years.  He 
was  a  retired  merchant  from  the  West  Indies,  a  man  of  wealth,  and  had  come 
into  the  colony  in  1708.  He  lived  in  a  style  suited  to  a  gentleman,  kepi  a 
coach  and  a  pleasure  barge. 

On  the  23d  of  November,  1748,  James  Hamilton  arrived  in  the  colony  from 
England,  bearing  the  commission  of  Lieutenant  Governor.  He  was  born  in 
America,  son  of  Andrew  Hamilton,  who  had  for  many  years  been  Speaker  of 
the  Assembly.  The  Indians  west  of  the  Susquehanna  had  complained  that  set- 
tlers had  come  upon  their  best  lands,  and  were  acquiring  titles  to  them,  where- 
as the  proprietors  had  never  purchased  these  lands  of  them,  and  had  no  claim 
to  them.  The  first  care  of  Hamilton  was  to  settle  these  disputes,  and  allay  the 
rising  excitement  of  the  natives.  Richard  Peters,  Secretary  of  the  colony,  a 
man  of  great  prudence  and  ability,  was  sent  in  company  with  the  Indian  in- 
terpreter, Conrad  Weiser,  to  remove  the  intruders.  It  was  firmly  and  fear- 
lessly done,  the  settlers  giving  up  their  tracts  and  the  cabins  which  they  had 
built,  and  accepting  lands  on  the  east  side  of  the  river.  The  hardship  was  in 
many  cases  great,  but  when  they  were  in  actual  need,  the  Secretary  gave 
money  and  placed  them  upon  lands  of  his  own,  having  secured  a  tract  of 
2,000,000  of  acres. 

But  these  troubles  were  of  small  consequence  compared  with  those  that 
were  threatening  from  the  West.  Though  the  treaty  of  Alx  was  supposed  to 
have  settled  all  difficulties  between  the  two  courts,  the  French  were  determined 
to  occupy  the  whole  territory  drained  by  the  Mississippi,  which  they  claimed 
by  priority  of  discovery  by  La  Salle.  The  British  Ambassador  at  Paris  entered 
complaints  before  the  French  Court  that  encroachments  were  being  made  by 
the  French  upon  English  soil  in  America,  which  were  politely  heard,  and 
promises  made  of  restraining  the  French  in  Canada  from  encroaching  upon 
English  territory.  Formal  orders  were  sent  out  from  the  home  government  to 
this  effect;  but  at  the  same  time  secret  intimations  were  conveyed  to  them  that 
their  conduct  in  endeavoring  to  secure  and  hold  the  territory  in  dispute  was 
not  displeasing  to  the  government,  and  that  disobedience  of  these  orders  would 
not  incur  its  displeasure.  The  French  deemed  it  necessary,  in  order  to  estab- 
lish a  legal  claim  to  the  country,  to  take  formal  possession  of  it.  Accordingly, 
the  Marquis  de  la  Galissoniere,  who  was  at  this  time  Governor  General  of 
Canada,  dispatched  Capt.  Bienville  de  Celeron  with  a  party  of  215  French  and 
lifty-tive  Indians,  to  publicly  proclaim  possession,  and  bury  at  prominent 
points  plates  of  lead  bearing  inscriptions  declaring  occupation  in  the  name  of 
the  French  King.     Celeron  started  on  the  loth  of  Juno,  1749,  from  La  Chine, 


following  the  southern  shores  of  Lakes  Ontario  and  Erie,  until  he  reached  a 
point  opposite  Lake  Chautauqua,  where  the  boats  were  drawn  up  and  were  taken 
bodily  over  the  dividing  ridge,  a  distance  of  ten  miles,  with  all  the  impedimenta 
of  the  expedition,  the  pioneers  havin  >■  first  opened  a  road.  Following  on  down 
the  lake  and  the  Conewango  Creek,  they  arrived  at  Warren  near  the  confluence 
of  the  creek  with  the  Allegheny  River.  Here  the  first  plate  was  buried. 
These  plates  were  eleven  inches  long,  seven  and  a  half  wide,  and  one-eighth 
of  an  inch  thick.  The  inscription  7was  in  French,  and  in  the  following  terms, 
as  fairly  translated  into  English:  "In  the  year  1749,  of  the  reign  of  Louie 
XIV,  King  of  France,  We  Celeron,  commander  of  a  detachment  sent  by 
Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  la  Galissoniere,  Governor  General  of  New  France, 
to  re-establish  tranquillity  in  some  Indian  villages  of  these  cantons,  have 
buried  this  plate  of  lead  at  the  confluence  of  the  Ohio  with  the  Chautauqua, 
this  29th  day  of  July,  near  the  River  Ohio,  otherwise  Belle  Riviere,  as  a  mon- 
ument of  the  renewal  of  the  possession  we  have  taken  of  the  said  River  Ohio, 
and  of  all  those  which  empty  into  it,  and  of  all  the  lands  on  both  sides  as  far 
as  the  sources  of  the  said  river,  as  enjoyed  or  ought  to  have  been  enjoyed  by 
the  King  of  France  preceding,  and  as  they  have  there  maintained  themselves 
by  arms  and  by  treaties,  especially  those  of  Ryswick,  Utrecht  and  Aix-la- 
Chapelle."  The  burying  of  this  plate  was  attended  with  much  form  and  cer- 
emony. All  the  men  and  officers  of  the  expedition  were  drawn  up  in  battle 
array,  when  the  Commander,  Celeron,  proclaimed  in  a  loud  voice,  '"Vive  le 
Roi,"  and  declared  that  possession  of  the  country' was  now  taken  in  the  name 
of  the  King.  A  plate  on  which  was  inscribed  tne  arms  of  France  was  affixed 
to  the  nearest  tree. 

The  same  formality  was  observed  in  planting  each  of  the  other  plates,  the 
second  at  the  rock  known  as  the  "Indian  God,"  on  which  are  ancient  and  un- 
known inscriptions,  a  few  miles  below  Franklin,  a  third  at  the  mouth  of 
Wheeling  Creek:  a  fourth  at  the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum;  a  fifth  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Great  Kanawha,  and  the  sixth  and  last  at  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Miami. 
Toilsomely  ascending  the  Miami  to  its  head- waters,  the  party  burned  their 
canoes,  and  obtained  ponies  for  the  march  across  the  portage  to  the  head- waters 
of  the  Maumee,  down  which  and  by  Lakes  Erie  and  Ontario  they  returned 
to  Fort  Frontenac,  arriving  on  the  Cth  of  November.  It  appeal's  that  the  In- 
dians through  whose  territory  they  passed  viewed  this  planting  of  plates  with 
great  suspicion.  By  some  means  they  got  possession  of  one  of  them,  gener- 
ally supposed  to  have  been  stolen  from  the  party  at  the  very  commencement  of 
their  journey  from  the  mouth  of  the  Chautauqua  Creek. 

Mr.  O.  H.  Marshall,  in  an  excellent  monograph  upon  this  expedition,  made 
up  from  the  original  manuscript  journal  of  Celeron  and  the  diary  of  Father 
Bonnecamps,  found  in  the  Department  de  la  Marine,  in  Paris,  gives  the  fol- 
lowing account  of  this  stolen  plate: 

"  The  first  of  the  leaden  plates  was  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  public 
by  Gov.  George  Clinton  to  the  Lords  of  Trade  in  London,  dated  New  York, 
December  19,  1750,  in  which  he  states  that  he  would  send  to  their  Lordships 
in  two  or  three  weeks  a  plate  of  lead  full  of  writing,  which  some  of  the  upper 
nations  of  Indians  stole  from  Jean  Coeur,  the  French  interpreter  at  Niagara. 
on  his  way  to  the  River  Ohio,  which  river,  and  all  the  lands  thereabouts,  the 
French  claim,  as  will  appear  by  said  writing.  He  further  states  'that  the  lead 
plate  gave  the  Indians  so  much  uneasiness  that  they  immediately  dispatched 
some  of  the  Cayuga  chiefs  to  him  with  it,  saying  that  their  only  reliance  was 
on  him,  and  earnestly  begged  he  would  communicate  the  contents  to  them 
which  he  had  done,  much  to  their  satisfaction  and  the  interests  of  the  English. 


The  Governor  concludes  by  saying  that  '  the  contents  of  the  plate  may  be  of 
great  importance  in  clearing  up  the  encroachments  which  the  French  have 
made  on  the  British  Empire  in  America.'  The  plate  was  delivered  to  Colonel, 
afterward  Sir  William  Johnson,  on  the  4th  of  December,  1750,  at  his  resi- 
dence on  the  Mohawk,  by  a  Cayuga  sachem,  who  accompanied  it  by  the  follow- 
ing speech: 

"' Brother  Corlear  and  War-ragh-i-ya-ghey!  I  am  sent  here  by  the  Five 
Nations  with  a  piece  of  writing  which  the  Senecas,  our  brethren,  got  by  some 
artifice  from  Jean  Coeur,  earnestly  beseeching  you  will  let  us  know  what  it 
means,  and  as  we  put  all  our  confidence  in  you,  we  hope  you  will  explain  it 
ingeniously  to  us.' 

"  Col.  Johnson  replied  to  the  sachem,  and  through  him  to  the  Five  Na- 
tions, returning  a  belt  of  wampum,  and  explaining  the  inscription  on  the 
plate.  He  told  them  that  'it was  a  matter  of  the  greatest  consequence,  involv- 
ing the  possession  of  their  lands  and  hunting  grounds,  and  that  Jean  Coeur 
and  the  French  ought  immediately  to  be  expelled  from  the  Ohio  and  Niagara.' 
In  reply,  the  sachem  said  that  'he  had  heard  with  great  attention  and  surprise 
the  substance  of  the  "devilish  writing  "  he  had  brought,  and  that  Col.  Johnson's 
remarks  were  fully  approved.'  He  promised  that  belts  from  each  of  the  Five 
Nations  should  be  sent  from  the  Seneca's  castle  to  the  Indians  at  the  Ohio,  to 
warn  and  strengthen  them  against  the  French  encroachments  in  that  direc- 
tion." On  the  29th  of  January,  1751,  Clinton  sent  a  copy  of  this  inscription 
to  Gov.  Hamilton,  of  Pennsylvania. 

The  French  followed  up  this  formal  act  of  possession  by  laying  out  a  line 
of  military  posts,  on  substantially  the  same  line  as  that  pursued  by  the  Cele- 
ron expedition;  but  instead  of  crossing  over  to  Lake  Chautauqua,  they  kept 
on  down  to  Presque  Isle  (now  Erie),  where  was  a  good  harbor,  where  a  fort 
was  established,  and  thence  up  to  Le  Boeuf  (now  Waterford),  where  another 
post  w;*s  placed;  thence  down  the  Venango  River  (French  Creek)  to  its  month 
at  Franklin,  eptablishing  Fort  Venango  there;  thence  by  the  Allegheny  to 
Pittsburgh,  where  Fort  Du  Quesne  was  seated,  and  so  on  down  the  Ohio. 

To  counteract  this  activity  of  the  French,  the  Ohio  Company  was  char- 
tered, and  a  half  million  of  acres  was  granted  by  the  crown,  to  be  selected 
mainly  on  the  south  side  of  the  Ohio,  between  the  Monongalia  and  Kanawha 
Rivers,  and  the  condition  made  that  settlements  (100  families  within  seven 
years),  protected  by  a  fort,  should  he  made.  The  company  consisted  of  a 
number  of  Virginia  and  Maryland  gentlemen,  of  whom  Lawrence  Washington 
was  one,  and  Thomas  Hanbury,  of  London. 

In  1752,  a  treaty  was  entered  into  with  the  Indians,  securing  the  right  of 
occupancy,  and  twelve  families,  headed  by  Capt.  Gist,  established  themselves 
upon  the  Monongalia,  and  subsequently  commenced  the  erection  of  a  fort, 
where  the  city  of  Pittsburgh  now  is.  Apprised  of  this  intrusion  into  the 
very  heart  of  the  territory  which  they  were  claiming,  the  French  built  a  fort 
at  Le  Boeuf,  and  strengthened  the  post  at  Franklin. 

These  proceedings  having  been  promptly  reported  to  Lieut.  Gov.  Dinwid- 
die,  of  Virginia,  where  the  greater  number  of  the  stockholders  of  the  Ohio 
Company  resided,  he  determined  to  send  an  official  communication — protesting 
against  the  forcible  interference  with  their  chartered  rights,  granted  by  the 
crown  of  Britain,  and  pointing  to  the  late  treaties  of  peace  entered  into  be- 
tween the  English  and  French,  whereby  it  was  agreed  that  each  should  respect 
the  colonial  possessions  of  the  other — to  the  Commandant  of  the  French,  who 
had  bis  headquarters  at  Fort  Le  Boeuf,  fifteen  miles  inland  from  the  present 
site  of  the  city  of  Erie. 


But  who  should  be  the  messenger  to  execute  this  delicate  and  responsible 
duty?  It  was  winter,  and  the  distance  to  be  traversed  was  some  500  miles, 
through  an  unbroken  wilderness,  cut  by  rugged  mountain  chains  and  deep  and 
rapid  streams.  It  was  proposed  to  several,  who  declined,  and  was  finally 
accepted  by  George  Washington,  a  youth  barely  twenty-one  years  old.  On 
the  last  day  of  November,  1753,  he  bade  adieu  to  civilization,  and  pushing  on 
through  the  forest  to  the  settlements  on  the  Monongalia,  where-  he  was  joined 
by  Capt.  Gist,  followed  up  the  Allegheny  to  Fort  Venango  (now  Franklin); 
thence  up  the  Venango  to  its  head-waters  at  Fort  Le  Boeuf,  where  he  held 
formal  conference  with  the  French  Commandant,  St.  Pierre.  The  French 
officer  had  been  ordered  to  hold  this  territory  on  the  score  of  the  dis- 
covery of  the  Mississippi  by  La  Salle,  and  he  had  no  discretion  but  to  execute 
his  orders,  and  referred  Washington  to  his  superior,  the  Governor  General  of 
Canada.  Making  careful  notes  of  the  location  and  strength  of  the  post  and 
those  encountered  on  the  way,  the  young  embassador  returned,  being  twice 
fired  at  on  his  journey  by  hostile  Indians,  and  near  losing  his  life  by  being 
thrown  into  the  freezing  waters  of  the  Allegheny.  Upon  his  arrival,  he  made 
a  full  report  of  the  embassage,  which  was  widely  published  in  this  country 
and  in  England,  and  was  doubtless  the  basis  upon  which  action  was  predicted 
that  eventuated  in  a  long  and  sanguinary  war,  which  finally  resulted  in  the 
expulsion  of  the  power  of  France  from  this  continent. 

Satisfied  that  the  French  were  determined  to  hold  the  territory  upon  the 
Ohio  by  force  of  arms,  a  body  of  150  men,  of  which  Washington  was  second 
in  command,  was  sent  to  the  support  of  the  settlers.  But  the  French,  having 
the  Allegheny  River  at  flood-tide  on  which  to  move,  and  Washington,  without 
means  of  transportation,  having  a  rugged  and  mountainous  country  to  over- 
come, the  former  first  reached  the  point  of  destination.  Contracoeur,  the 
French  commander,  with  1,000  men  and  field  pieces  on  a  fleet  of  sixty  boats  and 
300  canoes,  dropped  down  the  Allegheny  and  easily  seized  the  fort  then  being 
constructed  by  the  Ohio  Company  at  its  mouth,  and  proceeded  to  erect  there 
an  elaborate  work  which  he  called  Fort  Da  Quesne,  after  the  Governor  Gen- 
eral. Informed  of  this  proceeding,  Washington  pushed  forward,  and  finding 
that  a  detachment  of  the  French  was  in  his  immediate  neighborhood,  he  made 
a  forced  march  by  night,  and  coming  upon  them  unawares  killed  and  captured 
the  entire  party  save  one.  Ten  of  the  French,  including  their  commander, 
Jumonville,  were  killed,  and  twenty-one  made  prisoners.  Col.  Fry,  the  com- 
mander of  the  Americans,  died  at  Will's  Creek,  where  the  command  devolved 
on  Washington.  Though  re -enforcements  had  been  dispatched  from  the  sev- 
eral colonies  in  response  to  the  urgent  appeals  of  Washington,  none  reached 
him  but  one  company  of  100  men  under  Capt.  Mackay  from  South  Carolina. 
Knowing  that  he  was  confronting  a  vastly  superior  force  of  the  French,  well 
supplied  with  artillery,  he  threw  up  works  at  a  point  called  the  Great 
Meadows,  which  he  characterizes  asa"  charming  field  for  an  encounter,"  nam- 
ing his  hastily  built  fortification  Fort  Necessity.  Stung  by  the  loss  of  their 
leader,  the  French  came  out  in  strong  force  and  soon  invested  the  place.  Unfor- 
tunately onepartof  Washington's  position  was  easily  commanded  by  the  artil- 
lery of  the  French,  which  they  were  not  slow  in  taking  advantage  of.  The  ac- 
tion opened  on  the  3d  of  July,  and  was  continued  till  late  at  night.  A  capit- 
ulation was  proposed  by  the  French  commander,  which  Washington  reluctantly 
accepted,  seeing  all  hope  of  re-enforcements  reaching  him,  cut  off,  and  on  the 
4th  of  July  marched  out  with  honors  of  war  and  fell  back  to  Fort  Cumberland. 

Gov.  Hamilton  had  strongly  recommended, before  hostilities  opened,  that  the 
Assembly  should  provide  for  defense  and  establish  a  line  of  block-houses  alongr 


the  frontier.  But  the  Assembly,  while  willing  to  vote  money  for  buying  peace 
from  the  Indians,  and  contributions  to  the  British  crown,  from  which  protec- 
tion was  claimed,  was  unwilling  to  contribute  directly  for  even  defensive  war- 
fare. Id  a  single  year,  £8,000  were  voted  for  Indian  gratuities.  The  proprie- 
tors werb  appealed  to  to  aid  in  bearing  this  burden.  But  while  they  were 
willing  to  contribute  liberally  for  defense,  they  would  give  nothing  for  Indian 
gratuities.     They  sent  to  the  colony  cannon  to  the  value  of  £400. 

In  February,  1753,  John  Penn,  grandson  of  the  founder,  son  of  Richard, 
arrived  in  the  colony,  and  as  a  mark  of  respect  was  immediately  chosen  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Council  and  made  its  President.  In  consequence  of  the  defeat  of 
Washington  at  Fort  Necessity,  Gov.  Hamilton  convened  the  Assembly  in  extra 
session  on  the  6th  of  August,  at  which  money  was  freely  voted;  but  owing  to 
the  instructions  given  by  the  proprietors  to  their  Deputy  Governor  not  to  sign 
any  money  bill  that  did  not  place  the  whole  of  the  interest  at  their  disposal, 
this  action  of  the  Assembly  was  abortive. 

The  English  and  French  nations  made  strenuous  exertions  to  strengtnen 
their  forces  in  America  for  the  campaigns  sure  to  be  undertaken  in  1754.  The 
French,  by  being  under  the  supreme  authority  of  one  governing  power,  the 
Governor  General  of  Canada,  were  able  to  concentrate  and  bring  all  their 
power  of  men  and  resources  to  bear  at  the  threatened  point  with  more  celerity 
and  certainty  than  the  English,  who  were  dependent  upon  colonies  scattered 
along  all  the  sea  board,  and  upon  Legislatures  penny-wise  in  voting  money. 
To  remedy  these  inconveniences,  the  English  Government  recommended  a  con- 
gress of  all  the  colonies,  together  with  the  Six  Nations,  for  the  purpose  of  con- 
certing plans  for  efficient  defense.  This  Congress  met  on  the  19th  of  June, 
1754,  the  first  ever  convened  in  America.  The  Representatives  from  Pennsyl- 
vania were  John  Penn  and  Richard  Peters  for  the  Council,  and  Isaac  Norris 
and  Benjamin  Franklin  for  the  Assembly.  The  influence  of  the  powerful 
mind  of  Franklin  was  already  beginning  to  be  felt,  he  having  been  Clerk  of 
the  Pennsylvania  Assembly  since  1736,  and  since  1750  had  been  a  member. 
Heartily  sympathizing  with  the  movers  in  the  purposes  of  this  Congress,  he 
came  to  Albany  with  a  scheme  of  union  prepared,  which,  having  been  pre- 
sented and  debated,  was,  on  the  10th  of  July,  adopted  substantially  as  it  came 
from  his  hands.  It  provided  for  the  appointment  of  a  President  General  by 
the  Crown,  and  an  Assembly  of  forty-eight  members  to  be  chosen  by  the  sev- 
eral Colonial  Assemblies.  The  plan  was  rejected  by  both  parties  in  interest, 
the  King  considering  the  power  vested  in  the  representatives  of  the  people  too 
great,  and  every  colony  rejecting  it  because  the  President  General  was  given 
"  an  influence  greater  than  appeared  to  them  proper  in  a  plan  of  government 
intended  for  freemen." 


Robert  H.  Morris,  1754^56— William  Denny,  1756-59— James  Hamilton,  1759-63. 

FINDING  himself  in  a  false  position  by  the  repugnant  instructions  of  the 
proprietors,  Gov.  Hamilton  had  given  notice  in  1753,  that,  at  the  end  ot 
twelve  months  from  its  reception,  he  would  resign.  Accordingly  in  October, 
1754,  he  was  succeeded  by  Robert  Hunter  Morris,  son  oi  Lewis  Morris,  Chief 
Justice  of  New  York  and  New  Jersey,  and  Governor  of  New  Jersey.     The  son 


was  bred  a  lawyer,  and  was  for  twenty-six  years  Councilor,  and  twenty  Chief 
Justice  of  New  Jersey.  The  Assembly,  at  its  lirst  session,  voted  a  money  bill, 
for  £40,000,  but  not  having  the  proviso  required  by  the  proprietors,  it  was 
vetoed.  Determined  to  push  military  operations,  the  British  Government  had 
called  early  in  the  year  for  3,000  volunteers  from  Pennsylvania,  with  subsis- 
tence, camp  equipage  and  transportation,  and  had  sent  two  regiments  of  the 
line,  under  Gen.  Braddock,  from  Cork,  Ireland.  Landing  at  Alexandria, 
Va.,  he  marched  to  Frederick,  Md.,  where,  finding  no  supplies  of 
transportation,  he  halted.  The  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania  had  voted  to  borrow 
£5,000,  on  its  own  account,  for  the  use  of  the  crown  in  prosecuting  the  cam- 
paign, and  had  sent  Franklin,  who  was  then  Postmaster  General  for  the  colo- 
nies, to  Braddock  to  aid  in  prosecuting  the  expedition.  Finding  that  the  army 
was  stopped  for  lack  of  transportation,  Franklin  returned  into  Pennsylvania, 
and  by  his  commanding  influence  soon  secured  the  necessary  wagons  and  beasts 
of  burden. 

Braddock  had  formed  extravagant  plans  for  his  campaign.  He  would 
march  forward  and  reduce  Fort  Du  Quesne,  thence  proceed  against  Fort  Ni- 
agara, which  having  conquered  he  would  close  a  season  of  triumphs  by  the 
capture  of  Fort  Frontignace.  But  this  is  not  the  first  time  in  warfare  that 
the  result  of  a  campaign  has  failed  to  realize  the  promises  of  the  manifesto. 
The  orders  brought  by  Braddock  giving  precedence  of  officers  of  the  line  over 
provincials  gave  offense,  and  Washington  among  others  threw  up  his  commis- 
sion; but  enamored  of  the  profession  of  arms,  he  accepted  a  position  offered 
him  by  Braddock  as  Aide-decamp.  Accustomed  to  the  discipline  of  military 
establishments  in  old,  long-settled  countries,  Braddock  had  little  conception  of 
making  war  in  a  wilderness  with  only  Indian  trails  to  move  upon,  and  against 
wily  savages.  Washington  had  advised  to  push  forward  with  pack  horses,  and, 
by  rapidity  of  movement,  forestall  ample  preparation.  But  Braddock  had  but 
one  way  of  soldiering,  and  where  roads  did  not  exist  for  wagons  he  stopped  to 
fell  the  forest  and  construct  bridges  over  streams.  The  French,  who  were 
kept  advised  of  every  movement,  made  ample  preparations  to  receive  him.  In 
the  meantime,  Washington  fell  sick;  but  intent  on  being  up  for  the  battle,  he 
hastened  forward  as  soon  as  sufficiently  recovered,  and  only  joined  the  army 
on  the  day  before  the  fatal  engagement.  He  had  never  seen  much  of  the  pride 
and  circumstance  of  war,  and  when,  on  the  morning  of  the  9th  of  July,  the 
army  of  Braddock  marched  on  across  the  Monongahela,  with  gay  colors  flying 
and  martial  music  awakening  the  echoes  of  the  forest,  he  was  accustomed  in 
after  years  to  speak  of  it  as  the  "most  magnificent  spectacle"  that  he  had  ever 
beheld.  But  the  gay  pageant  was  destined  to  be  of  short  duration;  for  the 
army  had  only  marched  a  little  distance  before  it  fell  into  an  ambuscade  skill- 
fully laid  by  the  French  and  Indians,  and  the  forest  resounded  with  the  un- 
earthly whoop  of  the  Indians,  and  the  continuous  roar  of  musketry.  The 
advance  was  checked  and  thrown  into  confusion  by  the  French  from  their  well- 
chosen  position,  and  every  tree  upon  the  flanks  of  the  long  drawn  out  line  con- 
cealed a  murderous  foe,  who  with  unerring  aim  picked  off  the  officers.  A  res- 
olute defense  was  made,  and  the  battle  raged  with  great  fury  for  three  hours; 
but  the  fire  of  tbe  English  was  ineffectual  because  directed  against  an  invisi- 
ble foe.  Finally,  the  mounted  officers  having  all  fallen,  killed  or  wounded, 
except  Washington,  being  left  without  leaders,  panic  seized  the  survivors  and 
"they  ran,"  says  Washington,  "before  the  French  and  English  like  sheep  be- 
fore dogs."  Of  1,460,  in  Braddock's  army,  456  were  killed,  and  421  wounded, 
a  greater  mortality,  in  proportion  to  the  number  engaged,  than  has  ever  oc- 
curred in  the  annals  of  modern  warfare.      Sir  Peter  Halkett  was  killed,  and 


Braddock  mortally  wounded  and  brought  off  the  field  only  with  the  greatest 
difficulty.  When  Orine  and  Morris,  the  other  aids,  fell,  Washington  acted 
alone  with  the  greatest  gallantry.  In  writing  to  his  brother, he  said:  "I  have 
been  protected  beyond  all  human  probability  or  expectation;  for  I  had  four 
bullets  through  my  coat,  and  two  horses  shot  under  me;  yet  I  escaped  unhurt, 
though  death  was  leveling  my  companions  on  every  side."  In  after  years, 
when  Washington  visited  the  Great  Kanawha  country,  he  was  approached  by 
an  Indian  chieftain  who  said  that  in  this  battle  he  had  fired  his  rifle  many 
times  at  Washington  and  had  told  his  young  men  to  do  the  same;  but  when  he 
saw  that  his  bullets  had  no  apparent  effect,  he  bad  bidden  them  to  desist,  be- 
lieving that  the  Great  Spirit  was  protecting  him. 

The  panic  among  the  survivors  of  the  English  carried  them  back  upon  the 
reserve,  commanded  by  Gen.  Dunbar,  who  seems  himself  to  have  been  seized 
with  it,  and  without  attempting  to  renew  the  campaign  and  return  to  the  en- 
counter, he  joined  in  the  flight  which  was  not  stayed  until  Fort  Cumberland 
was  reached.  The  French  were*  anticipating  a  renewal  of  the  struggle;  but 
when  they  found  that  the  English  had  fled  leaving  the  frontier  all  unprotected, 
they  left  no  stone  unturned  in  whetting  the  minds  of  the  savages  for  the 
work  of  plunder  and  blood,  and  in  organizing  relentless  bands  to  range  at 
will  along  all  the  wide  frontier.  The  Indians  could  not  be  induced  to  pursue 
the  retreating  English,  but  fell  to  plundering  the  field.  Nearly  everything 
was  lost,  even  to  the  camp  chest  of  Braddock.  The  wounded  General  was 
taken  back  to  the  summit  of  Laurel  Hill,  where,  four  days  after,  he  breathed 
his  last.  He  was  buried  in  the  middle  of  the  road,  and  the  ariny  marched 
over  his  grave  that  it  might  not  be  discovered  or  molested  by  the  natives. 
The  eajy  victory,  won  chiefly  by  the  savages,  served  to  encourage  them  in 
their  fell  work,  in  which,  when  their  passions  were  aroused,  no  known  people 
on  earth  were  less  touched  by  pity.  The  unprotected  settler  in  his  wilder- 
ness hrme  was  the  easy  prey  of  the  torch  and  the  scalping  knife,  and  the  burn- 
ing cabin  lit  up  the  somber  forests  by  their  continuous  blaze,  and  the  shrieks 
of  women  and  children  resounded  from  the  Hudson  to  the  far  Potomac  Be- 
fore the  defeat  of  Braddock,  there  were  3,000  men  capable  of  bearing  arms 
west  of  the  Susquehanna.     In  six  months  after,  there  were  scarcely  100. 

Gov.  Morris  made  an  earnest  appeal  to  the  Assembly  for  money  to  ward  off 
the  impending  enemy  and  protect  the  settlers,  in  response  to  which  the  As- 
sembly voted  £50,000;  but  having  no  exemption  of  the  proprietor's  estates, 
it  was  rejected  by  the  Governor,  in  accordance  with  his  original  instructions. 
Expeditions  undertaken  against  Nova  Scotia  and  at  Crown  Point  were  more  fortu- 
nate than  that  before  Du  Quesne,  and  the  Assembly  voted  £15,000  in  bills  of  credit 
to  aid  in  defraying  the  expense.  The  proprietors  sent  £5,000  as  a  gratuity, 
not  as  any  part  of  expense  that  could  of  right  be  claimed  of  them. 

In  this  hour  of  extremity,  the  Indians  for  the  most  part  showed  themselves 
a  treacherous  race,  ever  ready  to  take  up  on  the  stronger  side.  Even  the  Shaw- 
anese  and  Delawares,  who  had  been  loudest  in  their  protestations  of  friendship 
for  the  English  and  readiness  to  fight  for  them,  no  sooner  saw  the  French  vic- 
torious than  they  gave  ready  ear  to  their  advice  to  strike  for  the  recovery  of 
the  lands  which  they  had  sold  to  the  English. 

In  this  pressing  emergency,  while  the  Governor  and  Assembly  were  waging 
a  fruitless  war  of  words  over  money  bills,  the  pen  of  Franklin  was  busy  in  in- 
fusing a  wholesome  sentiment  in  the  minds  of  the  people.  In  a  pamphlet 
that  he  issued,  which  he  put  in  the  familiar  form  of  a  dialogue,  he  answered  the 
objections  which  had  been  urged  to  a  legalized  militia,  and  willing  to  show 
his  devotion  by  deeds   as  well  as  words,  he  accepted  the  command  upon  the 


frontier.  By  his  exertions,  a  respectable  force  was  raised,  and  though  in  the 
dead  of  winter,  he  commenced  the  erection  of  a  line  of  forts  and  block-houses 
along  the  whole  range  of  the  Kittatinny  Hills,  from  the  Delaware  to  the  Po- 
tomac, and  had  them  completed  and  garrisoned  with  a  body  sufficient  to  with- 
stand any  force  not  provided  with  artillery.  In  the  spring,  he  turned  over  the 
command  to  Col.  Clapham,  and  returning  to  Philadelphia  took  his  seat  in  the 
Assembly.  The  Governor  now  declared  war  against  the  Indians,  who  had  es- 
tablished their  headquarters  thirty  miles  above  Harris'  Ferry,  on  the  Susque- 
hanna, and  were  busy  in  their  work  of  robbery  and  devastation,  having  se- 
cured the  greater  portion  of  the  crops  of  the  previous  season  of  the  settlers 
whom  they  had  killed  or  driven  out.  The  peace  party  strongly  objected  to  the 
course  of  the  Governor,  and  voluntarily  going  among  the  Indians  induced 
them  to  bury  the  hatchet.  The  Assembly  which  met  in  May,  1756,  prepared  a 
bill  with  the  old  clause  for  taxing  the  proprietors,  as  any  other  citizens,  which 
the  Governor  was  forbidden  to  approve  by  his  instructions,  "and  the  two 
parties  were  sharpening  their  wits  for  another  wrangle  over  it,"  when  Gov. 
Morris  was  superseded  by  William  Denny,  who  arrived  in  the  colony  and  as- 
sumed authority  on  the  20th  of  August,  1756.  He  was  joyfully  and  cordially 
received,  escorted  through  the  streets  by  the  regiments  of  Franklin  and  Duche\ 
and  royally  feasted  at  the  State  House. 

But  the  promise  of  efficient  legislation  was  broken  by  an  exhibition  of  the 
new  Governor's  instructions,  which  provided  that  every  bill  for  the  emission  of 
money  must  place  the  proceeds  at  the  joint  disposal  of  the  Governor  and  As- 
sembly; paper  currency  could  not  be  issued  in  excess  of  £40,000,  nor  could  ex- 
isting issues  be  confirmed  unless  proprietary  rents  were  paid  in  sterling 
money  :  proprietary  lands  were  permitted  to  be  taxed  which  had  been  actually 
leased,  provided  that  the  taxes  were  paid  out  of  the  rents,  but  the  tax  could 
not  become  a  lien  upon  the  land.  In  the  first  Assembly,  the  contention  be- 
came as  acrimonious  as  ever. 

Previous  to  the  departure  of  Gov.  Morris,  as  a  retaliatory  act  he  had 
issued  a  proclamation  against  the  hostile  Indians,  providing  for  the  payment 
of  bounties:  For  every  male  Indian  enemy  above  twelve  years  old,  who  shall 
be  taken  prisoner  and  delivered  at  any  forts,  garrisoned  by  troops  in  pay 
of  this  province,  or  to  any  of  the  county  towns  to  thu  keepers  of  the  common 
jails  there,  the  sum  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  Spanish  dollars  or  pieces  of  eight; 
for  the  scalp  of  every  male  Indian  above  the  age  of  twelve  year's,  produced  as 
evidence  of  their  being  killed,  the  sum  of  one  hundred  and  thirty  pieces  of 
eight;  for  every  female  Indian  taken  prisoner  and  brought  in  as  aforesaid, 
and  for  every  male  Indian  under  the  age  of  twelve  years,  taken  and  brought 
in,  one  hundred  and  thirty  pieces  of  eight;  for  the  scalp  of  every  Indian 
woman  produced  as  evidence  of  their  being  killed,  the  sum  of  fifty  pieces  of 
eight/'  Liberal  bounties  were  also  offered  for  the  delivering  up  of  settlers  who 
had  been  carried  away  captive. 

But  the  operation  which  had  the  most  wholesome  and  pacifying  effect  upon 
the  savages,  and  caused  them  to  stop  in  their  mad  career  and  consider  the 
chances  of  war  and  the  punishment  they  were  calling  down  upon  their  own 
heads,  though  executed  under  the  rule  of  Gov.  Denny,  was  planned  and 
provided  for,  and  was  really  a  part  of  the  aggressive  and  vigorous  policy  of 
Gov.  Morris.  In  response  to  the  act  of  Assembly,  providing  for  the  calling 
out  and  organizing  the  militia,  twenty-five  companies  were  recruited,  and  had 
been  stationed  along  the  line  of  posts  that  had  been  established  for  the  defense 
of  the  frontiers.  At  Kittanning,  on  the  Allegheny  River,  the  Indians  had  one 
of  the  largest  of  their  towns  in  the  State,  and  was  a  recruiting  station  and 


rallying  point  for  sending  out  their  murderous  bands.  The  plan  proposed  and 
adopted  by  Gov.  Morris,  and  approved  and  accepted  by  Gov.  Denny, 
was  to  send  out  a  strong  detachment  from  the  militia  for  the  reduction  of  this 
stronghold.  Accordingly,  in  August,  1756,  Col.  Armstrong,  witb  a  force  of 
three  hundred  men,  made  a  forced  march,  and,  arriving  unperceived  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  the  town,  sent  the  main  body  by  a  wide  detour  from  above,  to  come 
in  upon  the  river  a  few  hundred  yards  below.  At  3  o'clock  on  the  morning  of 
the  7th  of  September,  the  troops  had  gained  their  position  undiscovered,  and 
at  dawn  the  attack  was  made.  Shielded  from  view  by  the  tall  corn  which  cov- 
ered all  the  flats,  the  troops  were  able  to  reach  in  close  proximity  to  the  cabins 
unobserved.  Jacobs,  the  chief,  sounded  the  war-whoop,  and  made  a  stout  re- 
sistance, keeping  up  a  rapid  tire  from  wfco  loop  holes  in  his  cabin.  Not  desir- 
ing to  push  his  advantage  to  the  issue  of  no  quarter,  Armstrong  called  on  the 
savages  to  surrender:  but  this  they  refused  to  do,  declaring  that  they  were 
men  and  would  never  be  prisoners.  Finding  that  they  would  not  yield,  and 
that  they  were  determined  to  sell  their  lives  at  the  dearest  rate,  he  gave  orders 
to  tire  the  huts,  and  the  whole  town  was  soon  wrapt  in  flames.  As  the  heat 
began  to  reach  the  warriors,  some  sung,  while  wrung  with  the  death  agonies; 
others  broke  for  the  river  and  were  shot  down  as  they  fled.  Jacobs,  in  attempt- 
ing to  climb  through  a  window,  was  killed.  All  calls  for  surrender  were  re- 
ceived with  derision,  one  declaring  that  he  did  not  care  for  death,  and  that  he 
could  kill  four  or  five  before  he  died.  Gunpowder,  small  arms  and  valuable 
goods  which  had  been  distributed  to  them  only  the  day  before  by  the  French, 
fell  into  the  hands  of  the  victors.  The  triumph  was  complete,  few  if  any 
escaping  to  tell  the  sad  tale.  Col.  Armstrong's  celerity  of  movement  and 
well  conceived  and  executed  plan  of  action  were  publicly  acknowledged,  and 
he  was  voted  a  medal  and  plate  by  the  city  of  Philadelphia. 

The  finances  of  the  colony,  on  account  of  the  repeated  failures  of  the 
money  bills,  were  in  a  deplorable  condition.  Military  operations  could  not 
be  carried  on  and  vigorous  campaigns  prosecuted  without  ready  money.  Ac- 
cordingly, in  the  first  meeting  of  the  Assembly  after  the  arrival  of  the  new 
Governor,  a  bill  was  passed  levying  £100,000  on  all  property  alike,  real  and 
personal,  private  and  proprietary.  This  Gov.  Denny  vetoed.  Seeing  that 
money  must  be  had,  the  Assembly  finally  passed  a  bill  exempting  the  proprie- 
tary estates,  but  determined  to  lay  their  grievances  before  the  Crown.  To 
this  end,  two  Commissioners  were  appointed,  Isaac  Norris  and  Benjamin 
Franklin,  to  proceed  to  England  and  beg  the  interference  of  the  royal  Gov- 
ernment in  their  behalf.  Failing  health  and  business  engagements  of  Norris 
prevented  his  acceptance,  and  Franklin  proceeded  alone.  He  had  so  often  de- 
fended the  Assembly  in  public  and  in  drawing  remonstrances  that  the  whole 
subject  was  at  his  fingers'  ends. 

Military  operations  throughout  the  colonies,  during  the  year  1757,  con- 
ducted under  the  command  of  the  Earl  of  Loudoun  were  sluggish,  and  resulted 
only  in  disaster  and  disgrace.  The  Indians  were  active  in  Pennsylvania,  and 
kept  the  settlers  throughout  nearly  all  the  colonies  in  a  continual  ferment, 
hostile  bands  stealing  in  upon  the  defenseless  inhabitants  as  they  went  to 
their  plantings  and  sowings,  and  greatly  interfering  with  or  preventing  alto- 
gether the  raising  of  the  ordinary  crops.  In  1758,  Loudoun  was  recalled, 
and  Gen.  Abercrombie  was  given  chief  command,  with  Wolfe,  Amherst  and 
Forbes  as  his  subordinates.  It  was  determined  to  direct  operations  simul- 
taneously upon  three  points — Fort  Du  Quesne,  Louisburg  and  the  forts  upon 
the  great  lakes.  Gen.  Forbes  commanded  the  forces  sent  against  Fort  Du 
Quesne.     With  a  detachment  of  royal  troops,  and  militia  from  Pennsylvania 


and  Virginia,  under  command  of  Cols.  Bouquet  and  Washington,  his  column 
moved  in  July,  1758.  The  French  were  well  ordered  for  receiving  the  attack, 
and  the  battle  in  front  of  the  fort  raged  with  great  fury;  but  they  were  finally 
driven,  and  the  fort,  with  its  munitions,  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  victors,  and 
was  garrisoned  by  400  Pennsylvanians.  Returning,  Forbes  placed  his  remain- 
ing forces  in  barracks  at  Lancaster. 

Franklin,  upon  his  arrival  in  England,  presented  the  grievances  before  the 
proprietors,  and,  that  he  might  get  his  case  before  the  royal  advisers  and  the 
British  public,  wrote  frequent  articles  for  the  press,  and  issued  a  pamphlet 
entitled  "  Historical  Review  of  the  Constitution  and  Government  of  Pennsyl- 
vania." The  dispute  was  adroitly  managed  by  Franklin  before  the  Privy 
Council,  and  was  finally  decided  substantially  in  the  interest  of  the  Assem- 
bly. It  was  provided  that  the  proprietors'  estates  should  be  taxed,  but  that 
their  located  uncultivated  lands  should  be  assessed  as  low  as  the  lowest  uncul- 
tivated lands  of  the  settlers,  that  bills  issued  by  the  Assembly  should  be  re- 
ceivable in  payment  of  quit  rents,  and  that  the  Deputy  Governor  should  have 
a  voice  in  disposing  of  the  revenues.  Thus  was  a  vexed  question  of  loDg 
standing  finally  put  to  rest.  So  successfully  had  Franklin  managed  this  con- 
troversy that  the  colonies  of  Massachusetts,  Maryland  and  Georgia  appointed 
him  their  agent  in  England. 

In  October,  1759,  James  Hamilton  was  again  appointed  Governor,  in  place 
of  Gov.  Denny,  who  had  by  stress  of  circumstances  transcended  his  instruc- 
tions. The  British  Government,  considering  that  the  colonies  had  borne  more 
than  their  proportionate  expense  in  carrying  on  the  war  against  the  French 
and  Indians,  voted  £200,000  for  five  years,  to  be  divided  among  the  colonies, 
the  share  falling  to  Pennsylvania  being  £26,000.  On  the  25th  of  October, 
1760,  George  II  died,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  grandson,  George  III.  Early 
in  1762,  war  was  declared  between  Great  Britain  and  Spain,  but  was  of  short 
continuance,  peace  having  been  declared  in  November  following,  by  which 
Spain  and  France  relinquished  to  the  English  substantially  the  territory  east 
of  the  Mississippi.  The  wise  men  of  the  various  Indian  nations  inhabiting 
this  wide  territory  viewed  with  concern  this  sudden  expansion  of  English 
power,  fearing  that  they  would  eventually  bo  pushed  from  their  hunting 
grounds  and  pleasant  haunts  by  the  rapidly  multiplying  pale  faces.  The  In- 
dians have  ever  been  noted  for  proceeding  against  an  enemy  secretly  and 
treacherously.  Believing  that  by  concerted  action  the  English  might  be  cut 
off  and  utterly  exterminated,  a  secret  league  was  entered  into  by  the  Shawa- 
nese  and  the  tribes  dwelling  along  the  Ohio  River,  under  the  leadership  of  a 
powerful  chieftain,  Pontiac,  by  which  swift  destruction  was  everywhere  to  be 
meted  out  to  the  white  man  upon  an  hour  of  an  appointed  day.  The  plan  was 
thoroughly  understood  by  the  red  men,  and  heartily  entered  into.  The  day 
dawned  and  the  blow  fell  in  May,  1763.  The  forts  at  Presque  Isle,  Le  Boeuf, 
Venango,  La  Ray,  St.  Joseph's,  Miamis,  Onaethtanon,  Sandusky  and  Michili- 
mackinack,  all  fell  before  the  unanticipated  attacks  of  the  savages  who  were 
making  protestations  of  friendship,  and  the  garrisons  were  put  to  the  slaugh- 
ter. Fort  Pitt  (Du  Quesne),  Niagara  and  Detroit  alone,  of  all  this  line  of 
forts,  held  out.  Pontiac  in  person  conducted  the  siege  of  Detroit,  which  he 
vigorously  pushed  from  May  until  October,  paying  his  warriors  with  promises 
written  on  bits  of  birch  bark,  which  he  subsequently  religiously  redeemed.  It  is 
an  evidence  of  his  gieat  power  that  he  could  unite  his  people  in  so  gen- 
eral and  secretly  kept  a  compact,  and  that  in.  this  siege  of  Detroit  he  was  able 
to  hold  his  warriors  up  to  the  work  so  long  and  so  vigorously  even  after  all  hope 
of  success  must  have  reasonably  been  abandoned.     The  attack  fell  with  great 


severity  upon  the  Pennsylvania  settlors,  and  they  continued  to  be  driven  in 
until  Shippensbung,  in  Cumberland  County,  became  the  extreme  outpost  of 
civilization.  The  savages  stole  unawares  upon  the  laborers  in  the  tields,  or 
came  stealthily  in  at  the  midnight  hour  and  spared  neither  trembling  age  nor 
helpless  infancy,  firing  houses,  barns,  crops  and  everything  combustible. 
The  suffering  of  the  frontiersmen  in  this  fatal  year  can  scarcely  be  conceived. 

Col.  Armstrong  with  a  hastily  collected  force  advanced  upon  their  towns 
and  forts  at  Muncy  and  Great  Island,  which  he  destroyed;  but  the  Indians 
escaped  and  withdrew  before  him.  He  sent  a  detachment  under  Col.  Bouquet 
to  the  relief  of  Fort  Pitt,  which  still  held  out,  though  closely  invested  by  the 
dusky  warriors.  At  Fort  Ligonier,  Bouquet  halted  and  sent  forward  thirty 
men,  who  stealthily  pushed  past  the  Indians  under  cover  of  night,  and  reached 
the  fort,  carrying  intelligence  that  succor  was  at  hand.  Discovering  that  a 
force  was  advancing  upon  them,  the  Indians  turned  upon  the  troops  of  Bou- 
quet, and  before  he  was  aware  that  an  enemy  was  near,  he  found  himself  sur- 
rounded and  all  means  of  escape  apparently  cut  off.  By  a  skillfully  laid 
ambuscade,  Bouquet,  sending  a  small  detachment  to  steal  away  as  if  in  retreat, 
induced  the  Indians  to  follow,  and  when  stretched  out  in  pursuit,  the  main 
body  in  concealment  fell  upon  the  unsuspecting  savages,  and  routed  them  with 
immense  slaughter,  when  he  advanced  to  the  relief  of  the  fort  unchecked. 

As  we  have  already  seen,  the  boundary  line  between  Maryland  and  Penn- 
sylvania had  long  been  in  dispute,  and  had  occasioned  serious  disturbances 
among  the  settlers  in  the  lifetime  of  Penn,  and  repeatedly  since.  It  was  not 
definitely  settled  till  1760,  when  a  beginning  was  made  of  a  final  adjustment, 
though  so  intricate  were  the  conditions  that  the  work  was  prosecuted  for  seven 
years  by  a  large  force  of  surveyors,  axmen  and  pioneers.  The  charter  of  Lord 
Baltimore  made  the  northern  boundary  of  Maryland  the  40th  degree  of  lati- 
tude; but  whether  the  beginning  or  end  of  the  40th  was  not  specified.  The 
charter  of  Penn,  which  was  subsequent,  made  his  southern  boundary  the 
beginning  of  the  40th  parallel.  If,  as  Lord  Baltimore  claimed,  his  northern 
boundary  was  the  end  of  the  40th,  then  the  city  of  Philadelphia  and  all  the 
settled  parts  of  Pennsylvania  would  have  been  included  in  Maryland.  If,  as 
Penn  claimed  by  express  terms  of  his  charter,  his  southern  line  was  the  begin- 
ning of  the  40th,  then  the  city  of  Baltimore,  and  even  a  part  of  the  District  of 
Columbia,  including  nearly  the  whole  of  Maryland  would  have  been  swal- 
lowed up  by  Pennsylvania.  It  was  evident  to  the  royal  Council  that  neither 
claim  could  be  rightfully  allowed,  and  nence  resort  was  had  to  compromise. 
Penn  insisted  upon  retaining  free  communication  with  the  open  ocean  by  the 
Delaware  Bay.  Accordingly,  it  was  decided  that  beginning  at  Cape  Henlopen, 
which  by  mistake  in  marking  the  maps  was  fifteen  miles  below  the  present 
location,  opposite  Cape  May,  a  line  should  be  run  due  west  to  a  point  half  way 
between  this  cape  and  the  shore  of  Chesapeake  Bay;  from  this  point  "  a  line 
was  to  be  run  northerly  in  such  direction  that  it  should  be  tangent  on  the  west 
side  to  a  circle  with  a  radius  of  twelve  miles,  whose  center  was  the  center  of 
the  court  house  at  New  Castle.  From  the  exact  tangent  point,  a  line  was  to  be 
run  due  north  until  it  should  reach  a  point  fifteen  miles  south  on  the  parallel 
of  latitude  of  the  most  southern  point  in  the  boundary  of  the  city  of  Phila- 
delphia, and  this  point  when  accurately  found  by  horizontal  measurement,  was 
to  be  the  corner  bound  between  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania,  and  subsequently, 
when  Delaware  was  set  off  from  Pennsylvania,  was  the  boundary  of  the  three 
States.  From  this  bound  a  line  was  to  be  run  due  west  five  degrees  of  longi- 
tude from  the  Delaware,  which  was  to  be  the  western  limit  of  Pennsylvania, 
and  the  line  thus  ascertained  was  to  mark  the  division  between  Maryland  and 


Pennsylvania,  and  forever  settle  the  vexed  question.  If  the  due  north  line 
should  cut  any  part  of  the  circle  about  New  Castle,  the  slice  so  cut  should  be- 
long to  New  Castle.  Such  a  segment  was  cut.  This  plan  of  settlement  was 
entered  into  on  the  10th  of  May,  1732,  between  Thomas  and  Richard,  sons  of 
William  Penn,  on  the  one  part,  and  Charles,  Lord  Baltimore,  great  grandson 
of  the  patentee.  But  the  actual  marking  of  the  boundaries  was  still  deferred, 
and  as  the  settlers  were  taking  out  patents  for  their  lands,  it  was  necessary 
that  it  should  be  definitely  known  in  which  State  the  lands  lay.  Accordingly, 
in  1739,  in  obedience  to  a  decree  in  Council,  a  temporary  line  was  run  upon  a 
new  basis,  which  now  often  appears  in  litigations  to  plague  the  brain  of  the 

Commissioners  were  again  appointed  in  1751,  who  made  a  few  of  the 
measurements,  but  owing  to  objections  raised  on  the  part  of  Maiyland,  the 
work  was  abandoned.  Finally,  the  proprietors,  Thomas  and  Kichard  Penn, 
and  Frederic,  Lord  Baltimore,  entered  into  an  agreement  for  the  executing  of 
the  survey,  and  John  Lukens  and  Archibald  McLean  on  the  part  of  the  Penns, 
and  Thomas  Garnett  and  Jonathan  Hall  on  the  part  of  Lord  Baltimore,  were 
appointed  with  a  suitable  corps  of  assistants  to  lay  off  the  lines.  After  these 
surveyors  had  been  three  years  at  work,  the  proprietors  in  England,  thinking 
that  there  was  not  enough  energy  and  practical  and  scientific  knowledge  mani- 
fested by  these  surveyors,  appointed  Charles  Mason  and  Jeremiah  Dixon,  two 
mathematicians  and  surveyors,  to  proceed  to  America  and  take  charge  of  the 
work.  They  brought  with  them  the  most  perfect  and  best  constructed  instru- 
ments known  to  science,  arriving  in  Philadelphia  on  the  15th  of  November, 
1763,  and,  assisted  by  some  of  the  old  surveyors,  entered  upon  their  work.  By 
the  4th  of  June,  1766,  they  had  reached  the  summit  of  the  Little  Allegheny, 
when  the  Indians  began  to  be  troublesome.  They  looked  with  an  evil  eye  on 
the  mathematical  and  astronomical  instruments,  and  felt  a  secret  dread  and 
fear  of  the  consequences  of  the  frequent  and  long  continued  peering  into  the 
heavens.  The  Six  Nations  were  understood  to  be  inimical  to  the  further  prog- 
ress of  the  survey.  But  through  the  influence  of  Sir  William  Johnson  a 
treaty  was  concluded,  providing  for  the  prosecution  of  the  work  unmolested, 
and  a  number  of  chieftains  were  sent  to  accompany  the  surveying  party. 
Mason  and  Dixon  now  had  with  them  thirty  surveyors,  fifteen  axmen,  and  fif- 
teen Indians  of  consequence.  Again  the  attitude  of  the  Indians  gave  cause  of 
fear,  and  on  the  29th  of  September,  twenty-six  of  the  surveyors  abandoned  the 
expedition  and  returned  to  Philadelphia.  Having  reached  a  point  244  miles 
from  the  Delaware,  and  within  thirty-six  miles  of  the  western  limit  of  the 
State,  in  the  bottom  of  a  deep,  dark  valley,  they  came  upon  a  well-worn 
Indian  path,  and  here  the  Indians  gave  notice  that  it  was  the  will  of  the  Six 
Nations  that  this  survey  proceed  no  further.  There  was  no  questioning  this 
authority,  and  no  means  at  command  for  resisting,  and  accordingly  the  party 
broke  up  and  returned  to  Philadelphia.  And  this  was  the  end  of  ^e  labors  of 
Mason  and  Dixon  upon  this  boundary.  From  the  fact  that  this  was  subse- 
quently the  mark  of  division  between  the  Free  and  Slave  States,  Mason  and 
Dixon's  line  became  familiar  in  American  politics.  The  line  was  marked  by 
stones  which  were  quarried  and  engraved  in  England,  on  one  side  having  the 
arms  of  Penn,  and  on  the  opposite  those  of  Lord  Baltimore.  These  stones 
were  firmly  set  every  five  miles.  At  the  end  of  each  intermediate  mile  a 
smaller  stone  was  placed,  having  on  one  side  engraved  the  letter  P.,  and  on  the 
opposite  side  the  letter  M.  The  remainder  of  the  line  was  finished  and  marked 
in  1782-84  by  other  surveyors.  A  vista  was  cut  through  the  forest  eight  yards  in 
width  the  whole  distance,  which  seemed  in  looking  back  through  it  to  come  to  a 


point  at  the  distance  of  two  miles.  In  1849,  the  stone  at  the  northeast  corner 
of  Maryland  having  been  removed,  a  resurvey  of  the  line  was  ordered,  and 
suryeyors  were  appointed  by  the  three  States  of  Pennsylvania,  Delaware  and 
Maryland,  who  called  to  their  aid  Col.  James  D.  Graham.  Some  few  errors 
were  discovered  in  the  old  survey,  but  in  the  main  it  was  found  to  be  accurate. 
John  Penn,  grandson  of  the  founder,  and  son  of  Richard,  had  come  to  the 
colony  in  1753,  and,  having  acted  as  President  of  the  Council,  was,  in  1763, 
commissioned  Governor  in  place  of  Hamilton.  The  conspiracy  of  Pontiac, 
though  abortive  in  the  results  contemplated,  left  the  minds  of  the  Indians  in 
a  most  dangerous  state.  The  more  resolute,  who  had  entered  heartily  into  the 
views  of  their  leader,  still  felt  that  his  purposes  were  patriotic,  and  hence 
sought,  by  every  means  possible,  to  ravage  and  destroy  the  English  settlements. 
The  Moravian  Indians  at  Nain  and  Wichetunk,  though  regarded  as  friendly, 
were  suspected  of  indirectly  aiding  in  the  savage  warfare  by  trading  firearms 
and  ammunition.  They  were  accordingly  removed  to  Philadelphia  that  they 
might  be  out  of  the  way  of  temptation.  At  the  old  Indian  town  of  Conestoga 
there  lived  some  score  of  natives.  Many  heartless  murders  had  been  com- 
mitted along  the  frontier,  and  the  perpetrators  had  been  traced  to  this  Con- 
estoga town  ;  and  while  the  Conestoga  band  were  not  known  to  be  impli- 
cated in  these  outrages,  their  town  was  regarded  as  the  lurking  place  of  roving 
savages  who  were.  For  protection,  the  settlers  in  the  neighboring  districts  of 
Paxton  and  Donegal,  had  organized  a  band  known  as  thePaxton  boys.  Earnest 
requests  were  made  by  Kev.  John  Elder  and  John  Harris  to  the  Government 
to  remove  this  band  at  Conestoga  ;  but  as  nothing  was  done,  and  fearful 
depredations  and  slaughter  continued,  a  party  of  these  Paxton  rangers  attacked 
the  town  and  put  the  savages  to  the  sword.  Some  few  escaped,  among  them  a 
known  bloodthirsty  savage,  who  were  taken  into  the  jail  at  Lancaster  for  pro- 
tection ;  but  the  rangers,  following  them,  overpowered  the  jailer,  and  breaking 
into  tba  jail  murdered  the  fugitives.  Intense  excitement  was  occasioned  by 
this  outbreak,  and  Gov.  Penn  issued  his  proclamation  offering  rewards  for  the 
apprehension  of  the  perpetrators.  Some  few  were  taken  ;  but  so  excel lent  was 
their  character  and  standing,  and  such  were  the  provocations,  that  no  convic- 
tions followed.  Apprehensions  for  the  safety  of  the  Moravian  Indians  induced 
the  Government  to  remove  them  to  Province  Island,  and,  feeling  insecure 
there,  they  asked  to  be  sent  to  England.  For  safety,  they  were  sent  to  New 
York,  but  the  Governor  of  that  province  refused  them  permission  to  laud,  as 
did  also  the  Governor  of  New  Jersey,  and  they  were  brought  back  to  Philadel- 
phia and  put  in  barracks  under  strong  guard.  The  Paxton  boys,  in  a  consider- 
able body,  were  at  that  time  at  Germantown  interceding  for  their  brethren, 
who  were  then  in  durance  and  threatened  with  trial.  Franklin  was  sent  out 
to  confer  with  them  on  the  part  of  the  Government.  In  defending  their  course, 
they  said  :  "  Whilst  more  than  a  thousand  families,  reduced  to  extreme  dis- 
tress, during  the  last  and  present  war,  by  the  attacks  of  skulking  parties  of 
Indians  upon  the  frontier,  were  destitute,  and  were  suffered  by  the  public  to 
depend  on  private  charity,  a  hundred  and  twenty  of  the  perpetrators  of  the 
most  horrid  barbarities  were  supported  by  the  province,  and  protected  from 
the  fury  of  the  brave  relatives  of  the  murdered."  Influenced  by  the  persua- 
sions of  Franklin,  they  consented  to  return  to  their  homes,  leaving  only 
Matthew  Smith  and  James  Gibson  to  represent  them  before  the  courts. 



John  Penn,  1763-71— James  Hamilton,  1771— Richard  Penn,  1771-73— John 

Penn,  1773-76. 

A  DIFFERENCE  having  arisen  between  the  Governor  and  Assembly  on  the 
vexed  question  of  levying  money,  the  Assembly  passed  a  series  of  reso- 
lutions advocating  that  the  "  powers  of  government  ought  to  be  separated  from 
the  power  attending  the  immense  proprietary  property,  and  lodged  in  the 
hands  of  the  King. "  After  an  interval  of  fifty  days — that  time  for  reflection 
and  discussion  might  be  given — the  Assembly  again  convened,  and  adopted  a 
petition  praying  the  King  to  assume  the  direct  government  of  the  province, 
though  this  policy  was  strongly  opposed  by  some  of  the  ablest  members,  as 
Isaac  Norris  and  John  Dickinson.  The  Quaker  element  was  generally  in 
favor  of  the  change. 

Indian  bai'barities  still  continuing  along  the  frontier,  Gov.  Penn  declared 
war  against  the  Shawanese  and  Delawares  in  July,  1765,  and  sent  Col.  Bouquet 
with  a  body  of  Pennsylvania  troops  against  them.  By  the  3d  of  October,  he 
had  come  up  to  the  Muskingum,  in  the  heart  of  the  most  thickly  peopled 
Indian  territory.  So  rapid  had  been  the  movement  of  Bouquet  that  the  savages 
had  no  intelligence  of  his  advance  until  he  was  upon  them  with  no  preparations 
for  defense.  They  sued  for  peace,  and  a  treaty  was  entered  into  by  which  the 
savages  agreed  to  abstain  from  further  hostilities  until  a  general  treaty  could 
be  concluded  with  Sir  William  Johnson,  the  general  agent  for  Indian  affairs 
for  all  the  colonies,  and  to  deliver  up  all  English  captives  who  had  been  carried 
away  during  the  years  of  trouble.  Two  hundred  and  eight  were  quickly 
gathered  up  and  brought  in,  and  many  others  were  to  follow,  who  were  now 
widely  scattered.  The  relatives  of  many  of  these  captives  had  proceeded  with 
the  train  of  Bouquet,  intent  on  reclaiming  those  who  had  been  dear  to  them. 
Some  were  joyfully  received,  while  others  who  had  been  borne  off  in  youth  had 
become  attached  to  their  captors,  and  force  was  necessary  to  bring  them  away. 
"  On  the  return  of  the  army,  some  of  the  Indians  obtained  leave  to  accompany 
their  former  captives  to  Fort  Pitt,  and  employed  themselves  in  hunting  and 
carrying  provisions  for  them  on  the  road. " 

The  great  struggle  for  ihe  independence  of  the  colonies  of  the  British 
crown  was  now  close  at  hand,  and  the  first  sounds  of  the  controversy  were  be- 
ginning to  be  heard.  Sir  William  Keith,  that  enterprising  Governor  whose 
head  seemed  to  have  been  full  of  new  projects,  as  early  as  1739  had  proposed 
to  lay  a  uniform  tax  on  stamped  paper  in  all  the  colonies,  to  realize  funds  for 
the  common  defense.  Acting  upon  this  hint,  Grenville,  the  British  Minister, 
notified  the  colonists  in  1763  of  his  purpose  to  impose  such  a  tax.  Against 
this  they  remonstrated.  Instead  of  this,  a  tax  on  imports,  to  be  paid  in  coin, 
was  adopted.  This  was  even  more  distasteful.  The  Assembly  of  Rhode 
Island,  in  October,  1765,  submitted  a  paper  to  all  the  colonial  assemblies,  with 
a  view  to  uniting  in  a  common  petition  to  the  King  against  parliamentary 
taxation.  This  was  favorably  acted  on  by  the  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania,  and 
Franklin  was  appointed  agent  to  represent  their  cause  before  the  British  Par- 
liament. The  Stamp  Act  had  been  passed  on  the  22d  of  March,  1765.  Its 
passage  excited  bitter  opposition,  and  a  resolution,  asserting  that  the  Colonial 


Assemblies  had  the  exclusive  right  to  levy  taxes,  was  passed  by  the  Virginia 
Assembly,  and  concurred  in  by  all  the  others.  The  Massachusetts  Assembly 
proposed  a  meeting  of  delegates  in  New  York  on  the  second  Tuesday  of  October, 
1765,  to  confer  upon  the  subject.  The  Pennsylvania  Assembly  adopted  the 
suggestion,  and  appointed  Messrs.  Fox,  Morton,  Bryan  and  Dickenson  as  dele- 
gates. This  Congress  met  according  to  the  call  and  adopted  a  respectful  pe- 
tition to  the  King,  and  a  memorial  to  Parliament,  which  were  signed  by  all 
the  members  and  forwarded  for  presentation  by  the  Colonial  Agents  in  En- 
gland. The  Stamp  Act  was  to  go  into  effect  on  the  1st  of  November.  On  the 
last  day  of  October,  the  newspapers  were  dressed  in  mourning,  and  suspended 
publication.  The  publishers  agreed  not  to  use  the  stamped  paper.  The 
people,  as  with  one  mind,  determined  to  dress  in  homespun,  resolved  not  to 
use  imported  goods,  and,  to  stimulate  the  production  of  wool  the  colonists  cov- 
enanted not  to  eat  lamb  for  the  space  of  one  year.  The  result  of  this  policy 
was  soon  felt  by  British  manufacturers  who  became  clamorous  for  repeal  of 
the  obnoxious  measures,  and  it  was  accordingly  repealed  on  the  18th  of  March, 

Determined  in  some  form  to  draw  a  revenue  from  the  colonies,  an  act  was 
passed  in  1767,  to  lay  a  duty  on  tea,  paper,  printers'  colors,  and  glass.  The  As- 
sembly of  Pennsylvania  passed  a  resolution  on  the  '20th  of  February,  1768, 
instructing  its  agent  in  London  to  urge  its  repeal,  and  at  the  session  in  May 
received  and  entered  upon  its  minutos  a  circular  letter  from  the  Massachusetts 
Assembly,  setting  forth  the  grounds  on  which  objection  to  the  act  should  be 
urged.  This  circular  occasioned  hostile  feeling  among  the  ministry,  and  the 
Secretary  for  foreign  affairs  wrote  to  Gov.  Penn  to  urge  the  Assembly  to 
take  no  notice  of  it;  but  if  they  approved  its  sentiments,  to  prorogue  their 
sittings.  This  letter  was  transmitted  to  the  Assembly,  and  soon  after  one 
from  the  Virginia  Assembly  was  presented,  urging  union  of  all  the  colonies 
in  opposing  the  several  schemes  of  taxation.  This  recommendation  was 
adopted,  and  committees  appointed  to  draw  a  petition  to  the  King  and  to  each 
of  the  Houses  of  Parliament.  To  lead  public  sentiment,  and  have  it  well 
grounded  in  the  arguments  used  against  taxation,  John  Dickinson,  one  of  the 
ablest  of  the  Pennsylvania  legislators  at  this  time,  published  a  number  of 
articles  purporting  to  come  from  a  plain  farmer,  under  the  title  of  the  Farmer's 
Letters,  which  became  popular,  the  idea  that  they  were  the  work  of  one  in 
humble  life,  helping  to  swell  the  tide  of  popularity.  They  were  republished 
in  all  the  colonies,  and  exerted  a  commanding  influence.  Alarmed  at  the 
unanimity  of  feeling  against  the  proposed  schemes,  and  supposing  that  it  was 
the  amount  of  the  tax  that  gave  offense,  Parliament  reduced  the  rate  in  1769 
to  one  sixth  of  the  original  sum,  and  in  1770  abolished  it  altogether,  except 
three  pence  a  pound  on  tea  But  it  was  the  principle,  and  not  the  amount 
that  was  objected  to,  and  at  the  next  session  of  the  Assembly  in  Pennsylvania, 
their  agent  in  London  was  directed  to  urge  its  repeal  altogether. 

It  would  seem  incredible  that  the  colony  of  Connecticut  should  lay  claim 
to  any  part  of  the  territory  of  Pennsylvania,  but  so  it  was.  The  New  En- 
gland charters  gave  limitless  extent  westward  even  to  the  shores  of  the  Pacific 
Ocean,  and  south  to  the  northern  limits  of  the  tract  ceded  to  Lord  Baltimore — 
the  territory  between  the  40th  and  46th  degrees  of  north  latitude,  and  from 
ocean  to  ocean.  To  encroach  upon  New  York  with  its  teaming  popu- 
lation was  not  calculated  to  tempt  the  enterprise  of  the  settler;  but 
the  rich  virgin  soil,  and  agreeable  climate  of  the  wide  Wyoming  Val- 
ley, as  yet  unappropriated,  was  likely  to  attract  the  eye  of  the  explorer. 
Accordingly,    at  the    general    conference   with  the   Indians   held   at  Albany 


in  1754,  the  Connecticut  delegates  made  a  purchase  of  a  large  tract  in 
this  valley ;  a  company,  known  as  the  Susquehanna  Company,  was  formed  in 
Connecticut  to  promote  the  settlement  of  these  lands,  and  a  considerable  im- 
migration commenced.  The  proprietors  of  Pennsylvania  had  also  made  pur- 
chase of  the  Indians  of  these  identical  lands,  and  the  royal  charters  of  Charles 
and  James  covered  this  ground.  But  the  Plymouth  Charter  antedated  Penn's. 
Remonstrances  were  made  to  the  Governor  of  Connecticut  against  encroach- 
ments upon  the  territory  of  Pennsylvania.  The  answer  returned  was  under- 
stood to  disclaim  any  control  over  the  company  by  the  Connecticut  authorities; 
but  it  subsequently  appeared  that  the  Government  was  determined  to  defend 
the  settlers  in  the  possession  of  their  lands.  In  1768,  the  proprietors  of  Penn- 
sylvania entered  into  treaty  stipulations  with  the  Indians  for  all  this  tract  cov- 
ered by  the  claim  of  the  Susquehanna  Company.  Pennsylvania  settlers, 
attracted  by  the  beauty  of  the  place,  gradually  acquired  lands  under  Penn- 
sylvania patents,  and  the  two  parties  began  to  infringe  on  each  other's  claims. 
Forts  and  block-houses  were  erected  for  the  protection  of  either  party,  and  a 
petty  warfare  was  kept  up,  which  resulted  in  some  loss  of  life.  Butler,  the 
leader  of  the  Connecticut  party,  proposed  to  settle  their  differences  by  per- 
sonal combat  of  thirty  picked  men  on  each  side.  In  order  to  assert  more  direct 
legal  control  over  the  settlers,  a  new  county  was  formed  which  was  called 
Northumberland,  that  embraced  all  the  disputed  lands.  But  the  Sheriff,  even 
with  the  aid  of  the  militia,  which  he  called  to  his  assistance,  was  unable  to 
execute  his  processes,  and  exercise  legal  control,  the  New  Englanders,  proving 
a  resolute  set,  determined  to  hold  the  splendid  farms  which  they  had  marked 
out  for  themselves,  and  were  bringing  rapidly  under  cultivation.  To  the  re- 
monstrances of  Gov.  Penn,  Gov.  Trumbull  responded  that  the  Susquehanna  Com- 
pany was  proceeding  in  good  faith  under  provisions  secured  by  the  charter  of 
the  Plymouth  Colony,  and  proposed  that  the  question  be  submitted  to  a  com- 
petent tribunal  for  ai'bitrament.  An  ex  parte  statement  was  submitted  to 
Council  in  London  by  the  Connecticut  party,  and  an  opinion  was  rendered 
favorable  to  its  claims.  In  September,  1775,  the  matter  was  submitted  to  the 
Continental  Congress,  and  a  committee  of  that  body,  to  whom  it  was  referred, 
reported  in  favor  of  the  Connecticut  claim,  apportioning  a  tract  out  of  the 
very  bowels  of  Pennsylvania  nearly  as  large  as  the  whole  State  of  Connecticut. 
This  action  was  promptly  rejected  by  the  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania,  and  a 
final  decision  was  not  reached  until  1802,  when  Congress  decided  in  favor  of 
the  integrity  of  the  chartered  rights  of  Penn. 

Richard  Penn,  son  of  the  founder,  died  in  1771,  whereupon  Gov.  John 
Penn  returned  to  England,  leaving  the  President  of  the  Council,  James  Ham- 
ilton, at  the  head  of  the  Government.  John  Penn,  eldest  son  of  Richard,  suc- 
ceeded to  the  proprietary  interests  of  his  father,  which  he  held  in  conjunction 
with  his  uncle,  Thomas,  and  in  October  of  the  same  year,  Richard,  the  second 
son,  was  commissioned  Governor.  He  held  the  office  but  about  two  years,  and 
in  that  time  won  the  confidence  and  esteem  of  the  people,  and  so  much  attached 
was  he  to  the  popular  cause,  that  upon  his  return  to  England,  in  1775,  he  was 
intrusted  by  Congress  with  the  last  petition  of  the  colonies  ever  presented  to 
the  King.  In  August,  1773,  John  Penn  returned  with  the  commission  of 
Governor,  superseding  his  brother  Richard.  Soon  after  his  arrival,  the  Gov- 
ernor of  Virginia,  Lord  Dunmore,  issued  his  proclamation,  laying  claim  to  a 
vast  territory  in  the  Monongalia  Valley,  including  the  site  of  the  present 
city  of  Pittsburgh,  and  upon  the  withdrawal  of  the  British  garrison,  one  Con- 
nolly had  taken  possession  of  it  in  the  name  of  Virginia.  Gov.  Penn  issued  a 
counter-proclamation,  calling  on  all  good  citizens  within  the  borders  of  Penn- 


Bylvania,  to  preserve  their  allegiance  to  his  (government,  seized  and  imprisoned 
Connolly,  and  sent  Commissioners  to  Virginia  to  effect  an  amicable  settlement. 
These,  Dunmore  refused  to  hear,  and  was  preparing  to  assert  his  authority  by 
force;  but  his  Council  refused  to  vote  him  money  for  this  purpose. 

To  encourage  the  sale  of  tea  in  the  colonies,  and  establish  the  principle  of 
taxation,  the  export  duty  was  removed.  The  colonies  took  the  alarm.  At  a 
public  meeting  called  in  Philadelphia  to  consider  the  subject,  on  the  18th  of 
October,  1773,  resolutions  were  adopted  in  which  it  was  declared  :  "  That  the 
disposal  of  their  own  property  is  the  inherent  right  of  freemen;  that  there  can 
be  no  property  in  that  which  another  can,  of  right,  take  from  us  without  our 
consent;  that  the  claim  of  Parliament  to  tax  America,  is,  in  other  words,  a  claim 
of  right  to  levy  contributions  on  us  at  pleasure.''  The  East  India  Company 
now  made  preparations  for  sending  large  importations  of  tea  into  the  colonies. 
The  ships  destined  for  Philadelphia  and  New  York,  on  approaching  port,  and 
being  advised  of  the  exasperated  state  of  public  feeling,  returned  to  England 
with  their  cargoes.  Those  sent  to  Boston  came  into  the  harbor;  but  at  night  a 
party  disguised  as  Mohawk  Indians  boarded  the  vessels,  and  breaking  open 
the  packages,  emptied  300  chests  into  the  sea.  The  ministry,  on  being  apprised 
of  this  act,  closed  the  port  of  Boston,  and  subverted  the  colonial  charter. 
Early  in  the  year,  committees  of  correspondence  had  been  established  in  all 
the  colonies,  by  means  of  which  the  temper  and  feeling  in  each  was  well  un- 
derstood by  the  others,  and  concert  of  action  was  secured.  The  hard  condi- 
tions imposed  on  the  town  of  Boston  and  the  colony  of  Massachusetts  Bay, 
aroused  the  sympathy  of  all ;  for,  they  argued,  we  know  not  how  soon  the  heavy 
hand  of  oppression  may  be  felt  by  any  of  us.  Philadelphia  declared  at  a  pub- 
lic meeting  that  the  people  of  Pennsylvania  would  continue  firmly  to  adhere 
to  the  cause  of  American  liberty,  and  urged  the  calling  of  a  Congress  of  dele- 
gates to  consider  the  general  interests. 

At  ■:  meetiug  held  in  Philadelphia  on  the  18th  of  June,  1774,  at  which 
nearly  8,000  people  were  convened,  it  was  decided  that  a  Continental  Congress 
ought  to  be  held,  and  appointed  a  committee  of  correspondence  to  coramuni- 
cate  with  similar  committees  in  the  several  counties  of  Pennsylvania  and  in  the 
several  colonies.  On  the  15th  of  July,  1774,  delegates  from  all  the  counties, 
summoned  by  this  committee,  assembled  in  Philadelphia,  and  declared  that 
there  existed  an  absolute  necessity  for  a  Colonial  Congress.  They  accordingly 
recommended  that  the  Assembly  appoint  delegates  to  such  a  Congress  to 
represent  Pennsylvania,  and  Joseph  Galloway,  Samuel  Rhoads,  George  Ross, 
Edward  Biddle,  John  Dickinson,  Charles  Humphries  and  Thomas  Mifflin  were' 

On  the  4th  of  Septemoer,  1774,  the  first  Continental  Congress  assembled  in 
Philadelphia.  Peyton  Randolph,  of  Virginia,  was  called  to  preside,  and 
Charles  Thomson,  of  Pennsylvania,  was  appointed  Secretary.  It  was  resolved 
that  no  more  goods  be  imported  from  England,  and  that  unless  a  pacification 
was  effected  previously,  no  more  Colonial  produce  of  the  soil  be  exported 
thither  after  September  10,  1775.  A  declaration  of  rights  was  adopted,  and 
addresses  to  the  King,  the  people  of  Great  Britain,  and  of  British  America 
were  agreed  to,  alter  which  the  Congress  adjourned  to  meet  again  on  the  10th 
of  May,  1775. 

In  January,  1775,  another  meeting  of  the  county  delegates  was  held  in 
Philadelphia,  at  which  the  action  of  the  Colonial  Congress  was  approved,  and 
while  a  restoration  of  harmony  with  the  mother  country  was  desired,  yet  if 
the  arbitiary  acts  of  Parliament  were  persisted  in,  they  would  at  every  hazard 
defend  the  "rights  and  liberties  of  America."     The  delegates  appointed  to 


represent  the  colony  in  the  Second  Congress  were  Mifflin,  Humphries,  Biddle, 
Dickinson,  Morton,  Franklin,  Wilson  and  Willing. 

The  government  of  Great  Britain  had  determined  with  a  strong  hand  to 
compel  obedience  to  its  behests.  On  the  19th  of  April,  1775,  was  fought  the 
battle  of  Lexington,  and  the  crimson  fountain  was  opened.  That  blow  was 
felt  alike  through  all  the  colonies.  The  cause  of  one  was  the  cause  of  all. 
A  public  meeting  was  held  in  Philadelphia,  at  which  it  was  resolved  to  organize 
military  companies  in  all  the  counties.  The  Assembly  heartily  seconded  these 
views,  and  engaged  to  provide  for  the  pay  of  the  militia  while  in  service. 
The  Second  Congress,  which  met  in  May,  provided  for  organizing  a  continental 
army,  fixing  the  quota  for  Pennsylvania  at  4,300  men.  The  Assembly  adopted 
the  recommendation  of  Congress,  provided  for  arming,  disciplining  and  pay- 
ing the  militia,  recommended  the  organizing  minutemen  for  service  in  an 
emergency,  made  appropriations  for  the  defense  of  the  city,  and  offered  a  pre- 
mium on  the  production  of  salt  peter.  Complications  hourly  thickened.  Ticon- 
deroga  was  captured  on  the  10th  of  May,  and  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill  was 
fought  on  the  17th  of  June.  On  the  15th  .of  June,  George  Washington  was 
appointed  Commander-in-chief  of  the  Contiuental  Army,  supported  by  four 
Major  Generals  and  eight  Brigadiers. 

The  royal  Governors  were  now  an  incumbrance  greatly  in  the  way  of  the 
popular  movement,  as  were  also  the  Assemblies  where  they  refused  to  represent 
the  popular  will.  Accordingly,  Congress  recommended  that  the  several  col- 
onies should  adopt  such  government  as  should  "  best  conduce  to  the  happiness 
and  safety  of  their  constituents  in  particular  and  America  in  general."  This 
meant  that  each  colony  should  set  up  a  government  for  itself  independent  of 
the  Crown.  Accordingly,  a  public  meeting  was  held  in  Philadelphia,  at 
which  it  was  resolved  that  the  present  Assembly  is  "  not  competent  to  the  pres- 
ent exigencies  of  affairs,"  and  that  a  new  form  of  government  ought  to  be 
"adopted  as  recommended  by  Congress.  The  city  committee  of  correspondence 
called  on  the  county  committees  to  secure  the  election  of  delegates  to  a  colonial 
meeting  for  the  purpose  of  considering  this  subject.  On  the  18th  of  June, 
the  meeting  was  held  in  Philadelphia,  and  was  organized  by  electing  Thomas 
McKean  President.  It  resolved  to  call  a  convention  to  frame  a  new  con- 
stitution, provided  the  legal  forms  to  be  observed,  and  issued  an  address  to 
the  people. 

Having  thus  by  frequent  argumentation  grown  familiar  with  the  declara- 
tion of  the  inherent  rights  of  every  citizen,  and  with  flatly  declaring  to  the 
government  of  Great  Britain  that  it  had  no  right  to  pursue  this  policy  or  that, 
and  the  several  States  having  been  recommended  to  absolve  themselves  from 
allegience  to  the  royal  governments,  and  set  up  independent  colonial  govern- 
ments of  their  own,  it  was  a  natural  inference,  and  but  a  step  further,  to  de- 
clare the  colonies  entirely  independent  of  the  British  Government,  and  to  or- 
ganize for  themselves  a  general  continental  government  to  hold  the  place  of  King 
and  Parliament.  The  idea  of  independence  had  been  seriously  proposed,  and 
several  Colonial  Assemblies  had  passed  resolutions  strongly  recommending  it. 
And  yet  there  were  those  of  age  and  experience  who  had  supported  independ- 
ent principles  in  the  stages  of  argumentation,  before  action  wa3  demanded, 
when  they  approached  the  brink  of  the  fatal  chasm,  and  had  to  decide 
whether  to  take  the  leap,  hesitated.  There  were  those  in  the  Assembly  of 
Pennsylvania  who  were  reluctant  to  advise  independence;  but  the  majority 
voted  to  recommend  its  delegates  to  unite  with  the  other  colonies  for  the  com- 
mon  good.  The  convention  which  had  provided  for  holding  a  meeting  of  del- 
egates to  frame  a  new  constitution,  voted  in  favor  of  independence,  and  au- 
thorized the  raising  of  6,000  militia. 


On  the  7th  of  June,  1776,  Richard  Henry  Lee,  of  Virginia,  introduced  in 
Congress  the  proposition  that,  "the  United  Colonies  are,  and  of  right  ought  to 
be,  free  and  independent  States,  and  that  all  political  connection  between 
them  and  the  State  of  Great  Britain  is,  and  ought  to  be,  totally  dissolved." 
It  was  impossible  to  mistake  or  misinterpret  the  meaning  of  this  language. 
The  issue  was  fairly  made  up.  It  was  warmly  discussed.  John  Dickinson, 
one  of  the  Pennsylvania  delegates,  and  one  who  had  been  foremost  in  speak- 
ing and  writing  on  the  popular  side,  was  not  ready  to  cut  off  all  hope  of  rec- 
onciliation, and  depicted  the  disorganized  condition  in  which  the  colonies 
would  be  left  if  the  power  and  protection  of  Britain  were  thus  suddenly  re- 
moved. The  vote  upon  the  resolution  was  taken  on  the  2d  of  July,  and  re- 
sulted in  the  affirmative  vote  of  all  the  States  except  Pennsylvania  and 
Delaware,  the  delegates  from  these  States  being  divided.  A  committee  con- 
sisting of  Adams,  Franklin,  Jefferson,  Livingston  and  Sherman  had  been,  some 
time  previous,  appointed  to  draw  a  formal  statement  of  the  Declaration,  and 
the  reasons  "out  of  a  decent  respect  to  the  opinions  of  mankind,"  which  led 
to  so  important  an  act.  The  work  was  intrusted  to  a  sub-committee  consisting  of 
Adams  and  Jefferson,  and  its  composition  was  the  work  of  Mr.  Jefferson,  though 
many  of  the  ideas,  and  even  the  forms  of  expression,  had  been  used  again  and 
again  in  the  previous  resolutions  and  pronunciamentoes  of  the  Colonial  Assem- 
blies and  public  meetings.  It  had  been  reported  on  the  28th  of  June,  and  was 
sharply  considered  in  all  its  parts,  many  verbal  alterations  having  been  made  in 
the  committee  of  five;  but  after  the  passage  of  the  preliminary  resolution,  the 
result  was  a  foregone  conclusion,  and  on  the  4th  of  July  it  was  finally  adopted 
and  proclaimed  to  the  world.  Of  the  Pennsylvania  delegation,  Franklin, 
Wilson  and  Morton  voted  for  it,  and  Willing  and  Humphrey  against,  Dickin- 
son being  absent.  The  colonial  convention  of  Pennsylvania,  being  in  session 
at  the  time,  on  receiving  intelligence  that  a  majority  of  its  delegates  in  Con- 
gress had  voted  against  the  preliminary  resolution,  named  a  new  delegation, 
omitting  the  names  of  Dickinson,  Willing  and  Humphrey,  and  adding  othere 
which  made  it  thus  constituted — Franklin,  Wilson,  Morton,  Morris,  Clvmer, 
Smith,  Taylor  and  Ross.  An  engrossed  copy  of  the  Declaration  was  made, 
which  was  signed  by  all  the  members  on  the  2d  of  August  following,  on 
•which  are  found  the  names  from  Pennsylvania  above  recited. 

The  convention  for  framing  a  new  constitution  for  the  colony  met  on  the 
15th  of  July,  and  was  organized  by  electing  Franklin  President,  and  on  the 
28th  of  September  completed  its  labors,  having  framed  a  new  organic  law 
and  made  all  necessary  provisions  for  putting  it  into  operation.  In  the  mean- 
time the  old  proprietary  Assembly  adjourned  on  the  14th  of  June  to  the  26th 
of  August.  But  a  quorum  failed  to  appear,  and  an  adjournment  was  had  to 
the  23d  of  September,  when  some  routine  business  was  attended  to,  chiefly 
providing  for  the  payment  of  salaries  and  necessary  bills,  and  on  the  28th  of 
September,  after  a  stormy  existence  of  nearly  a  century,  this  Assembly,  the 
creature  of  Penn,  adjourned  never  to  meet  again.  With  the  ending  of  the  As- 
sembly ended  the  power  of  Gov.  Penn.  It  is  a  singular  circumstance,  much 
noted  by  the  believers  in  signs,  that  on  the  day  of  his  arrival  in  Amerioa, 
which  wa.s  Sunday,  the  earth  in  ttiat  locality  was  rocked  by  an  earthquake, 
which  was  interpreted  as  an  evil  omen  to  his  administration.  He  married  the 
daughter  of  William  Allen,  Chief  Justice  of  the  colony,  and,  though  at  times 
falling  under  suspicion  of  favoring  the  royal  cause,  yet,  as  was  believed,  not 
with  reason,  he  remained  a  quiet  spectator  of  the  great  struggle,  living  at  his 
country  seat  in  Bucks  County,  where  he  died  in  February,  1795. 

The  titles  of  the  proprietors  to  landed  estates  were  suspended  by  the  action 


of  the  convention,  and  on  the  27th  of  November,  1779,  the  Legislature  passed 
an  act  vesting  these  estates  in  the  commonwealth,  but  paying  the  proprietors  a 
gratuity  of  £130,000,  "  in  remembrance  of  the  enterprising  spirit  of  the- 
Founder."  This  act  did  not  touch  the  private  estates  of  the  proprietors,  nor 
the  tenths  of  manors.  The  British  Government,  in  1790,  in  consideration  of 
the  fact  that  it  had  been  unable  to  vindicate  its  authority  over  the  colony,  and 
afford  protection  to  the  proprietors  in  the  enjoyment  of  their  chartered  rights, 
voted  an  annuity  of  £4,000  to  the  heirs  and  descendants  of  Penn.  This  annuity 
has  been  regularly  paid  to  the  present  time,  1884. 


Thomas  Wharton,  Jr.,  1777-78— George  Bryan,  1778— Joseph  Reed,  1778-81— 
William  Moore,  1781-82— John  Dickinson,  1782-85— Benjamin  Franklin, 


THE  convention  which  framed  the  constitution  appointed  a  Committee  of 
Safety,  consisting  of  twenty-five  members,  to  whom  was  intrusted  the 
government  of  the  colony  until  the  proposed  conetitution  should  be  framed  and 
put  in  operation.  Thomas  Rittenhouse  was  chosen  President  of  this  body, 
who  was  consequently  in  effect  Governor.  The  new  constitution,  which  was 
unanimously  adopted  on  the  28th  of  September,  was  to  take  effect  from  its 
passage.  It  provided  for  an  Assembly  to  be  elected  annually;  a  Supreme  Ex- 
ecutive Council  of  twelve  members  to  be  elected  for  a  term  of  three  years;  As- 
semblymen to  be  eligible  but  four  years  out  of  seven,  and  Councilmen  but 
one  term  in  seven  years.  Members  of  Congress  were  chosen  by  the  Assembly. 
The  constitution  could  not  be  changed  for  seven  years.  It  provided  for  the 
election  of  censors  every  seven  years,  who  were  to  decide  whether  there  was 
a  demand  for  its  revision.  If  so,  they  were  to  call  a  convention  for  the  pur- 
pose. On  the  6th  of  August,  1776,  Thomas  Wharton,  Jr.,  was  chosen  Presi- 
dent of  the  Council  of  Safety. 

The  struggle  with  the  parent  country  was  now  fully  inaugurated.  The 
British  Parliament  had  declared  the  colonists  rebels,  had  voted  a  force  of 
55,000  men,  and  in  addition  had  hired  17.000  Hessian  soldiers,  to  subdue  them. 
The  Congress  on  its  part  had  declared  the  objects  for  which  arms  had  been 
taken  up,  and  had  issued  bills  of  credit  to  the  amount  of  $6,000,000.  Par- 
liament had  resolved  upon  a  vigorous  campaign,  to  strike  heavy  and  rapid 
blows,  and  quickly  end  the  war.  The  first  campaign  had  been  conducted  in 
Massachusetts,  and  by  the  efficient  conduct  of  Washington,  Gen.  Howe,  the 
leader  of  the  British,  was  compelled  to  capitulate  and  withdraw  to  Halifax  in 
March,  1776.  On  the  28th  of  June,  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  with  a  strong  detach- 
ment, in  conjunction  with  Sir  Peter  Parker  of  the  navy,  made  a  combined 
land  and  naval  attack  upon  the  defenses  of  Charleston  Harbor,  where  he  was 
met  by  Gen.  William  Moultrie,  with  the  Carolina  Militia,  and  after  a  severe 
battle,  in  which  the  British  fleet  was  roughly  handled,  Clinton  withdrew  and 
returned  to  New  York,  whither  the  main  body  of  the  British  Army,  under  Gen. 
Howe,  had  come,  and  where  Admiral  Lord  Howe,  with  a  large  fleet  directly 
from  England,  joined  them.  To  this  formidable  power  led  by  the  best  talent 
in  the  British  Army,  Washington  could  muster  no  adequate  force  to  oppose, 
and  he  was  obliged   to  withdraw  from  Long  Island,  from  New  York,  from 


Harlem,  from  White  Plains,  to  cross  into  New  Jersey,  and  abandon  position 
after  position,  until  he  had  reached  the  right  bank  of  the  Delaware  on  Penn- 
sylvania soil.  A  heavy  detachment  under  Cornwallis  followed,  and  would 
have  crossed  the  Delaware  in  pursuit,  but  advised  to  a  cautious  policy  by 
Howe,  he  waited  for  ice  to  form  on  the  waters  of  the  Delaware  before  passing 
over.  The  fall  of  Philadelphia  now  seemed  imminent.  Washington  had  not 
sufficient  force  to  face  the  whole  power  of  the  British  Army.  On  the  2d  of 
December,  the  Supreme  Council  ordered  all  places  of  business  in  the  city  to 
be  closed,  the  schools  to  be  dismissed,  and  advised  preparation  for  removing 
the  women  and  children  and  valuables.  On  the  12th,  the  Congress  which  was 
in  session  here  adjourned  to  meet  in  Baltimore,  taking  with  them  all  papers 
and  public  records,  and  leaving  a  committee,  of  which  Robert  Morris  was 
Chairman,  to  act  in  conjunction  with  Washington  for  the  safety  of  the  place. 
Gen.  Putnam  was  dispatched  on  the  same  day  with  a  detachment  of  soldiers 
to  take  command  in  the  city. 

In  this  emergency  the  Council  issued  a  stirring  address:  "If  you  wish 
to  live  in  freedom,  and  are  determined  to  maintain  that  best  boon  of  heavenr 
you  have  no  time  to  deliberate.  A  manly  resistance  will  secure  every  bless- 
ing, inactivity  and  sloth  will  bring  horror  and  destruction.  *  *  *  May 
heaven,  which  has  bestowed  the  blessings  of  liberty  upon  you,  awaken  you  to 
a  proper  sense  of  your  danger  and  arouse  that  manly  spirit  of  virtuous  resolu- 
tion which  has  ever  bidden  defiance  to  the  efforts  of  tyranny.  May  you  ever 
have  the  glorious  prize  of  liberty  in  view,  and  bear  with  a  becoming  fortitude 
the  fatigues  and  severities  of  a  winter  campaign.  That,  and  that  only,  will 
entitle  you  to  the  superlative  distinction  of  being  deemed,  under  God,  the 
deliverers  of  your  country."  Such  were  the  arguments  which  our  fathers 
made  use  of  in  conducting  the  struggle  against  the  British  Empire. 

Washington,  who  had,  from  the  opening  of  the  campaign  before  New 
York,  haen  obliged  for  the  most  part  to  act  upon  the  defensive,  formed  the 
plan  to  suddenly  turn  upon  his  pursuers  and  offer  battle.  Accordingly,  on 
the  night  of  the  25th  of  December,  taking  a  picked  body  of  men,  he  moved  up 
several  miles  to  Taylorsville,  where  he  crossed  the  river,  though  at  flood  tide 
and  filled  with  floating  ice,  and  moving  down  to  Trenton,  where  a  detachment 
of  the  British  Army  was  posted,  made  a  bold  and  vigorous  attack.  Taken  by 
surprise,  though  now  after  sunrise,  the  battle  was  soon  decided  in  favor  of 
the  Americans.  Some  fifty  of  the  enemy  were  slain  and  over  a  thousand 
taken  prisoners,  with  quantities  of  arms,  ammunition  and  stores  captured.  A 
triumphal  entry  was  made  at  Philadelphia,  when  the  prisoners  and  the  spoils, 
of  war  moved  through  the  streets  under  guard  of  the  victorious  troops,  and 
were  marched  away  to  the  prison  camp  at  Lancaster.  Washington,  who  was 
smarting  under  a  forced  inactivity,  by  reason  of  paucity  of  numbers  and  lack 
of  arms  and  material,  and  who  had  been  forced  constantly  to  retire  before  a 
defiant  foe,  now  took  courage.  His  name  was  upon  every  tongue,  and  foreign 
Governments  were  disposed  to  give  the  States  a  fair  chance  in  their  struggle 
for  nationality.  The  lukewarm  were  encouraged  to  enlist  under  the  banner  of 
freedom.  It  had  great  strategic  value.  The  British  had  intended  to  push 
forward  and  occupy  Philadelphia  at  once,  which,  being  now  virtually  the  cap- 
ital of  the  new  nation,  had  it  been  caotured  at  this  juncture,  would  have  given 
them  the  occasion  for  claiming  a  triumphal  ending  of  the  war.  But  this  ad, 
vantage,  though  gained  by  a  detachment  small  in  numbers  yet  great  in  cour- 
age, caused  the  commander  of  a  powerful  and  well  appointed  army  to  give  up 
all  intention  of  attempting  to  capture  the  Pennsylvania  metropolis  in  this 
campaign,  and  retiring    into  winter  cantonments  upon   the  Raritan  to  await 


the  settled  weather  of  the  spring  for  an  entirely  new  cast  of  operations. 
Washington,  emboldened  by  his  success,  led  all  his  forces  into  New  Jersey, 
and  pushing  past  Trenton,  where  Cornwallis,  the  royal  leader,  had  brought 
his  main  body  by  a  forced  march,  under  cover  of  darkness,  attacked  the 
British  reserves  at  Princeton.  But  now  the  enemy  had  become  wary  and  vig- 
ilant, and,  summoned  by  the  booming  of  cannon,  Cornwallis  hastened  back  to 
the  relief  of  his  hard  pressed  columns.  Washington,  finding  that  the  enemy's 
whole  army  was  within  easy  call  and  knowing  that  he  had  no  hope  of  success 
with  his  weak  army,  withdrew.  Washington  now  went  into  winter  quarters  at 
Morristown,  and  by  constant  vigi  lance  was  able  to  gather  marauding  parties 
of  the  British  who  ventured  far  away  from  their  works. 

Putnam  commenced  fortifications  at  a  point  below  Philadelphia  upon  the 
Delaware,  and  at  commanding  positions  upon  the  outskirts,  and  on  being 
summoned  to  the  army  was  succeeded  by  Gen.  Irvine,  and  he  by  Gen.  Gates. 
On  the  4th  of  March,  1777,  the  two  Houses  of  the  Legislature,  elected  under 
the  new  constitution,  assembled,  and  in  joint  convention  chose  Thomas 
Wharton,  Jr.,  President,  and  George  Bryan  Vice  President.  Penn  had  expressed 
the  idea  that  power  was  preserved  the  better  by  due  formality  and  ceremony, 
and,  accordingly,  this  event  was  celebrated  with  much  pomp,  the  result  being 
declared  in  a  loud  voice  from  the  court  house,  amid  the  shouts  of  the  gathered 
throngs  and  the  booming  of  the  captured  cannon  brought  from  the  field  of 
Trenton.  The  title  bestowed  upon  the  new  chief  officer  of  the  State  was  fitted 
by  its  length  and  high-sounding  epithets  to  inspire  the  multitude  with  awe  and 
reverence:  "His  Excellency,  Thomas  Wharton,  Junior,  Esquire,  President  of 
the  Supreme  Executive  Council  of  Pennsylvania,  Captain  General,  and  Com- 
mander-in-chief in  and  over  the  same. " 

While  the  enemy  was  disposed  to  be  cautious  after  the  New  Jersey  cam- 
paign so  humiliating  to  the  native  pride  of  the  Britain,  yet  he  was  determined 
to  bring  all  available  forces  into  the  field  for  the  campaign  of  1777,  and  to 
strike  a  decisive  blow.  Early  in  April,  great  activity  was  observed  among  the 
shipping  in  New  York  Harbor,  and  Washington  communicated  to  Congress  his 
opinion  that  Philadelphia  was  the  object  against  which  the  blow  would  be 
aimed.  This  announcement  of  probable  peril  induced  the  Council  to  issue  a 
proclamation  urging  enlistments,  and  Congress  ordered  the  opening  of  a  camp 
for  drilling  recruits  in  Pennsylvania,  and  Benedict  Arnold,  who  was  at  this 
time  a  trusted  General,  was  ordered  to  the  command  of  it.  So  manv  new  ves- 
sels  and  transports  of  all  classes  had  been  discovered  to  have  come  into  New 
York  Harbor,  probably  forwarded  from  England,  that  Washington  sent  Gen. 
Mifflin,  on  the  10th  of  June,  to  Congress,  bearing  a  letter  in  which  he  ex- 
pressed the  settled  conviction  that  the  enemy  meditated  an  immediate  descent 
upon  some  part  of  Pennsylvania.  Gen.  Mifflin  proceeded  to  examine  the  de- 
fensive works  of  the  city  which  had  been  begun  on  the  previous  advance  of 
the  British,  and  recommended  such  changes  and  new  works  as  seemed  best 
adapted  for  its  protection.  The  preparations  for  defense  were  vigorously  pros- 
ecuted. The  militia  were  called  out  and  placed  in  two  camps,  one  at  Chester 
and  the  other  at  Downington.  Fire  ships  were  held  in  readiness  to  be  used 
against  vessels  attempting  the  ascent  of  the  river. 

Lord  Howe,  being  determined  not  to  move  until  ample  preparations  were 
completed,  allowed  the  greater  part  of  the  summer  to  wear  away  before  he 
advanced.  Finally,  having  embarked  a  force  of  19,500  men  on  a  fleet  of  300 
transports,  he  sailed  southward.  Washington  promptly  made  a  corresponding 
march  overland,  passing  through  Philadelphia  on  the  24th  of  August.  Howe, 
suspecting  that  preparations  would  be  made  for  impeding  the  passage  of  the 


Delaware,  sailed  past  its  mouth,  and  moving  up  the  Chesapeake  instead,  de- 
barked fifty-four  miles  from  Philadelphia  and  commenced  the  march  north- 
ward. Great  activity  was  now  manifested  in  the  city.  The  water-spouts  were 
melted  to  furnish  bullets,  fair  hands  were  busied  in  rolling  cartidges,  power- 
ful chevaux-de-frise  were  planted  to  impede  the  navigation  of  the  river,  and 
the  last  division  of  the  militia  of  the  city,  which  had  been  divided  into  three 
classes,  was  called  out.  Washington,  who  had  crossed  the  Brandywine,  soon 
confronted  the  advance  of  Howe,  and  brisk  skirmishing  at  once  opened.  See- 
ing that  he  was  likely  to  have  the  right  of  his  position  at  Red  Clay  Creek, 
where  he  had  intended  to  give  battle,  turned  by  the  largely  superior  force  of 
the  enemy,  under  cover  of  darkness  on  the  night  of  the  8th  of  September,  he 
withdrew  across  the  Brandywine  at  Chad's  Ford,  and  posting  Armstrong  with 
the  militia  upon  the  left,  at  Pyle's  Ford,  where  the  banks  were  rugged  and  pre- 
cipitous, and  Sullivan,  who  was  second  in  command,  upon  the  right  at  Brin- 
ton's  Ford  under  cover  of  forest,  he  himself  took  post  with  three  divisions, 
Sterling's,  Stephens',  and  his  own,  in  front  of  the  main  avenue  of  approach  at 
Chad's.  Howe,  discovering  that  Washington  was  well  posted,  determined  to 
flank  him.  Accordingly,  on  the  11th,  sending  Knyphausen  with  a  division  of 
Hessians  to  make  vigorous  demonstrations  upoQ  Washington's  front  at  Chad's, 
he,  with  the  corps  of  Cornwallis,  in  light  marching  order,  moved  up  the  Brandy- 
wine, far  past  the  right  flank  of  Washington,  crossed  the  Brandywine  at  the 
fords  of  Trumbull  and  Jeffrey  unopposed,  and,  moving  down  came  upon 
Washington's  right,  held  by  Sullivan,  all  unsuspecting  and  unprepared  to  re- 
ceive him.  Though  Howe  was  favored  by  a  dense  fog  which  on  that  morning 
hung  on  all  the  valley,  yet  it  had  hardly  been  commenced  before  Washingtou 
discovered  the  move  and  divined  its  purpose.  His  resolution  was  instantly 
taken.  He  ordered  Sullivan  to  cross  the  stream  at  Brinton's,  and  resolutely 
turn  the  left  flank  of  Knyphausen,  when  he  himself  with  the  main  body  would 
move  ever  and  crush  the  British  Army  in  detail.  Is  was  a  brilliant  conception, 
was  feasible,  and  promised  the  most  complete  success.  But  what  chagrin  and 
mortification,  to  receive,  at  the  moment  when  he  expected  to  hear  the  rauf ic  of 
Sullivan's  guns  doubling  up  the  left  of  the  enemy,  and  giving  notice  to  him 
to  commence  the  passage,  a  message  from  that  officer  advising  him  that  he  had 
disobeyed  his  orders  to  cross,  having  received  intelligence  that  the  enemy  were 
not  moving  northward,  and  that  he  was  still  in  position  at  the  ford.  Thus 
balked,  Washington  had  no  alternative  but  to  remain  in  position,  and  it  was  not 
long  before  the  guns  of  Howe  viere  heard  moving  in  upon  his  all  unguarded 
right  flank.  The  best  dispositions  were  made  which  time  would  permit.  His 
main  body  with  the  force  of  Sullivan  took  position  along  the  brow  of  the  hill 
on  which  stands  the  Birmingham  meeting  house,  and  the  battle  opened  and 
was  pushed  with  vigor  the  whole  day.  Overborne  by  numbers,  and  weakened 
by  losses,  Washington  was  obliged  to  retire,  leaving  the  enemy  in  possession 
of  the  field.  The  young  French  nobleman,  Lafayette,  was  wounded  while  gal- 
lantly serving  in  this  fight.  The  wounded  were  carried  into  the  Birmingham 
meeting  house,  where  the  blood  stains  are  visible  to  this  day,  enterprising 
relic  hunters  for  many  generations  having  been  busy  in  loosening  small  slivers 
with  the  points  of  their  knives. 

The  British  now  moved  cautiously  toward  Philadelphia.  On  the  16th  of 
September,  at  a  point  some  twenty  miles  west  of  Philadelphia,  Washington 
again  made  a  stand,  and  a  battle  opened  with  brisk  skirmishing,  but  a  heavy 
rain  storm  coming  on  the  powder  of  the  patriot  soldiers  was  completely  ruined  on 
account  of  their  defective  cartridge  boxes.  On  the  night  of  the  20th,  Gen. 
Anthony  Wayne,  who  had  been  hanging  on  the  rear  of  the  enemy  with  his 


detachment,  was  surprised  by  Gen.  Gray  with  a  heavy  column,  who  fell  sud- 
denly upon  the  Americans  in  bivouac  and  put  them  to  the  sword,  giving  no 
quarter.  This  disgraceful  slaughter  which  brought  a  stigma  and  an  indelible 
stain  upon  the  British  arms  is  known  as  the  Paoli  Massacre.  Fifty-three  of 
the  victims  of  the  black  flag  were  buried  in  one  grave.  A  neat  monument 
of  white  mai'ble  was  erected  forty  years  afterward  over  their  moldering 
remains  by  the  Republican  Artillerists  of  Chester  County,  which  vandal  hands 
have  not  spared  in  their  mania  for  relics. 

Congress  remained  in  Philadelphia  while  these  military  operations  were 
going  on  at  its  very  doors;  but  on  the  18th  of  September  adjourned  to  meet 
at  Lancaster,  though  subsequently,  on  the  30th,  removed  across  the  Susque- 
hanna to  York,  where  it  remained  in  session  till  after  the  evacuation  in 
the  following  summer.  The  Council  remained  until  two  days  before  the  fall 
of  the  city,  when  having  dispatched  the  records  of  the  loan  office  and  the  more 
valuable  papers  to  Easton,  it  adjourned  to  Lancaster.  On  the  26th,  the  British 
Army  entered  the  city.  Deborah  Logan  in  her  memoir  says :  "  The  army 
marched  in  and  took  possession  in  the  city  in  the  morning.  We  were  up-stairs 
and  saw  them  pass  the  State  House.  They  looked  well,  clean  and  well  clad, 
and  the  contrast  between  them  and  our  own  poor,  bare-footed,  ragged  troops 
was  very  great  and  caused  a  feeling  of  despair.  *  *  *  *  Early 
in  the  afternoon,  Lord  Cornwallis'  suite  arrived  and  took  possession  of 
my  mother's  house."  But  though  now  holding  undisputed  possession  of  the 
American  capital,  Howe  found  his  position  an  uncomfortable  one,  for  his  fleet 
was  in  the  Chesapeake,  and  the  Delaware  and  all  its  defenses  were  in  posses- 
sion of  the  Americans,  and  Washington  had  manned  the  forts  with  some  of 
his  most  resolute  troops.  Varnuni's  brigade,  led  by  Cols.  Angell  and  Greene, 
Rhode  Island  troops,  were  at  Fort  Mercer,  at  Red  Bank,  and  this  the  enemy 
determined  to  attack.  On  the  21st  of  October,  with  a  force  of  2,500  men,  led 
by  Count  Donop,  the  attack  was  made.  In  two  colums  they  moved  as  to  an 
easy  victory.  But  the  steady  tire  of  the  defenders  when  come  in  easy  range, 
swept  them  down  with  deadly  effect,  and,  retiring  with  a  loss  of  over  400  and 
their  leader  mortally  wounded,  they  did  not  renew  the  fight.  Its  reduction  was 
of  prime  importance,  and  powerful  works  were  built  and  equipped  to  bear  upon 
the  devoted  fort  on  all  sides,  and  the  heavy  guns  of  the  fleet  were  brought  up 
to  aid  in  overpowering  it.  For  six  long  days  the  greatest  weight  of  metal  was 
poured  upon  it  from  the  land  and  the  naval  force,  but  without  effect,  the 
sides  of  the  fort  successfully  withstanding  *the  plunging  of  their  powerful 
missiles.  As  a  last  resort,  the  great  vessels  were  run  suddenly  in  close  under 
the  walls,  and  manning  the  yard-arms  with  sharp-shooters,  so  effectually 
silenced  and  drove  away  the  gunners  that  the  fort  fell  easily  into  the  Brit- 
ish hands  and  the  river  was  opened  to  navigation.  The  army  of  Washing- 
ton, after  being  recruited  and  put  in  light  marching  order,  was  led  to  German- 
town  where,  on  the  morning  of  the  3d  of  October  the  enemy  was  met.  A 
heavy  fog  that  morning  had  obscured  friend  and  foe  alike,  occasioning  con- 
fusion in  the  ranks,  and  though  the  opening  promised  well,  and  some  progress 
was  made,  yet  the  enemy  was  too  strong  to  be  moved,  and  the  American  leader 
was  forced  to  retire  to  his  camp  at  White  Marsh.  Though  the  river  had  now 
been  opened  and  the  city  was  thoroughly  fortified  for  resisting  attack,  yet 
Howe  felt  not  quite  easy  in  having  the  American  Army  quartered  in  so  close 
striking  distance,  and  accordingly,  on  the  4th  of  December,  with  nearly  his 
entire  army,  moved  out,  intending  to  take  Washington  at  White  Marsh,  sixteen 
miles  away,  by  surprise,  and  by  rapidity  of  action  gain  an  easy  victory.  But 
1        i3  heroism  and  fidelity  of  Lydia  Darrah,  who,  as  she  had  often  done  before 


passed  the  guard?  to  go  to  the  mil]  for  flour,  the  news  of  the  coming  of  Howe 
wap  communicated  to  Washington,  who  was  prepared  to  receive  him.  Finding 
that  he  could  effect  nothing.  Howe  returned  to  the  city,  having  had  the  weari- 
some march  at  this  wintry  season  without  effect. 

Washington  now  crossed  the  Schuylkill  and  went  into  winter  quarters  at 
Valley  Forge.  The  cold  of  that  winter  was  intense;  the  troopH,  half  clad  and 
indifferently  fed,  suffered  severely,  the  prints  of  their  naked  feet  in  frost  and 
snow  being  often  tinted  with  patriot  blood.  Grown  impatient  of  the  small 
results  from  the  immensely  expensive  campaigns  carried  on  across  the  ocean, 
the  Ministry  relieved  Lord  Howe,  and  appointed  Sir  Henry  Clinton  to  the 
chief  command. 

The  Commissioners  whom  Congress  had  sent  to  France  early  in  the  fall  of 
1776 — Franklin,  Dean  and  Lee  had  been  busy  in  making  interest  for  the 
united  colonies  at  the  French  Court,  and  so  successful  were  they,  that  arms  and 
ammunition  and  loans  of  money  were  procured  from  time  to  time.  Indeed,  so 
persuasive  had  they  become  that  it  was  a  saying  current  at  court  that,  "It  was 
fortunate  for  the  King  that  Franklin  did  not  take  it  into  his  head  to  ask  to 
have  the  palace  at  Versailles  stripped  of  its  furniture  to  send  to  his  dear 
Americans,  for  his  majesty  would  have  been  unable  to  deny  him."  Finally, 
a  convention  was  concluded,  by  which  France  agreed  to  use  the  royal  army  and 
navy  as  faithful  allies  of  the  Americans  against  the  English.  Accordingly,  a 
fleet  of  four  powerful  frigates,  and  twelve  ships  were  dispatched  under  com- 
mand of  the  Count  D'Estaing  to  shut  up  the  British  fleet  in  the  Delaware.  The 
plan  was  ingenious,  particularly  worthy  of  the  long  head  of  Franklin.  But 
by  some  means,  intelligence  of  the  sailing  of  the  French  fleet  reached  Che 
English  cabinet,  who  immediately  ordered  the  evacuation  of  the  Delaware, 
whereupon  the  Admiral  weighed  anchor  and  sailed  away  with  his  entire  fleet  to 
New  York,  and  D'Estaing,  upon  his  arrival  at  the  mouth  of  the  Delaware,  found 
that  the  bird  had  flown. 

Clinton  evacuated  Philadelphia  and  moved  across  New  Jersey  in  the  direc- 
tion of  New  York.  Washington  closely  followed  and  came  up  with  the  enemy 
on  the  plains  of  Monmouth,  on  the  28th  of  June,  1778,  where  a  sanguin- 
ary battle  was  fought  which  lasted  tha  whole  day,  resulting  in  the  triumph  of 
the  American  arms,  and  Pennsylvania  was  rid  of  British  troops. 

The  enemy  was  no  sooner  well  away  from  the  city  than  Congress  returned 
from  York  and  resumed  its  sittings  in  its  former  quarters,  June  24,  1778,  and 
on  the  following  day,  the  Colonial  Legislature  returned  from  Lancaster.  Gen 
Arnold,  who  was  disabled  by  a  wound  received  at  Saratoga,  from  tield  duty, 
was  given  command  in  the  city  and  marched  in  with  a  regiment  on  the  day 
following  the  evacuation.  On  the  23d  of  May,  1778,  President  Wharton  died 
suddenly  of  quinsy,  while  in  attendance  upon  the  Council  at  Lancaster,  when 
George  Bryan,  the  Vice  President,  became  the  Acting  President.  Bryan  was  a 
philanthropist  in  deed  as  well  as  word.  Up  to  thi3  time,  African  slavery  had 
been  tolerated  in  the  colony.  In  his  message  of  the  9th  of  November,  he  said : 
"  This  or  some  better  scheme,  would  tend  to  abrogate  slavery — the  approbrium 
of  America — from  among  us.  *  *  *  In  divesti&g  the  State  of  slaves,  you 
will  equally  serve  the  cause  of  humanity  and  policy,  and  offer  to  God  one  of 
the  most  proper  and  best  returns  of  gratitude  for  His  great  deliverance  of  us 
and  our  posterity  from  thraldom;  you  will  also  ser,  your  character  for  justice 
and  benevolence  in  the  true  point  of  view  to  Europe,  who  a«.-e  astonished  to  see 
a  people  eager  for  liberty  holding  negroes  in  bondage."  He  perfected  a  bill 
for  the  extinguishment  of  claims  to  slaves  which  was  passed  by  the  Assembly, 
March  1,  1780,  by  a  vote  of  thirty-four  to  eighteen,  providing  that  no  child 


of  slave  parents  born  after  that  date  should  be  a  slave,  but  a  servant  till  the 
age  of  twenty-eight  years,  when  all  claim  for  service  should  end.  Thus  by  a 
simple  enactment  resolutely  pressed  by  Bryan,  was  slavery  forever  rooted  out 
of  Pennsylvania. 

In  the  summer  of  1778,  a  force  of  savages  and  sour-  faced  tories  to  the  num- 
ber of  some  1,200,  under  the  leadership  of  one  Col.  John  Butler,  a  cruel  and  in- 
human wretch,  descending  from  the  north,  broke  into  the  Wyoming  Valley  on 
the  2d  of  July.  The  strong  men  were  in  the  army  of  Washington,  and  the 
only  defenders  were  old  men,  beardless  boys  and  resolute  women.  These,  to 
the  number  of  about  400,  under  Zebulon  Butler,  a  brave  soldier  who  had  won 
distinction  in  the  old  French  war,  and  who  happened  to  be  present,  moved 
resolutely  out  to  meet  the  invaders.  Overborne  by  numbers,  the  inhabitants 
were  beaten  and  put  to  the  sword,  the  few  who  escaped  retreating  to  Forty 
Fort,  whither  the  helpless,  up  and  down  the  valley,  had  sought  safety.  Here 
humane  terms  of  surrender  were  agreed  to,  and  the  families  returned  to 
their  homes,  supposing  all  danger  to  be  past.  But  the  savages  had 
tasted  blood,  and  perhaps  confiscated  liquor,  and  were  little  mindful  of  capitu- 
lations. The  night  of  the  5th  was  given  to  indiscriminate  massacre.  The 
cries  of  the  helpless  rang  out  upon  the  night  air,  and  the  heavens  along  all 
the  valley  were  lighted  up  with  the  flames  of  burning  cottages;  "  and  when  the 
moon  arose,  the  terrified  inhabitants  were  fleeing  to  the  Wilkesbarre  Mount- 
ains, and  the  dark  morasses  of  the  Pocono  Mountain  beyond. "  Most  of  these 
were  emigrants  from  Connecticut,  and  they  made  their  way  homeward  as  fast 
as  their  feet  would  carry  them,  many  of  them  crossing  the  Hudson  at  Pough- 
keepsie,  where  they  told  their  tales  of  woe. 

In  February,  1778,  Parliament,  grown  tired  of  this  long  and  wasting  war, 
abolished  taxes  of  which  the  Americans  had  complained,  and  a  committee, 
composed  of  Earl  Carlisle,  George  Johnstone  and  William  Eden,  were  sent 
empowered  to  forgive  past  offenses,  and  to  conclude  peace  with  the  colonies, 
upon  submission  to  the  British  crown.  Congress  would  not  listen  to  their 
proposal?,  maintaining  that  the  people  of  America  had  done  nothing  that 
needed  forgiveness,  and  that  no  conference  could  be  accorded  so  long  as  the 
English  Armies  remained  on  American  soil.  Finding  that  negotiations  could 
not  be  entered  upon  with  ihe  government,  they  sought  to  worm  their  way  by 
base  bribes.  Johnstone  proposed  to  Gen.  Reed  that  if  he  would  lend  his  aid 
to  bring  about  terms  of  pacification,  10,000  guineas  and  the  best  office  in  the 
country  should  be  his.  The  answer  of  the  stern  General  was  a  type  of  the 
feeling  which  swayed  every  patriot:  "  My  influence  is  but  small,  but  were  it 
as  great  as  Gov.  Johntone  would  insinuate,  the  King  of  Great  Britain  has  noth- 
ing in  his  gift  that  would  tempt  me. " 

At  the  election  held  for  President,  the  choice  fell  upon  Joseph  Reed,  with 
George  Bryan  Vice  President,  subsequently  Matthew  Smith,  and  finally  Will- 
iam Moore.  Reed  was  an  erudite  lawyer,  and  had  held  the  positions  of  Pri- 
vate Secretary  to  Washington,  and  subsequently  Adjutant  General  of  the 
arm}7.  He  was  inaugurated  on  the  1st  of  December,  1778.  Upon  the  return 
of  the  patriots  to  Philadelphia,  after  the  departure  of  the  British,  a  bitter 
feeling  existed  between  them  and  the  tories  who  had  remained  at  their  homes, 
and  had  largely  profited  by  the  British  occupancy.  The  soldiers  became  dem- 
onstrative, especially  against  those  lawyers  who  had  defended  the  tories  in 
court.  Some  of  those  most  obnoxious  took  refuge  in  the  house  of  James  Wil- 
son, a  signer  of  the  Declaration.  Private  soldiers,  in  passing,  fired  upon  it, 
and  shots  were  returned  whereby  one  was  killed  and  several  wounded.  The 
President    on  being  informed  of  these  proceedings,  rode  at  the  head  of  the 


eity  troop,  and  dispersed  the  assailants,  capturing  the  leaders.  The  Academy 
and  College  of  Philadelphia  required  by  its  charter  an  oath  of  allegiance  to 
the  King  of  Great  Britain.  An  act  was  passed  November  27,  1779,  abrogating 
the  former  charter,  and  vesting  its  property  in  a  new  board.  An  endowment 
from  confiscated  estates  was  settled  upon  it  of  £15,000  annually.  The  name 
of  the  institution  was  changed  to  the  "  University  of  the  State  of  Pennsyl- 

France  was  now  aiding  the  American  ca\ise  with  money  and  large  land 
and  naval  forces.  While  some  of  the  patriots  remained  steadfast  and  were 
disposed  to  sacrifice  and  endure  all  for  the  success  of  the  struggle,  many,  who 
should  have  been  in  the  ranks  rallying  around  Washington,  had  grown  luke- 
warm. The  General  was  mortified  that  the  French  should  come  across  the 
ocean  and  make  great  sacrifices  to  help  us,  and  should  find  so  much  indiffer- 
ence prevailing  among  the  citizens  of  many  of  the  States,  and  so  few  coming 
forward  to  fill  up  the  decimated  ranks.  At  the  request  of  Washington,  Presi- 
dent Keed  was  invested  with  extraordinary  powers,  in  1780,  which  were  used 
prudently  but  effectively.  During  the  winter  of  this  year,  some  of  the  veteran 
soldiers  of  the  Pennsylvania  line  mutinied  and  commenced  the  march  on 
Philadelphia  with  arms  in  their  hands.  Some  of  them  had  just  cause.  They 
had  enlisted  for  "three  years  or  the  war,"  meaning  for  three  years  unless 
the  war  closed  sooner.  But  the  authorities  had  interpreted  it  to  mean,  three 
years,  or  as  much  longer  as  the  war  should  last.  President  Reed  immediately 
rode  out  to  meet  the  mutineers,  heard  their  cause,  and  pledged  if  all  would  re- 
turn to  camp,  to  have  those  who  had  honorably  served  out  the  full  term  of 
three  years  discharged,  which  was  agreed  to.  Before  the  arrival  of  the  Presi- 
dent, two  emissaries  from  the  enemy  who  had  heard  of  the  disaffection,  came 
into  camp,  offering  strong  inducements  for  them  to  continue  the  revolt.  But 
the  mutineers  spurned  the  offer,  and  delivered  them  over  to  the  officers,  by 
whom  they  were  tried  and  executed  as  spies.  The  soldiers  who  had  so  patriot- 
ically arrested  and  handed  over  these  messengers  were  offered  a  reward  of  fifty 
guineas;  but  they  refused  it  on  the  plea  that  they  were  acting  under  authority 
of  the  Board  of  Sergeants,  under  whose  order  the  mutiny  was  being  conducted. 
Accordingly,  a  hundred  guineas  were  offered  to  this  board  for  their  fidelity. 
Their  answer  showed  how  conscientious  even  mutineers  can  be:  "It  was  not 
for  the  sake,  or  through  any  expectation  of  reward;  but  for  the  love  of  our 
country,  that  we  sent  the  spies  immediately  to  Gen.  Wayne;  we  therefore 
do  not  consider  ourselves  entitled  to  any  other  reward  but  the  love  of  our 
country,  and  do  jointly  agree  to  accept  of  no  other." 

William  Moore  was  elected  President  to  succeed  Joseph  Reed,  from  No- 
vember 14,  1781.  but  held  theoffice  less  than  one  year,  the  term  of  three  years 
for  which  he  had  been  a  Councilman  having  expired,  which  was  the  limit  of 
service.  James  Potter  was  chosen  Vice  President.  On  account  of  the  hostile 
attitude  of  the  Ohio  Indians,  it  was  decided  to  call  out  a  body  of  volunteers, 
numbering  some  400  from  the  counties  of  Washington  and  Westmoreland, 
where  the  outrages  upon  the  settlers  had  been  most  sorely  felt,  who  chose  for 
their  commander  Col.  William  Crawford,  of  Westmoreland.  The  expedition 
met  a  most  unfortunate  fate.  It  was  defeated  and  cut  to  pieces,  and  the 
leader  taken  captive  and  burned  at  the  stake.  Crawford  County,  which  was 
settled  very  soon  afterward,  was  named  in  honor  of  this  unfortunate  soldier. 
In  the  month  of  November,  intelligence  was  communicated  to  the  Legislature 
that  Pennsylvania  soldiers,  confined  as  prisoners  of  war  on  board  of  the  Jer- 
sey, an  old  hulk  tying  in  the  New  York  Harbor,  were  in  a  starving  condition, 
receiving  at  the  hands  of  the  enemy  the  most   barbarous  and  inhuman  treat- 


ruent.     Fifty  barrels  of   flour  and  300  bushels  of  potatoes  were   immediately 
sent  to  them. 

In  the  State  election  of  1782,  contested  with  great  violence,  John  Dickin- 
son was  chosen  President,  and  James  Ewing  Vice  President.  On  the  12th  of 
March,  1783,  intelligence  was  first  received  of  the  signing  of  the  preliminary 
treaty  in  which  independence  was  acknowledged,  and  on  the  11th  of  April 
Congress  sent  forth  the  joyful  proclamation  ordering  a  cessation  of  hostilities. 
The  soldiers  of  Burgoyne,  who  had  been  confined  in  the  prison  camp  at  Lan- 
caster, were  put  upon  the  march  for  New  York,  passing  through  Philadelphia 
on  the  way.  Everywhere  was  joy  unspeakable.  The  obstructions  were  re- 
moved from  the  Delaware,  and  the  white  wings  of  commerce  again  came  flut- 
tering on  every  breeze.  In  June,  Pennsylvania  soldiers,  exasperated  by  delay 
in  receiving  their  pay  and  their  discharge,  and  impatient  to  return  to  their 
homes,  to  a  considerable  number  marched  from  their  camp  at  Lancaster,  and 
arriving  at  Philadelphia  sent  a  committee  with  arms  in  their  hands  to  the 
State  House  door  with  a  remonstrance  asking  permission  to  elect  officers  to 
command  them  for  the  redress  of  their  grievances,  their  own  having  left  them, 
and  employing  threats  in  case  of  refusal.  These  demands  the  Council  rejected. 
The  President  of  Cougress,  hearing  of  these  proceedings,  called  a  special  ses- 
sion, which  resolved  to  demand  that  the  militia  of  the  State  should  be  called 
out  to  quell  the  insurgents.  The  Council  refused  to  resort  to  this  extreme 
measure,  when  Congress,  watchful  of  its  dignity  and  of  its  supposed  supreme 
authority,  left  Philadelphia  and  established  itself  in  Princeton,  N.  J.,  and 
though  invited  to  return  at  its  next  session,  it  refused,  and  met  at  Annapolis. 

In  October,  1784,  the  last  treaty  was  concluded  with  the  Indians  at  Fort 
Stanwix.  The  Commissioners  at  this  conference  purchased  from  the  natives 
all  the  land  to  the  north  of  the  Ohio  River,  and  the  line  of  Pine  Creek,  which 
completed  the  entire  limits  of  the  State  with  the  exception  of  the  triangle  at 
Erie,  which  was  acquired  from  the  United  States  in  1792.  This  purchase 
was  confirmed  by  the  Wyandots  and  Delawares  at  Fort  Mcintosh  January  21, 
1785,  and  the  grant  was  made  secure. 

In  September,  1785,  after  a  long  absence  in  the  service  of  his  country 
abroad,  perfecting  treaties,  and  otherwise  establishing  just  relations  with  other 
nations,  the  venerable  Benjamin  Franklin,  then  nearly  eighty  years  old,  feel- 
ing the  infirmities  of  age  coming  upon  him,  asked  to  be  relieved  of  the  duties 
of  Minister  at  the  Court  of  France,  and  returned  to  Philadelphia.  Soon  after 
his  arrival,  he  was  elected  President  of  the  Council.  Charles  Biddle  was 
elected  Vice  President.  It  was  at  this  period  that  a  citizen  of  Pennsylvania, 
John  Fitch,  secured  a  patent  on  his  invention  for  propelling  boats  by  steam. 
In  May,  1787,  the  convention  to  frame  a  constitution  for  the  United  States 
met  in  Philadelphia.  The  delegation  from  Pennsylvania  was  Benjamin  Frank- 
lin, Robert  Moms,  Thomas  Mifflin,  George  Clyraer,  Thomas  Fitzsimons,  Jared 
Ingersoll,  James  Wilson  and  Gouverneur  Morris.  Upon  the  completion  of 
their  work,  the  instrument  was  submitted  to  the  several  States  for  adoption.  A 
convention  was  called  in  Pennsylvania,  which  met  on  the  21st  of  November,  and 
though  encountering  resolute  opposition,  it  was  finally  adopted  on  the  12th  of  De- 
cember. On  the  following  day,  the  convention,  the  Supreme  Council  and  offi- 
cers of  the  State  and  city  government,  moved  in  procession  to  the  old  court 
house,  where  the  adoption  of  the  constitution  was  formally  proclaimed  amidst 
the  booming  of  cannon  and  the  ringing  of  bells. 

On  the  5th  of  November,  1788,  Thomas  Mifflin  was  elected  President,  and 
George  Rosa  Vice  President.  The  constitution  of  the  State,  framed  in  and 
adapted  to  the  exigencies  of  an  emergency,  was  ill  suited  to  the  needs  of  State 


in  its  relations  to  the  new  nation.  Accordingly,  a  convention  assembled  for 
the  purpose  of  preparing  a  new  constitution  in  November,  1789,  which  was 
finally  adopted  on  September  2,  1790.  By  the  provisions  of  this  instrument, 
the  Executive  Council  was  abolished,  and  the  executive  duties  were  vested  in 
the  hands  of  a  Governor.  Legislation  was  intrusted  to  an  Assembly  and  a 
Senate.  The  judicial  system  was  continued,  the  terms  of  the  Judges  extend- 
ing through  good  behavior. 


Thomas  Mifflin,  1788-99— Thomas  McKean,  1799-1808— Simon  Snyder,  1808-17— 
William  Findlay,  1817-20— Joseph  Heister.  1820-23— John  A.  Shulze,  1823 
-29— George  Wolfe,  1829-35— Joseph  Ritner,  1835-39. 

THE  first  election  under  the  new  Constitution  resulted  in  the  choice  of 
Thomas  Mifflin,  who  was  re-elected  for  three  successive  terms,  giving  him 
the  distinction  of  having  been  longer  in  the  executive  chair  than  any  other 
person,  a  period  of  eleven  years.  A  system  of  internal  improvements  was  now 
commenced,  by  which  vast  water  communications  were  undertaken,  and  a  moun- 
tain of  debt  was  accumulated,  a  portion  of  which  hangs  over  the  State  to  this 
day.  In  1793,  the  Bank  of  Pennsylvania  was  chartered,  one-third  of  the  cap- 
ital stock  of  which  was  subscribed  for  by  the  State.  Branches  were  established 
at  Lancaster,  Harrisburg,  Reading,  Easton  and  Pittsburgh.  The  branches 
were  discontinued  in  1810;  in  1843,  the  stock  held  by  the  State  was  sold,  and 
in  1857,  it  ceased  to  exist.  In  1793,  the  yellow  fever  visited  Phila- 
delphia. It  was  deadly  in  its  effects  and  produced  a  panic  unparalleled. 
Gov.  Mifflin,  and  Alexander  Hamilton,  Secretary  of  the  United  States  Treasury, 
were  attacked.  "  Men  of  affluent  fortunes,  who  gave  daily  employment  and 
subsistence  to  hundreds,  were  abandoned  to  the  care  of  a  negro  after  their 
wives,  children,  friends,  clerks  and  servants  had  fled  away  and  left  them  to 
their  fate.  In  some  cases,  at  the  commencement  of  the  disorder,  no  money 
could  procure  proper  attendance.  Many  of  the  poor  perished  without  a  hu- 
man being  to  hand  them  a  drink  of  water,  to  administer  medicines,  or  to  per- 
form any  charitable  office  for  them.  Nearly  5,000  perished  bv  this  wasting 

The  whisky  insurrection  in  some  of  the  western  counties  of  the  State, 
which  occurred  in  1794,  excited,  by  its  lawlessness  and  wide  extent,  general 
interest.  An  act  of  Congress,  of  March  3,  1791,  laid  a  tax  on  distilled  spirits 
of  four  pence  per  gallon.  The  then  counties  of  Washington,  Westmoreland, 
Allegheny  and  Fayette,  comprising  the  southwestern  quarter  of  the  State, 
were  almost  exclusively  engaged  in  the  production  of  grain.  Being  far  re- 
moved from  any  market,  the  product  of  their  farms  brought  them  scarcely  any 
returns.  The  consequence  was  that  a  large  proportion  of  the  surplus  grain 
was  turned  into  distilled  spirits,  and  nearly  every  other  farmer  was  a  distiller. 
This  tax  was  seen  to  bear  heavily  upon  them,  from  which  a  non-producer  of 
spirits  was  relieved.  A  rash  determination  was  formed  to  resist  its  collection, 
and  a  belief  entertained,  if  all  were  united  in  resisting,  it  would  be  taken  oft. 
Frequent  altercations  occurred  between  the  persons  appointed  United  States 
Collectors  and  these  resisting  citizens.     As  an  example,  on  the  5th  of  Septem- 


ber,  1791,  a  party  in  disguise  set  upon  Robert  Johnson,  a  Collector  fur  Alle- 
gheny and  Washington,  tarred  and  feathered  him,  cut  off  his  hair,  took  away 
his  horse,  and  left  him  in  this  plight  to  proceed.  Writs  for  the  arrest  of  the 
perpetrators  were  issued,  but  none  dared  to  venture  into  the  territory  to  serve 
them.  On  May  8,  1792,  the  law  was  modified,  and  the  tax  reduced.  In  Septem- 
ber, 1792,  President  Washington  issued  his  proclamation  commanding  all  per- 
sons to  submit  to  the  law,  and  to  forbear  from  further  opposition.  Bnt  these  meas- 
ures had  no  effect,  and  the  insurgents  began  to  organize  for  forcible  resist- 
ance. One  Maj.  Macfarlane,  who  in  command  of  a  party  of  insurrectionists, 
was  killed  in  an  encounter  with  United  States  soldiers  at  the  house  of  Gen. 
Neville.  The  feeling  now  ran  very  high,  and  it  was  hardly  safe  for  any  per- 
son to  breathe  a  whisper  against  the  insurgents  throughout  all  this  district. 
"  A  breath,"  says  Brackenridge,  "  in  favor  of  the  law,  was  sufficient  to  ruin 
any  man.  A  clergyman  was  not  thought  orthodox  in  the  pulpit  unless  against 
the  law.  A  physician  was  not  capable  of  administering  medicine,  unless  his 
principles  were  right  in  this  respect.  A  lawyer  could  get  no  practice,  nor 
a  merchant  at  a  country  store  get  custom  if  for  the  law.  On  the  contrary,  to 
talk  against  the  law  was  the  way  to  office  and  emolument.  To  go  to  the 
Legislature  or  to  Congress  you  must  make  a  noise  against  it.  It  was  the  Shib- 
boleth of  safety  and  the  ladder  of  ambition  "  One  Bradford  had,  of  his  own 
notion,  issued  a  circular  letter  to  the  Colonels  of  regiments  to  assemble  with 
their  commands  at  Braddock's  field  on  the  1st  of  August,  where  they  appoint- 
ed officers  and  moved  on  to  Pittsburgh.  After  having  burned  a  barn,  and 
made  some  noisy  demonstrations,  they  were  induced  by  some  cool  heads  to  re- 
turn. These  turbulent  proceedings  coming  to  the  ears  of  the  State  and  Na- 
tional authorities  at  Philadelphia,  measures  were  concerted  to  promptly  and 
effectually  check  them.  Gov.  Mifflin  appointed  Chief  Justice  McKean,  and 
Gen.  William  Irvine  to  proceed  to  the  disaffected  district,  ascertain  the  facts, 
and  try  to  bring  the  leaders  to  justice.  President  Washington  issued  a  proc- 
lamation commanding  all  persons  in  arms  to  disperse  to  their  homes  on  or  be- 
fore the  1st  of  September,  proximo,  and  called  out  the  militia  oli  four  States 
— Pennsylvania,  New  Jersey,  Maryland  and  Virginia — to  the  number  of  13,000 
men,  to  enforce  his  commands.  The  quota  of  Pennsylvania  was  4,500  infan- 
ts, 500  cavalry,  200  artillery,  and  Gov.  Mifflin  took  command  in  person. 
Gov.  Richard  Howell,  of  New  Jersey,  Gov.  Thomas  S.  Lee,  of  Maryland,  and 
(lien.  Daniel  Morgan,  of  Virginia,  commanded  the  forces  from  their  States, 
and  Gov.  Henry  Lee,  of  Virginia,  was  placed  in  chief  command.  President 
Washington,  accompanied  by  Gen.  Knox,  Secretary  of  War,  Alexander  Hamil- 
ton, Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  and  Richard  Peters,  of  the  United  States  Dis- 
trict Court,  set  out  on  the  1st  of  October,  for  the  seat  of  the  disturbance.  On 
Friday,  the  President  reached  Harrisburg,  and  on  Saturday  Carlisle,  whither 
the  army  had  preceded  him.  In  the  meantime  a  committee,  consisting  of 
James  Ross,  Jasper  Yeates  and  William  Bradford,  was  appointed  by  President 
Washington  to  proceed  to  the  disaffected  district,  and  endeavor  to  persuade 
misguided  citizens  to  return  to  their  allegiance. 

k  meeting  of  260  delegates  from  the  four  counties  was  held  at  Parkinson's 
Ferry  on  the  14th  of  August,  at  which  the  state  of  their  cause  was  considered, 
resolutions  adopted,  and  a  committee  of  sixty,  one  from  each  county,  was  ap- 
pointed, and  a  sub-committee  of  twelve  was  named  to  confer  with  the  United 
States  Commissioners,  McKean  and  Irvine.  These  conferences  with  the  State 
and  National  Committees  were  successful  in  arranging  preliminary  conditions 
of  settlement.  On  the  2d  of  October,  the  Committee  of  Safety  of  the  insur- 
gents met  at  Parkinson's  Ferry,  and  having  now  learned  that  a  well-organized 


army,  with  Washington  at  its  head,  was  marching  westward  for  enforcing 
obedience  to  the  laws,  appointed  a  committee  of  two,  William  Findley  and 
David  Reddick,  to  meet  the  President,  and  assure  bim  that  the  disaffected  were 
disposed  to  return  to  their  duty.  They  met  Washington  at  Carlisle,  and  sev- 
eral conferences  were  held,  and  assurances  given  of  implicit  obedience;  but 
the  President  said  that  as  the  troops  had  been  called  out,  the  orders  for  the 
march  would  not  be  countei'manded.  The  President  proceeded  forward  on  the 
11th  of  October  to  Chambersburg,  reached  Williamsport  on  the  13th  and  Fort 
Cumberland  on  the  14th,  where  he  reviewed  the  Virginia  and  Maryland  forces, 
and  arrived  at  Bedford  on  the  19th.  Remaining  a  few  days,  and  being  satis- 
fied that  the  sentiment  of  the  people  had  changed,  he  returned  to  Philadel- 
phia, arriving  on  the  28th,  leaving  Gen.  Lee  to  meet  the  Commissioners  and 
make  such  conditions  of  pacification  as  should  seem  just.  Another  meeting  of 
the  Committee  of  Safety  was  held  at  Parkinson's  Ferry  on  the  24th,  at  which 
assurances  of  abandonment  of  opposition  to  the  laws  were  received,  and  the 
same  committee,  with  the  addition  of  Thomas  Morton  and  Ephriam  Douglass, 
was  directed  to  return  to  headquarters  and  give  assurance  of  this  disposition. 
They  did  not  reach  Bedford  until  after  the  departure  of  Washington.  But  at 
Uniontown  they  met  Gen.  Lee,  with  whom  it  was  agreed  that  the  citizens 
of  these  four  counties  should  subscribe  to  an  oath  to  support  the  Constitution 
and  obey  the  laws.  Justices  of  the  Peace  issued  notices  that  books  were  opened 
for  subscribing  to  the  oath,  and  Gen.  Lee  issued  a  judicious  address  urging 
ready  obedience.  Seeing  that  all  requirments  were  being  faithfully  carried 
out,  an  order  was  issued  on  the  17th  of  November  for  the  return  of  the  army 
and  its  disbandment.  A  number  of  arrests  were  made  and  trials  and  convic- 
tions were  had,  but  all  were  ultimately  pardoned. 

With  the  exception  of  a  slight  ebulition  at  the  prospect  of  a  war  with  France 
in  1797,  and  a  resistance  to  the  operation  of  the  "  Homestead  Tax  ''  in  Lehigh, 
Berks  and  Northampton  Counties,  when  the  militia  was  called  out,  the  re- 
mainder of  the  term  of  Gov.  Mifflin  passed  in  comparative  quiet  By  an  act 
of  the  Legislature  of  the  3d  of  April,  1799,  the  capital  of  the  State  was  re 
moved  to  Lancaster,  and  soon  after  the  capital  of  the  United  States  to  Wash- 
ington, the  house  on  Ninth  street,  which  had  been  built  for  the  residence  of  the 
President  of  the  United  States;  passing  to  the  use  of  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 

During  the  administrations  of  Thomas  McKean,  who  was  elected  Governor 
in  1799,  and  Simon  Snyder  in  1808,  little  beyond  heated  political  contests 
marked  the  even  tenor  of  the  government,  until  the  breaking-out  of  the  troub- 
les which  eventuated  in  the  war  of  1812.  The  blockade  of  the  coast  of  France 
in  1806,  and  the  retaliatory  measures  of  Napoleon  in  his  Berlin  decree,  swept 
American  commerce,  which  had  hitherto  preserved  a  neutral  attitude  and  prof- 
ited by  European  wars,  from  the  seas.  The  haughty  conduct  of  Great  Britain 
in  boarding  American  vessels  for  suspected  deserters  from  the  British  Navy, 
under  cover  of  which  the  gi'ossest  outrages  were  committed,  American  seaman 
being  dragged  from  the  decks  of  their  vessels  and  impressed  into  the  English 
service,  induced  President  Jefferson,  in  July,  1807,  to  issue  his  proclamation 
ordering  all  British  armed  vessels  to  leave  the  waters  of  the  United  States,  and 
forbidding  any  to  enter,  until  satisfaction  for  the  past  and  security  for  the 
future  should  be  provided  for.  Upon  the  meeting  of  Congress  in  December, 
an  embargo  was  laid,  detaining  all  vessels,  American  and  foreign,  then  in 
American  waters,  and  ordering  home  all  vessels  abroad.  Negotiations  were 
conducted  between  the  two  countries,  but  no  definite  results  were  reached,  and 
in  the  meantime  causes  of  irritation  multiplied  until   1812,  when  President 


Madison  declared  war  against  Great  Britain,  known  as  the  war  of  1812. 
Pennsylvania  promptly  seconded  the  National  Government,  +he  message  of 
Gov.  Snyder  on  the  occasion  ringing  like  a  silver  clarion.  The  national  call 
for  100,000  men  required  14,000  from  this  State,  but  so  great  was  the  enthu- 
siasm, that  several  times  this  number  tendered  their  services.  The  State  force 
was  organized  in  two  divisions,  to  the  command  of  the  first  of  which  Maj 
Gen.  Isaac  MorrellNvas  appointed,  and  to  the  second  Maj.  Gen.  AdamsonTan- 
nehill.  Gunboats  and  privateers  were  built  in  the  harbor  of  Erie  and  on  the 
Delaware,  and  the  defenses  upon  the  latter  were  put  in  order  and  suitable 
armaments  provided.  At  Tippecanoe,  at  Detroit,  at  Queenstown  Heights,  at 
the  River  Raisin,  at  Fort  Stephenson,  aud  at  the  River  Thames,  the  war  was 
waged  with  varying  success.  Upon  the  water,  Commodores  Decatur,  Hull, 
Jones,  Perry,  Lawrence,  Porter  and  McDonough  made  a  bright  chapter  in 
American  history,  as  was  to  be  wished,  inasmuch  as  the  war  had  been  under- 
taken to  vindicate  the  honor  and  integrity  of  that  branch  of  the  service.  Napo- 
leon, having  met  with  disaster,  and  his  power  having  been  broken,  14,000  of 
Wellington's  veterans  were  sent  to  Canada,  and  the  campaign  of  the  next  year 
was  opened  with  vigor.  But  at  the  battles  of  Oswego,  Chippewa,  Lundy's 
Lane,  Fort  Erie  and  Plattsburg,  the  tide  was  turned  against  the  enemy,  and 
the  country  saved  from  invasion.  The  act  which  created  most  alarm  to 
Pennsylvania  was  one  of  vandalism  scarcely  matched  in  the  annals  of  war- 
fare. In  August,  1814,  Gen.  Ross,  with  6,000  men  in  a  flotilla  of  sixty  sails, 
moved  up  Chesapeake  Bay,  fired  the  capitol,  Pre3ident's  house  and  the  various 
offices  of  cabinet  ministers,  and  these  costly  and  substantial  buildings,  the  nation- 
al library  and  all  the  records  of  the  Government  from  its  foundation  were  utterly 
destroyed.  Shortly  afterward,  Ross  appeared  before  Baltimore  with  the  design 
of  multiplying  his  barbarisms,  but  he  was  met  by  a  force  hastily  collected  under 
Gen.  Samuel  Smith,  a  Pennsylvania  veteran  of  the  Revolution,  and  in  the  brief 
engagement  which  ensued  Ross  was  killed.  In  the  severe  battle  with  the 
corps  of  Gen  Strieker,  the  British  lost  some  300  men.  The  fleet  in  the  mean- 
time opened  a  fierce  bombardment  of  Fort  McHenry,  and  during  the  day  and 
ensuing  night  1,500  bombshells  were  thrown,  but  all  to  no  purpose,  the  gal- 
lant defense  of  Maj.  Armistead  proving  successful.  It  was  during  this  awful 
night  that  'Alaj.  Key,  who  was  a  prisoner  on  board  the  fleet,  wrote  the  song  of 
the  Star  Spangled  Banner,  which  became  the  national  lyric.  It  was  in  the  ad- 
ministration of  Gov.  Snydei  in  February,  1810,  that  an  act  was  passed  making 
Harrisburg  the  seat  of  government,  and  a  commission  raised  for  erecting  public 
buildings,  the  sessions  of  the  Legislature  being  held  in  the  court  house  at  Har- 
risburg from  1812  to  1821. 

The  administrations  of  William  Findley,  elected  in  1817,  Joseph  Heister, 
in  1820,  and  John  Andrew  Schulz  in  1823,  followed  without  marked  events. 
Parties  became  very  warm  in  their  discussions  and  in  their  management  of  po- 
litical campaigns.  The  charters  for  the  forty  banks  which  had  been  passed  in 
a  fit  of  frenzy  over  the  veto  of  Gov.  Snyder  set  a  flood  of  paper  money  afloat. 
The  public  improvements,  principally  in  opening  lines  of  canal,  were  prose- 
cuted, and  vast  debts  incurred.  These  lines  of  conveyances  were  vitally  need- 
ful to  move  the  immense  products  and  vast  resources  of  the  State 

Previous  to  the  year  1820,  little  use  was  made  of  stone  coal.  Judge 
Obediah  Gore,  a  blacksmith,  used  it  upon  his  forge  as  early  as  1769,  and 
found  the  heat  stronger  and  more  enduring  than  that  produced  by  charcoal. 
In  1791,  Phillip  Ginter,  of  Carbon  County,  a  hunter  by  profession,  having  on 
one  occasion  been  out  all  day  without  discovering  any  game,  was  returning  at 
night  discouraged  and  worn  out,  .\cross  the  Mauch  Chunk  Mountain,  when,  in 








1 63, 221 

























































fi  221,934 




































































Total  Tons. 































































3  358,899 



































the  gathering  shades  he  stumbled  upon  something  which  seemed  to  have  a 
glistening  appearance,  that  he  was  induced  to  pick  up  and  carry  home.  This 
specimen  was  takea  to  Philadelphia,  where  an  analysis  showed  it  to  be  a  good 
quality  of  anthracite  coal.  But,  though  coal  was  known  to  exist,  no  one  knew 
how  to  use  it.  In  1812,  Col.  George  Shoemaker,  of  Schuylkill  County,  took 
nine  wagon  loads  to  Philadelphia.  But  he  was  looked  upon  as  an  imposter 
for  attempting  to  sell  worthless  stone  for  coal.  He  finally  sold  two  loads  for 
the  cost  of  transportation,  the  remaining  seven  proving  a  complete  loss.  In 
1812,  While  &  Hazard,  manufacturers  of  wire  at  the  Falls  of  Schuylkill,  in- 
duced an  application  to  be  made  to  the  Legislature  to  incorporate  a  com- 
pany for  the  improvement  of  the  Schuylkill,  urging  as  an  inducement  the  im- 
portance it  Would  have  for  transporting  coal;  whereupon,  the  Senator  from 
that  district,  in  his  place,  with  an  air  of  knowledge,  asserted  "that  there  was 
no  coal  there,  that  there  was  a  kind  of  black  stone  which  was  called  coal,  but 
that  it  would  not  burn." 

White  &  Hazard  procured  a  cart  load  of  Lehigh  coal  that  cost  them  $1  a 
bushel,  which  was  all  wasted  in  a  vain  attempt  to  make  it  ignite.  Another 
cart  load  was  obtained,  and  a  whole  night  spent  in  endeavoring  to  make  a  fire- 
in  the  furnace,  when  the  hands  shut  the  furnace  door  and  left  the  mill  in  de- 
spair. "Fortunately  one  of  them  left  his  jacket  in  the  mill,  and  returning  for 
it  in  about  half  an  hour,  noticed  that  the  door  was  red  hot,  and  upon  opening 
it,  was  surprised  at  finding  the  whole  furnace  at  a  glowing  white  heat.  The 
other  hands  were  summoned,  and  four  separate  parcels  of  iron  were  heated 
and  rolled  by  the  same  fire  before  it  required  renewing.  The  furnace  was 
replenished,  and  as  letting  it  alone  had  succeeded  so  well,  it  was  concluded  to 
try  it  again,  and  the  experiment  was  repeated  with  the  same  result.  The 
Lehigh  Navigation  Company  and  the  Lehigh  Coal  Company  were  incorporated 
in  1818,  which  companies  became  the  basis  of  the  Lehigh  Coal  and  Naviga- 
tion Company,  incorporated  in  1822.  In  1820,  coal  was  sent  to  Philadelphia 
by  artificial  navigation,  but  365  tons  glutted  the  market."  In  1825,  there 
were  brought  by  the  Schuylkill  5,378  tons.  In  1826,  by  the  Schuylkill, 
16,265  tons,  and  by  the  Lehigh  31,280  tons.  The  stage  of  water  being  in- 
sufficient, dams  and  sluices  were  constructed  near  Mauch  Chunk,  in  1819,  by 
which  the  navigation  was  improved.  The  coal  boats  used  were  great  square 
arks,  16  to  18  feet  wide,  and  20  to  25  feet  long.  At  first,  two  of  these  were 
joined  together  by  hinges,  to  allow  them  to  yield  up  and  down  in  passing  over 
the  dams.  Finally,  as  the  boatmen  became  skilled  in  the  navigation,  several 
were  joined,  attaining  a  length  of  180  feet.  Machinery  was  used  for  jointing 
the  planks,  and  so  expert  had  the  men  become  that  five  would  build  an  ark 
and  launch  it  in  forty-five  minutes.  After  reaching  Philadelphia,  these  boats 
were  taken  to  pieces,  the  plank  sold,  and  the  hinges  sent  back  for  constructing 
others.  Such  were  the  crude  methods  adopted  in  the  early  days  for  bringing 
coal  to  a  market.  In  1827,  a  railroad  was  commenced,  which  was  completed 
in  three  months,  nine  miles  in  length.  This,  with  the  exception  of  one  at 
Quincy,  Mass.,  of  four  miles,  built  in  1826,  was  the  first  constructed  in  the 
United  States.  The  descent  was  100  feet  per  mile,  and  the  coal  descended  by 
gravity  in  a  half  hour,  and  the  cars  were  drawn  back  by  mules,  which  rode 
down  with  the  coal.  "The  mules  cut  a  most  grotesque  figure,  standing  three 
or  four  together,  in  their  cars,  with  their  feeding  troughs  before  them,  appar- 
ently surveying  with  delight  the  scenery  of  the  mountain;  and  though  they 
preserve  the  most  profound  gravity,  it  is  utterly  impossible  for  the  spectator 
to  maintain  his.  It  is  said  that  the  mules,  having  once  experienced  the  com- 
fort of  riding  down,  regard  it  as  a  right,  and  neither  mild  nor  Bevere  measures 


will  induce  them  to  descend  in  any  other  way."  Bituminous  coal  was  discov- 
ered and  its  qualities  utilized  not  much  earlier  than  the  anthracite.  A  tract 
of  coal  land  was  taken  up  in  Clearfield  County  in  1785,  by  Mr.  8.  Boyd,  and 
in  1804  he  sent  an  ark  down  the  Susquehanna  to  Columbia,  which  caused 
much  surprise  to  the  inhabitants  that  "an  article  with  which  they  were  wholly 
unacquainted  should  be  brought  to  their  own  doors." 

During  the  administrations  of  George  Wolf,  elected  in  1829,  and  Joseph 
Ritner,  elected  in  1835,  a  measure  of  great  beneficence  to  the  State  was  passed 
and  brought  into  a  good  degree  of  successful  operation — nothing  less  than  a 
broad  system  of  public  education.  Schools  had  been  early  established  in 
Philadelphia,  and  parochial  schools  in  the  more  populous  portions  of  the 
State  from  the  time  of  early  settlement.  In  1749,  through  the  influence  of 
Dr.  Franklin,  a  charter  was  obtained  for  a  "college,  academy,  and  charity 
school  of  Pennsylvania,"  and  from  this  time  to  the  beginning  of  the  present 
century,  the  friends  of  education  were  earnest  in  establishing  colleges,  the 
Colonial  Government,  and  afterward  the  Legislature,  making  liberal  grants 
from  the  revenues  accruing  from  the  sale  of  lauds  for  their  support,  the  uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania  being  chartered  in  1752,  Dickinson  College  in  1783, 
Franklin  and  Marshall  College  in  1787,  and  Jefferson  College  in  1802.  Com- 
mencing near  the  beginning  of  this  century,  and  continuing  for  over  a  period 
of  thirty  years,  vigorous  exertions  were  put  forth  to  establish  county  acad- 
emies. Charters  were  granted  for  these  institutions  at  the  county  seats  of 
forty-one  counties,  and  appropriations  were  made  oE  money,  varying  from 
$2,000  to  $6,000,  and  in  several  instances  of  quite  extensive  land  grants.  In 
1809,  an  act  was  passed  for  the  education  of  the  "poor,  gratis."  The  Asses- 
sors in  their  annual  rounds  were  to  make  a  record  of  all  such  as  were  indi- 
gent, and  pay  for  their  education  in  the  most  convenient  schools.  But  few 
were  found  among  the  spirited  inhabitants  of  the  commonwealth  willing  to 
admit  that   they  were  so  poor  as  to  be  objects  of  charity. 

By  the  act  of  April  1,  1834,  a  general  system  of  education  by  common 
schools  was  established.  Unfortunately  it  was  complex  and  unwieldy.  At  the 
next  session  an  attempt  was  made  to  repeal  it,  and  substitute  the  old  law  of 
1809  for  educating  the  "  poor,  gratis,"  the  repeal  having  been  carried  in  the 
Senate.  But  through  the  appeals  of  Thaddeus  Stevens,  a  man  always  in  the 
van  in  every  movement  for  the  elevation  of  mankind,  this  was  defeated.  At 
the  next  session,  1836,  an  entirely  new  bill,  discarding  the  objectionable  feat- 
ures of  the  old  one,  was  prepared  by  Dr.  George  Smith,  of  Delaware  County, 
and  adopted,  and  from  this  time  forward  has  been  in  efficient  operation.  It  may 
seem  strange  that  so  long  a  time  should  have  elapsed  before  a  general  system  of 
education  should  have  been  secured.  But  the  diversity  of  origin  and  lan- 
guage, the  antagonism  of  religious  seats,  the  very  great  sparseness  of  popula- 
tion in  many  parts,  made  it  impossible  at  an  earlier  day  to  establish  schools. 
In  1854,  the  system  was  improved  by  engrafting  upon  it  the  feature  of  the 
County  Superintendency,  and  in  1859  by  providing  for  the  establishment  of 
twelve  Normal  Schools,  in  as  many  districts  into  which  the  State  was  divided, 
for  the  professional  training  of  teachers. 



David  R.  Porter,  1839-45— Francis  R.  Shone,  1845-48— William  F.  Johnstone 
1848-52— William  Bigler,  1853-55— James  Pollock,  1855-58— William  F. 
Packer,  1858-61— Andrew  G.  Curtin,  1861-67— John  W.  Geary,  1867-73— 
John  F.  Hartranft,  1873-78— Henry  F.  Hoyt,  1878-82— Robert  E.  Pat- 
tison,  1882. 

IN  1837,  a  convention  assembled  in  Harrisburg,  and  subsequently  in  Philadel- 
phia, for  revising  the  constitution,  which  revision  was  adopted  by  a  vote  of 
the  people.  One  of  the  chief  objects  of  the  change  was  the  breaking  up  of 
what  was  known  as  "omnibus  legislation."  each  bill  being  required  to  have 
but  one  distinct  subject,  to  be  definitely  stated  in  the  title.  Much  of  the  pat- 
ronage of  the  Governor  was  taken  from  him,  and  he  was  allowed  but  two  terms 
of  three  years  in  any  nine  years.  The  Senator's  term  was  fixed  at  three  years. 
The  terms  of  Supreme  Court  Judges  were  limited  to  fifteen  years,  Common 
Pleas  Judges  to  ten,  and  Associate  Judges  to  five.  A  step  backward  was  taken 
'  i  limiting  suffrage  to  white  male  citizens  twenty-one  years  old,  it  having  pre- 
viously been  extended  to  citizens  irrespective  of  color.  Amendments  could  be 
proposed  once  in  five  years,  and  if  adopted  by  two  successive  Legislatures, 
and  approved  by  a  vote  of  the  people,  they  became  a  part  of  the  organic  law. 
At  the  opening  of  the  gubernatorial  term  of  David  R.  Porter,  who  was 
chosen  in  October,  1838,  a  civil  commotion  occurred  known  as  the  Buckshot 
War,  which  at  one  time  threatened  a  sanguinary  result.  By  the  returns, 
Porter  had  some  5,000  majority  over  Ritner,  but  the  latter,  who  was  the  in- 
cumbent, alleged  frauds,  and  proposed  an  investigation  and  revision  of  the 
returns.  Thomas  H.  Burrows  was  Secretary  of  State,  and  Chairman  of  the 
State  Committee  of  the  Anti-Masonic  party,  and  in  an  elaborate  address  to  the 
people  setting  forth  the  grievance,  he  closed  with  the  expression  "  let  us  treat 
the  election  as  if  we  had  not  been  defeated. "  This  expression  gave  great 
offense  to  the  opposing  party,  the  Democratic,  and  public  feeling  ran  high 
before  the  meeting  of  the  Legislature.  Whether  an  investigation  could  be  had 
would  depend  up'on  the  political  complexion  of  that  body.  The  Senate  was 
clearly  Anti-Masonic,  and  the  House  would  depend  upon  the  Representatives  of 
a  certain  district  in  Philadelphia,  which  embraced  the  Northern  Liberties. 
The  returning  board  of  this  district  had  a  majority  of  Democrats,  who  pro- 
ceeded to  throw  out  the  entire  vote  of  Northern  Liberties,  for  some  alleged 
irregularities,  and  gave  the  certificate  to  Democrats.  Whereupon,  the  minor- 
ity of  the  board  assembled,  and  counted  the  votes  of  the  Northern  Liberties, 
which  gave  the  election  to  the  Anti -Masonic  candidates,  and  sent  certificates 
accordingly.  By  right  and  justice,  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  Anti-Masons 
were  fairly  elected.  But  the  majority  of  a  returning  board  alone  have 
authority  to  make  returns,  and  the  Democrats  had  the  certificates  which  bore 
prima  facie  evidence  of  being  correct,  and  should  have  been  received  and 
transmitted  to  the  House,  where  alone  rested  the  authority  to  go  behind  the 
returns  and  investigate  their  correctness.  But  upon  the  meeting  oE  the  House 
the  Secretary  of  the  Commonwealth  sent  in  the  certificates  of  the  minority  of 
the  returning  board  of  the  Northern  Liberties  district,  Which  gave  the  major- 
ity to  the  Anti -Masons.      But  the  Democrats  were  not  disposed  to  submit,  and 


the  consequence  was  that  two  delegations  from  the  disputed  district  appeared, 
demanding  seats,  and  upon  the  organization,  two  Speakers  were  elected  and 
took  the  platform — Thomas  S.  Cunningham  for  the  Anti-Masons,  and  Will- 
iam  Hopkins  for  the  Democrats.  At  this  stage  of  the  game,  an  infuriated 
lobby,  collected  from  Philadelphia  and  surrounding  cities,  broke  into  the 
two  Houses,  and,  interrupting  all  business,  threatened  the  lives  of  members, 
and  compelled  them  to  seek  safety  in  flight,  when  they  took  uncontrolled  pos- 
session of  the  chambers  and  indulged  in  noisy  and  impassioned  harangues. 
From  the  capitol,  the  mob  proceeded  to  the  court  houso,  where  a  "committee 
of  safety"  was  appointed.  For  several  days  the  members  dared  not  enter 
either  House,  and  when  one  of  the  parties  of  the  House  attempted  to  assemble, 
the  person  who  had  been  appointed  to  act  as  Speaker  was  forcibly  ejected.  All 
business  was  at  an  end,  and  the  Executive  and  State  Departments  were  closed. 
At  this  juncture,  Gov.  Ritner  ordered  out  the  militia,  and  at  the  same  time 
called  on  the  United  States  authorities  for  help.  The  militia,  under  Gens. 
Pattison  and  Alexander,  came  promptly  to  the  rescue,  but  the  Presidentrefused 
to  furnish  the  National  troops,  though  the  United  States  storekeeper  at.  the 
Frankford  Arsenal  turned  over  a  liberal  supply  of  ball  and  buckshot  cartridges. 
The  arrival  of  the  militia  only  served  to  tire  the  spirit  of  the  lobby,  and  they 
immediately  commenced  drilling  and  organizing,  supplying  themselves  with 
arms  and  fixed  ammunition.  The  militia  authorities  were,  however,  able  to 
clear  the  capitol,  when  the  two  Houses  assembled,  and  the  Senate  signified  the 
willingness  to  recognize  that  branch  of  the  House  presided  over  by  Mr.  Hop- 
kins.    This  ended  the  difficulty,  and  Gov.  Porter  was  duly  inaugurated. 

Francis  R.  Shunk  was  chosen  Governor  in  1845,  and  during  his  term  of 
office  the  war  with  Mexico  occurred.  Two  volunteer  regiment?,  one  under 
command  of  Col.  Wynkoop,  and  the  other  under  Col.  Roberts,  subsequently 
Col.  John  W.  Geary,  were  sent  to  the  field,  while  the  services  of  a  much 
larger  number  were  offered,  but  could  not  be  received.  Toward  the  close  of 
his  first  term,  having  been  reduced  by  sickness,  and  feeling  his  end  approach- 
ing, Gov.  Shunk  resigned,  and  was  succeeded  by  the  Speaker  of  the  Senate, 
William  F.  Johnston,  who  was  duly  chosen  at  the  next  annual  election.  Dur- 
ing the  administrations  of  William  Bigler,  elected  in  1851,  James  Pollock  in 
1854,  and  William  F.  Packer  in  1857,  little  beyond  the  ordinary  course  of 
events  marked  the  history  of  the  State.  The  lines  of  public  works  undertaken 
at  the  expense  of  the  State  were  completed.  Their  cost  had  been  enormous, 
and  a  debt  was  piled  up  against  it  of  over  $40,000,000.  These  works,  vastly 
expensive,  were  still  to  operate  and  keep  in  repair,  and  the  revenues  therefrom 
failing  to  meet  expectations,  it  was  determined  in  the  administration  of  Gov. 
Pollock  to  sell  them  to  the  highest  bidder,  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Com- 
pany purchasing  them  for  the  sum  of  $7,500,000. 

In  the  administration  of  Gov.  Packer,  petroleum  was  first  discovered  in 
quantities  in  this  country  by  boring  into  the  bowels  of  the  earth.  From  the 
earliest  settlement  of  the  country  it  was  known  to  exist.  As  early  as  July  18, 
1627,  a  French  missionary,  Joseph  Delaroche  Daillon,  of  the  order  of  Recol- 
iets,  described  it  in  a  letter  published  in  1632,  in  Segard's  L'Histoire  du 
Canada,  and  this  description  is  confirmed  by  the  journal  of  Charlevois,  1721. 
Fathers  Dollier  and  Galinee,  missionaries  of  the  order  of  St.  Sulpice,  made  a 
map  of  this  section  of  couutry,  which  they  sent  to  Jean  Talon,  Intendent  of 
Canada,  on  the  10th  of  November,  1670,  on  which  was  marked  at  about  the 
point  where  is  now  the  town  of  Cuba,  N.  Y. ,  "Fontaine  de  Bitume."  The 
Earl  of  Belmont,  Governor  of  New  York,  instructed  his  chief  engineer, 
Wolfgang  W.  Romer,  on  September  3,  1700,   in  his  visit  to  the  Six  Nations, 


"  To  go  and  view  a  well  or  spring  which  is  eight  miles  beyond  the  Seneks* 
farthest  castle,  which  they  have  told  me  blazes  up  in  a  flame,  when  a  lighted 
coale  or  firebrand  is  put  into  it;  you  will  do  well  to  taste  the  said  water,  and 
give  me  your  opinion  thereof,  and  bring  with  you  some  of  it."  Thomas  Cha- 
bert  de  Joncaire,  who  died  in  September,  1740,  is  mentioned  in  the  journal  of 
Charlevoix  of  1721  as  authority  for  the  existence  of  oil  at  the  place  mentioned 
above,  and  at  points  further  south,  probably  on  Oil  Creek.  The  following 
account  of  an  event  occurring  during  the  occupancy  of  this  part  of  the  State 
by  the  French  is  given  as  an  example  of  the  religious  uses  made  of  oil  by  the 
Indians,  as  these  fire  dances  are  understood  to  have  been  annually  celebrated: 
''While  descending  the  Allegheny,  fifteen  leagues  below  the  mouth  of  the 
Connewango  (Warren)  and  three  above  Fort  Venango  (Oil  City),  we  were 
invited  by  the  chief  of  the  Senecas  to  attend  a  religious  ceremony  of  his  tribe. 
We  landed  and  drew  up  our  canoes  on  a  point  where  a  small  stream  entered 
the  river.  The  tribe  appeared  unusually  solemn.  We  marched  up  the  stream 
about  a  half  a  league,  where  the  company,  a  large  band  it  appeared,  had 
arrived  some  days  before  us.  Gigantic  hills  begirt  us  on  every  side.  The 
scene  was  really  sublime.  The  great  chief  then  recited  the  conquests  and 
heroisms  of  their  ancestors.  The  surface  of  the  stream  was  covered  with  a 
thick  scum,  which  burst  into  a  complete  conflagration.  The  oil  had  been 
gathered  and  lighted  with  a  torch.  At  sight  of  the  flames,  the  Indians  gave 
forth  a  triumphant  shout,  and  made  the  hills  and  valley  re-echo  again." 

In  nearly  all  geographies  and  notes  of  travel  published  during  the  early 
period  of  settlement,  this  oil  is  referred  to,  and  on  several  maps  the  word  petro- 
leum appears  opposite  the  mouth  of  Oil  Creek.  Gen.  Washington,  in  his  will, 
in  speaking  of  his  lands  on  the  Great  Kanawha,  says:  "  The  tract  of  which  the 

125  acres  is  a  moiety,  was  taken  up  by  Gen.  Andrew  Lewis  and  myself,  for  and 
on  account  of  a  bituminous  spring  which  it  contains  of  so  inflammable  a  nat- 
ure as  to  burn  as  freely  as  spirits,  and  is  as  nearly  difficult  to  extinguish." 
Air.  Jefferson,  in  his  Notes  on  Virginia,  also  gives  an  account  of  a  burning 
spring  on  the  lower  grounds  of  the  Great  Kanawha.  This  oil  not  only  seems 
to  have  been  known,  but  to  have  been  systematically  gathered  in  very  early 
times.  Upon  the  flats  a  mile  or  so  below  the  city  of  Titusville  are  many  acres 
of  cradle  holes  dug  out  and  lined  with  split  logs,  evidently  constructed  for 
the  purpose  of  gathering  it.  The  fact  that  the  earliest  inhabitants  could 
never  discover  any  stumps  from  which  these  logs  were  cut.  and  the  further  fact 
that  trees  are  growing  of  giant  size  in  the  midst  of  these  cradles,  are  evidences 
that  they  must  have  been  operated  long  ago.  It  could  not  have  been  the  work 
of  any  ol  the  nomadic  Indian  tribes  found  here  at  the  coming  of  the  white 
man.  for  they  were  never  known  to  undertake  any  enterprise  involving  so 
much  labor,  and  what  could  they  do  with  the  oil  when  obtained. 

The  French  could  hardly  have  done  the  work,  for  we  have  no  account  of 
the  oil  having  been  obtained  in  quantities,  or  of  its  being  transported  to 
France.  May  this  not  have  been  the  work  of  the  Mound- Builders,  or  of  colo- 
nies from  Central  America?  When  the  writer  first  visited  these  pits,  in  1855, 
he  found  a  spring  some  distance  below  Titusville,  on  Oil  Creek,  where  the 
water  was  conducted  into  a  trough,  from  which,  daily,  the  oil,  floating  on  its 
surface,  was  taken  off  by  throwing  a  woolen  blanket  upon  it,  and  then  wring- 
ing it  into  a  tub,  the  clean  wool  absorbing  the  oil  and  rejecting  the  water,  and 
in  this  way  a  considerable  quantity  was  obtained. 

In  1859,  Mr.  E.  L.  Drake,  at  first  representing  a  company  in  New  York, 
commenced  drilling  near  the  spot  where  this  tub  was  located,  and  when  the 
company  would  give  him  no  more  money,  straining  his  own  resources,  and  his 


credit  with  his  friends  almost  to  the  breaking  point,  and  when  about  to  give 
up  in  despair,  finally  struck  a  powerful  current  of  pure  oil.  From  this  time 
forward,  the  territory  down  the  valley  of  Oil  Creek  and  up  all  its  tributaries 
was  rapidly  acquired  and  developed  for  oil  land.  In  some  places,  the  oil  was 
sent  up  with  immense  force,  at  the  rate  of  thousands  of  barrels  each  day,  and 
great  trouble  was  experienced  in  bringing  it  under  control  <md  storing  it.  In 
some  cases,  the  force  of  the  gas  was  so  powerful  on  being  accidentally  fired, 
as  to  defy  all  approach  for  many  days,  and  lighted  up  the  forests  at  night 
with  billows  of  light. 

The  oil  has  been  found  in  paying  quantities  in  McKean,  Warren,  Forest, 
Crawford,  Venango,  Clarion,  Butler  and  Armstrong  Counties,  chiefly  along 
the  upper  waters  of  the  Allegheny  River  and  its  tributary,  the  Oil  Creek.  It 
was  first  transported  in  barrels,  and  teams  were  kept  busy  from  the  first  dawn 
until  far  into  the  night.  As  soon  as  practicable,  lines  of  railway  were  con- 
structed from  nearly  all  the  trunk  lines.  Finally  barrels  gave  place  to  im- 
mense iron  tanks  riveted  upon  cars,  provided  for  the  escape  of  the  gases,  and 
later  great  pipe  lines  were  extended  from  the  wells  to  the  seaboard,  and  to  the 
Great  Lakes,  through  which  the  fluid  is  forced  by  steam  to  its  distant  destina- 
tions Its  principal  uses  are  for  illumination  and  lubricating,  though  many 
of  its  products  are  employed  in  the  mechanic  arts,  notably  for  dyeing,  mixing 
of  paints,  and  in  the  practice  of  medicine.  Its  production  has  grown  to  be 
enormous,  and  seems  as  yet  to  show  no  sign  of  diminution.  We  give  an  ex- 
hibit of  the  annual  production  since  its  discovery,  compiled  for  tbis  work  by 
William  II.  Siviter,  editor  of  the  Oil  City  Derrick,  wh'^h  is  the  acknowledged 
authority  on  oil  matters: 

Production  of  the  Pennsylvania  Oil  Fields,  compiled  from  the  Derrick's 
Hand-book,   December,  1883: 

Barrels,  Barrels. 

1859 82,000  1873 9,849,508 

1860 500,000  1874 ...11,102,114 

1861 2,113,U00  1875 8,948,749 

1862 3.056,606  1876 9,142,940 

1863 2.611,399  1877 13,052,713 

1864 2,116,182  1878 15,011,425 

1865 3.497,712  1879 20.085,716 

1866 3,597,512  1880 24,788,950 

1867 3.347,306  1881 29,674,458 

1868 3. 715, 741  1882 31,789, 190 

1869 4,186,475  1883 24,385,966 

1870 5,308,046                           

1871 5,278,076  A  grand  total  of 13,749,558 

1872 6,505,774 

In  the  fall  of  1860,  Andrew  G.  Curtin  was  elected  Governor  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, and  Abraham  Lincoln  President  of  the  United  States.  An  organized 
rebellion,  under  the  specious  name  of  secession,  was  thereupon  undertaken, 
embracing  parts  of  fifteen  States,  commonly  designated  the  Slave  States,  and 
a  government  established  under  the  name  of  the  Confederate  States  of  America, 
with  an  Executive  and  Congress,  which  commenced  the  raising  of  troops  for 

On  the  12th  of  April,  an  attack  was  made  upon  a  small  garrison  of  United 
States  troops  shut  up  in  Fort  Sumter.  This  was  rightly  interpreted  as  the 
first  act  in  a  great  drama.  On  the  15th,  the  President  summoned  75,000  vol- 
unteers to  vindicate  the  national  authority,  calling  for  sixteen  regiments  from 
Pennsylvania,  and  urging  that  two  be  sent  forward  immediately,  as  the  capital 
was  without  defenders. 

The  people  of  the  State,  having  no  idea  that  war  could  be  possible,  had  no 


preparation  for  the  event,  There  chanced  at  the  time  to  be  five  companies  in 
a  tolerable  state  of  organization.  These  were  the  Ringold  Light  Artillery, 
Capt.  McKnight,  of  Reading;  the  Logan  Guards,  Capt.  Selheirner,  of  Lewis- 
town;  the  Washington  Artillery,  Capt.  Wren,  and  the  National  Light  Infan- 
try, Capt.  McDonald,  of  Pottsville;  and  the  Allen  Rifles,  Capt.  Yeager,  of 

On  the  18th,  in  conjunction  with  a  company  of  fifty  regulars,  on  their  way 
from  the  West  to  Fort  McHenry,  under  command  of  Capt.  Pemberton,  after- 
ward Lieut.  Gen.  Pemberton,  of  the  rebel  army,  these  troops  moved  by  rail 
for  Washington.  At  Baltimore,  they  were  obliged  to  march  two  miles  through 
a  jeering  and  insulting  crowd.  At  the  center  of  the  city,  the  regulars  filed 
off  toward  Fort  McHenry,  leaving  the  volunteers  to  pursue  their  way  alone, 
when  the  crowd  of  maddened  people  were  excited  to  redoubled  insults.  In  the 
whole  battalion  there  was  not  a  charge  of  powder;  but  a  member  of  the  Logan 
Guards,  who  chanced  to  have  a  box  of  percussion  caps  in  his  pocket,  had  dis- 
tributed them  to  his  comrades,  who  carried  their  pieces  capped  and  half 
cocked,  creating  the  impression  that  they  were  loaded  and  ready  for  service. 
This  ruse  undoubtedly  saved  the  battalion  from  the  murderous  assault  made 
upon  the  Massachusetts  Sixth  on  the  following  day.  Before  leaving,  they  were 
pelted  with  stones  and  billets  of  wood  while  boarding  the  cars;  but,  fortu- 
nately, none  were  seriously  injured,  and  the  train  finally  moved  away  and 
reached  Washington  in  safety,  the  first  troops  to  come  to  the  unguarded  and 
imperiled  capital. 

Instead  of  sixteen,  twenty-five  regiments  were  organized  for  the  three  months' 
service  from  Pennsylvania.  Judging  from  the  threatening  attitude  assumed 
by  the  rebels  across  the  Potomac  that  the  southern  frontier  would  be  con- 
stantly menaced,  Gov.  Curtin  sought  permission  to  organize  a  select  corps,, 
to  consist  of  thirteen  regiments  of  infantry,  one  of  cavalry,  and  one  of  artillery  r 
and  to  be  known  as  the  Pennsylvania  Reserve  Corps,  which  the  Legislature,  in 
special  session,  granted.  This  corps  of  15,000  men  was  speedily  raised,  and  the 
intention  of  the  State  authorities  was  to  keep  this  body  permamently  within 
the  limits  of  the  Commonwealth  for  defense.  But  at  the  time  of  the  First 
Bull  Run  disaster  in  July,  1861,  the  National  Government  found  itself  with- 
out troops  to  even  defend  the  capital,  the  time  of  the  three  months'  men  being 
now  about  to  expire,  and  at  it3  urgent  call  this  fine  body  was  sent  forward  and 
never  again  returned  for  the  execution  of  the  duty  for  which  it  was  formed, 
having  borne  the  brunt  of  the  fighting  on  many  a  hard- fought  field  during  the 
three  years  of  its  service. 

In  addition  to  the  volunteer  troops  furnished  in  response  to  the  several 
calls  of  the  President,  upon  the  occasion  of  the  rebel  invasion  of  Maryland  in 
September,  1862,  Gov.  Curtin  called  50,000  men  for  the  emergency,  and 
though  the  time  was  very  brief,  25,000  came,  were  organized  under  command 
of  Gen.  John  F.  Reynolds,  and  were  marched  to  the  border.  But  the  battle  of 
Antietam,  fought  on  the  17th  of  September,  caused  the  enemy  to  beat  a  hasty 
retreat,  and  the  border  was  relieved  when  the  emergency  troops  were  dis- 
banded and  returned  to  their  homes.  On  the  19th  of  October,  Gen.  J.  E.  B. 
Stewart,  of  the  rebel  army,  with  1,800  horsemen  under  command  of  Hampton, 
Lee  and  Jones,  crossed  the  Potomac  and  made  directly  for  Chambersburg, 
arriving  after  dark.  Not  waiting  for  morning  to  attack,  he  sent  in  a  flag  of 
truce  demanding  the  surrender  of  the  town.  There  were  275  Union  soldiers  in 
hospital,  whom  he  paroled.  During  the  night,  the  troopers  were  busy  picking 
up  horses — swapping  horses  perhaps  it  should  be  called — and  the  morning  saw 
them  early  on  the  move.         The  rear  guard  gave  notice  before  leaving  to  re- 


move  all  families  from  the  neighborhood  of  the  public  buildings,  as  they  in- 
tended to  lire  them.  There  was  a  large  amount  of  fixed  ammunition  in  them, 
which  had  been  captured  from  Longstreet' s  train,  besides  Government  stores 
of  shoes,  clothing  and  muskets.  At  11  o'clock  the  station  house,  round  house, 
railroad  machine  shops  and  warehouses  were  fired  and  consigned  to 
destruction.  The  fire  department  was  promptly  out;  but  it  was  dangerous  to 
approach  the  burning  buildings  on  account  of  the  ammunition,  and  all 

The  year  1862  was  one  of  intense  excitement  and  activity.  From  about  the 
1st  of  May,  1861,  to  the  end  of  1862,  there  were  recruited  in  the  State  of  Penn- 
sylvania, one  hundred  and  eleven  regiments,  including  eleven  of  cavalry  and 
three  of  artillery,  for  three  years'  service;  twenty-five  regiments  for  three  months; 
seventeen  for  nine  months;  fifteen  of  drafted  militia;  and  twenty-five  called  out 
for  the  emergency,  an  aggregate  of  one  hundred  and  ninety- three  regiments — a- 
grand  total  of  over  200,000  men — a  great  army  in  itself. 

In  June,  1863,  Gen.  ttobert  E.  Lee,  with  his  entire  army  of  Northern  Vir- 
ginia, invaded  Pennsylvania.  The  Army  of  the  Potorrfac,  under  Gen.  Joseph 
Hooker,  followed.  The  latter  was  superseded  on  the  28th  of  June  by  Gen.  George 
G.  Meade.  The  vanguards  of  the  army  met  a  mile  or  so  out  of  Gettysburg  on  the 
Chambersburg  pike  on  the  morning  of  the  1st  of  July.  Hill's  corps  of  the 
rebel  army  was  held  in  check  by  the  sturdy  fighting  of  a  small  division  of 
cavalry  under  Gen.  Buford  until  10  o'clock,  when  Gen.  Reynolds  came  to  his 
relief  with  the  First  Corps.  While  bringing  his  forces  into  action,  Reynolds 
was  killed,  and  the  command  devolved  on  Gen.  Abner  Doubleday,  and  the 
fighting  became  terrible,  the  Union  forces  being  greatly  outnumbered.  At  2 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  the  Eleventh  Corps,  Gen.  O.  O.  Howard,  came  to  the 
support  of  the  First.  But  now  the  corps  of  Ewell  had  joined  hands  with  Hill,, 
and  a  full  two-thirds  of  the  entire  rebel  army  was  on  the  field,  opposed  by 
only  the  two  weak  Union  corps,  in  an  inferior  position.  A  sturdy  fight  was 
however  maintained  until  5  o'clock,  when  the  Union  forces  withdrew  through 
the  town,  and  took  position  upon  rising  ground  covering  the  Baltimore  pike. 
During  the  night  the  entire  Union  army  came  up,  with  the  exception  of  the 
Sixth  Corps,  and  took  position,  and  at  2  o'clock  in  the  morning  Gen.  Meade 
and  staff  came  on  the  field.  During  the  morning  hours,  and  until  4  o'clock  in 
the  afternoon,  the  two  armies  were  getting  into  position  for  the  desperate 
struggle.  The  Third  Corps,  Gen.  Sickles,  occupied  the  extreme  left,  his  corps 
abutting  on  the  Little  Round  Top  at  the  Devil's  Den,  and  reaching,  en  echelon, 
through  the  rugged  ground  to  the  Peach  Orchard,  and  thence  along  the  Em- 
mettsburg  pike,  where  it  joined  the  Second  Corps,  Gen.  Hancock,  reaching 
over  Cemetery  Hill,  the  Eleventh  Corps,  Gen.  Howard,  the  First,  Gen.  Double- 
day,  and  the  Twelfth,  Gen.  Slocum,  reaching  across  Culp's  Hill — the  whole 
crescent  shape.  To  this  formation  the  rebel  army  conformed,  Longstreet  op- 
posite the  Union  left,  Hill  opposite  the  center,  and  Ewell  opposite  the  Union 
right.  At  4  P.  M.  the  battle  was  opened  by  Longstreet,  on  the  extreme  left  of 
Sickles,  and  the  fighting  became  terrific,  the  rebels  making  strenuous  efforts 
to  gain  Little  Round  Top.  But  at  the  opportune  moment  a  part  of  the  Fifth 
Corps,  Gen.  Sykes,  was  brought  upon  that  key  position,  and  it  was  saved  to 
the  Union  side.  The  slaughter  in  front  of  Round  Top  at  the  wheat-field  and 
the  Peach  Orchard  was  fearful.  The  Third  Corps  was  driven  back  from  its 
advanced  position,  and  its  commander,  Gen.  Sickles,  was  wounded,  losing  a 
leg.  In  a  more  contracted  position,  the  Union  lino  was  made  secure,  where  it 
rested  for  the  night.  Just  at  dusk,  the  Louisiana  Tigers,  some  1,800  men, 
made  a  desperate  charge  on  Cemetery  Hill,  emerging  suddenly  from  a  hillock 


just  back  of  the  town.  The  struggle  was  desperate,  but  the  Tigers  being 
weakened  by  the  fire  of  the  artillery,  and  by  the  infantry  crouching  behind  the 
stone  wall,  the  onset  was  checked,  and  Carroll's  brigade,  of  the  Second  Corps, 
coming  to  the  rescue,  they  were  finally  beaten  back,  terribly  decimated.  At 
about  the  same  time,  a  portion  of  Etvell's  corps  made  an  advance  on  the  ex- 
treme Union  right,  at  a  point  where  the  troops  had  been  withdrawn  to  send  to 
the  support  of  Sickles,  and  unopposed,  gained  the  extremity  of  Culp's  Hill, 
pushing  through  nearly  to  the  Baltimore  pike,  in  dangerous  proximity  to  the 
reserve  artillery  and  trains,  and  even  the  headquarters  of  the  Union  com- 
mander. But  in  their  attempt  to  roll  up  the  Union  right  they  were  met  by 
Green's  brigade  of  the  Twelfth  Corps,  and  by  desperate  fighting  their  further 
progress  was  stayed.  Thus  ended  the  battle  of  the  second  day.  The  Union  left 
and  right  had  been  sorely  jammed  and  pushed  back. 

At  4  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  3d  of  July,  Gen.  Geary,  who  had  been 
ordered  away  to  the  support  of  Sickles,  having  returned  during  the  night  and 
taken  position  on  the  right  of  Green,  opened  the  battle  for  the  recovery  of  his 
lost  breastworks  on  the  right  of  Culp's  Hill.  Until  10 o'clock,  the  battle  raged 
with  unabated  fury.  The  heat  was  intolerable,  and  the  sulphurous  vapor 
hung  like  a  pall  over  the  combatants,  shutting  out  the  light  of  day.  The 
fighting  was  in  the  midst  of  the  forest,  and  the  echoes  resounded  with  fearful 
distinctness.  The  Twelfth  Corps  was  supported  by  portions  of  the  Sixth, 
which  had  now  come  up.  At  length  the  enemy,  weakened  and  finding  them- 
selves overborne  on  all  sides,  gave  way,  and  the  Union  breastworks  were  re- 
occupied  and  the  Union  right  made  entirely  secure.  Comparative  quiet  now 
reigned  on  either  side  until  2  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  in  the  meantime  both 
sides  bringing  up  fresh  troops  and  repairing  damages.  The  rebel  leader  hav- 
ing brought  his  best  available  artillery  in  upon  his  right  center,  suddenly 
opened  with  150  pieces  a  concentric  fire  upon  the  devoted  Union  left  center, 
where  stood  the  troops  of  Hancock  and  Doubleday  and  Sickles.  The  shock 
was  terrible.  Rarely  has  such  a  cannonade  been  known  on  any  field.  For 
nearly  two  hours  it  was  continued.  Thinking  that  the  Union  line  had  been 
broken  and  demoralized  by  this  fire,  Longstreet  brought  out  a  fresh  corps  of 
some  18,000  men,  under  Pickett,  and  charged  full  upon  the  point  which  had 
been  the  mark  for  the  cannonade.  As  soon  as  this  charging  column  came  into 
view,  the  Union  artillery  opened  upon  it  from  right  and  left  and  center,  and 
rent  it  with  fearful  effect.  When  come  within  musket  range,  the  Union 
troops,  who  had  been  crouching  behind  slight  pits  and  a  low  stone  wall, 
poured  in  a  most  murderous  fire.  Still  the  rebels  pushed  forward  with  a  bold 
face,  and  actually  crossed  the  Union  lines  and  had  their  hands  on  the  Union 
guns.  But  the  slaughter  was  too  terrible  to  withstand.  The  killed  and 
wounded  lay  scattered  over  all  the  plain.  Many  were  gathered  in  as  prisoners. 
Finally,  the  remnant  staggered  back,  and  the  battle  of  Gettysburg  was  at  an 

Gathering  all  in  upon  his  fortified  line,  the  rebel  chieftain  fell  to  strength- 
ening it,  which  he  held  with  a  firm  hand.  At  night-fall,  he  put  his  trains 
with  the  wounded  upon  the  retreat.  During  the  4th,  great  activity  in  build- 
ing works  was  manifest,  and  a  heavy  skirmish  line  was  kept  well  out,  which 
resolutely  met  any  advance  of  Union  forces.  The  entire  fighting  force  of  the 
rebel  army  remained  in  position  behind  their  breastworks  on  Oak  Ridge,  until 
nightfall  of  the  4th,  when,  under  cover  of  darkness,  it  was  withdrawn,  and 
before  morning  was  well  on  its  way  to  Williamsport.  The  losses  on  the  Union 
side  were  2,834  killed,  13,709  wounded,  and  6,643  missing,  an  aggregate  of 
23,186.     Of  the  losses  of  the  enemy,  no  adequate  returns  were  made.     Meade 


reports  13.621  prisoners  taken,  and  the  losses  by  killed  and  wounded  must 
have  been  greater  than  on  the  Union  side.  On  the  rebel  side,  Maj.  Gens. 
Hood,  Pender,  Trimble  and  Heth  were  wounded,  Pender  mortally.  Brig. 
Gens.  Barksdale  and  Garnett  were  killed,  an  1  Semms  mortally  wounded. 
Brig.  Gens.  Kemper,  Armistead,  Scales,  G.  T.  Anderson,  Hampton,  J.  M. 
Jones  and  Jenkins  were  wounded;  Archer  was  taken  prisoner  and  Pettigrew 
was  wounded  arid  subsequently  killed  at  Falling  Waters.  In  the  Union  army 
Vlaj.  Gen.  Reynolds  and  Brig.  Gens.  Vincent,  Weed,  Willard  and  Zook  were 
iilled.  Maj.  Gens.  Sickles,  Hancock,  Doubleday.  Gibbon,  Barlow,  Warren 
md  Butterfield,  and  Brig.  Gens.  Graham,  Paul,  Stone,  Barnes  and  Brooke 
were  wounded.  A  National  Cemetery  was  secured  on  the  center  of  the  field, 
where,  as  soon  as  the  weather  would  permit,  the  dead  were  gathered  and  care- 
fully  interred.  Of  the  enl.ire  number  interred,  3,512,  Maine  had  104;  New 
Hampshire,  49;  Vermont,  61;  Massachusetts,  159;  Rhode  Island,  12;  Con- 
necticut, 22;  New  York,  867;  New  Jersey,  78;  Pennsylvania,  534;  Delaware, 
15;  Maryland^  22;  West  Virginia,  11;  Ohio,  131;  Indiana,  80;  Illinois,  6; 
Michigan,  171;  "Wisconsin,  73;  Minnesota,  52;  United  States  Regulars,  138; 
unknown,  979.  In  the  center  of  the  field,  a  noble  monument  has  been  erect- 
ed, and  on  the  19th  of  November,  1864,  the  ground  was  formally  dedicated, 
when  the  eminent  orator,  Edward  Everett,  delivered  an  oration,  and  President 
Lincoln  delivered  the  following  dedicatory  address: 

"Fourscore  and  seven  years  ago,  our  fathers  brought  forth  upon  this  conti- 
nent a  new  nation,  conceived  in  liberty,  and  dedicated  to  the  proposition  that 
all  men  are  created  equal.  Now  we  are  engaged  in  a  great  civil  war,  testing 
whether  that  nation  or  any  nation  so  conceived  and  so  dedicated,  can  long  en- 
dure. W7e  are  met  on  a  great  battle  field  o£  that  war.  We  are  met  to  dedi- 
cate a  portion  of  it  as  the  final  resting  place  of  those  who  here  gave  their 
lives  that  this  nation  might  live.  It  is  altogether  fitting  and  proper  that  we 
should  do  this.  But  in  a  larger  sense  we  cannot  dedicate,  we  cannot  conse- 
crate, we  cannot  hallow  this  ground.  The  brave  men,  living  and  dead,  who 
struggled  here  have  consecrated  it  far  above  our  power  to  add  or  detract. 
The  world  will  little  note  nor  long  remember  what  we  say  here,  but  it  can 
never  forget  what  they  did  here.  It  is  for  us,  the  living,  rather  to  be  dedi- 
cated here  to  the  unfinished  work  that  they  have  thus  far  so  nobly  carried  on. 
It  is  rather  for  us  to  be  here  dedicated  to  the  great  task  remaining  before  us— 
,hat  from  these  honored  dead  we  take  increased  devotion  to  the  cause  for  which 
they  here  gave  the  last  full  measure  of  devotion — that  we  here  highly  resolve 
that  the  dead  shall  not  have  died  in  vain;  that  the  nation  shall,  under  God, 
have  a  new  birth  of  freedom,  and  that  the  government  of  the  people,  by  the 
people,  and  for  the  people  shall  not  perish  from  the  earth.'' 

So  soon  as  indications  pointed  to  a  possible  invasion  of  the  North  by  the 
rebel  army  under  Gen.  Lee,  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  was  organized  in  two 
military  departments,  that  of  the  Susquehanna,  to  the  command  of  which 
Darius  N.  Couch  was  assigned,  with  headquarters  at  Harrisburg,  and  that  ot 
the  Monongahela,  under  W.  T.  H.  Brooks,  with  headquarters  at  Pittsburgh. 
Urgent  calls  for  the  militia  were  made,  and  large  numbers  in  regiments,  in 
companies,  in  squadrons  came  promptly  at  the  call  to  the  number  of  over  36,- 
000  men,  who  were  organized  for  a  period  of  ninety  days.  Fortifications 
were  thrown  up  to  cover  Harrisburg  and  Pittsburgh,  and  the  troops  were  moved 
to  threatened  points.  But  before  they  could  be  brought  into  action,  the  great 
decisive  conflict  had  been  fought,  and  the  enemy  driven  from  northern  soil. 
Four  regiments  under  Gen.  Brooks  were  moved  into  Ohio  to  aid  in  arresting  a 
raid  undertaken  by  John  Morgan,  who,  with  2,000  horse  and  four  guns,  had 
crossed  the  Ohio  River  for  a  diversion  in  favor  of  Lee.  o 


In  the  beginning  of  July,  1864,  Gen.  Early  invaded  Maryland,  and  rnado 
his  way  to  the  threshold  of  Washington.  Fearing  another  invasion  of  the 
State,  Gov.  Curtin  called  for  volunteers  to  serve  for  100  days.  Gen.  Conch 
was  still  at  the  head  of  the  department  of  the  Susquehanna,  and  six  regiments 
and  six  companies  were  organized,  but  as  fast  as  organized  they  were  called  to 
the  front,  the  last  regiment  leaving  the  State  on  the  29th  of  July.  On  the 
evening  of  this  day,  Gens.  McCausland,  Bradley  Johnson  and  Harry  Gilmore, 
with  3,000  mounted  men  and  six  guns,  crossed  the  Potomac,  and  made  their 
way  to  Chambersburg.  Another  column  of  3,000,  under  Vaughn  and  Jackson 
advanced  to  Hagerstown,  and  a  third  to  Leitersburg.  Averell,  with  a  small 
force,  was  at  Hagerstown,  but  finding  himself  over-matched  withdrew  through 
Greencastle  to  Mount  Hope.  Lieut.  McLean,  with  fifty  men  in  front  of  Mc- 
Causland, gallantly  kept  his  face  to  the  foe,  and  checked  the  advance  at  every 
favorable  point.  On  being  apprised  of  their  coming,  the  public  stores  at  Cham- 
bersburg were  moved  northward.  At  six  A.  M. ,  McCausland  opened  his  bat- 
teries upon  the  town,  but,  finding  it  unprotected,  took  possession.  Ringing  the 
court  house  bell  to  call  the  people  together,  Capt.  Fitzhugh  read  an  order  to 
the  assembly,  signed  by  Gen.  Jubal  Early,  directing  the  command  to  proceed 
to  Chambersburg  and  demand  $100,000  in  gold,  or  $500,000  in  greenbacks, 
and,  if  not  paid,  to  burn  the  town.  While  this  parley  was  in  progress,  hats, 
caps,  boots,  watches,  clothing  and  valuables  were  unceremoniously  appropriated, 
and  purses  demanded  at  the  point  of  the  bayonet.  As  money  was  not  in  hand 
to  meet  so  unexpected  a  draft,  the  torch  was  lighted.  In  less  than  a  quarter 
of  an  hour  from  the  time  the  first  match  was  applied,  the  whole  business  part 
of  the  town  was  in  flames.  No  notice  was  given  for  removing  the  women  and 
children  and  sick.  Burning  parties  were  sent  into  each  quarter  of  the  town, 
which  made  thorough  work.  With  the  exception  of  a  few  houses  upon  the 
outskirts,  the  whole  was  laid  in  ruins.  ^  Retiring  rapidly,  the  entire  rebel 
command  recrossed  the  Potomac  before  any  adequate  force  could  be  gathered 
to  check  its  progress. 

The  whole  number  of  soldiers  recruited  under  the  various  calls  for  troops 
from  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  was  366,000.  By  authority  of  the  common- 
wealth, in  1866,  the  commencement  was  made  of  the  publication  of  a  history 
of  these  volunteer  organizations,  embracing  a  brief  historical  account  of  the 
part  taken  by  each  regiment  and  independent  body  in  every  battle  in  which  it 
was  engaged,  with  the  name,  rank,  date  of  muster,  period  for  which  he  en- 
listed, casualties,  and  fate  of  every  officer  and  private.  This  work  was  com- 
pleted in  1872,  in  five  imperial  octavo  volumes  of  over  1,400  pages  each. 

In  May,  1861,  the  Society  of  the  Cincinnati  of  Pennsylvania,  an  organiza- 
tion of  the  officers  of  the  Revolutionary  war  and  their  descendants,  donated 
$500  toward  arming  and  equipping  troops.  By  order  of  the  Legislature, 
this  sum  was  devoted  to  procuring  flags  for  the  regiments,  and  each  organiza- 
tion that  went  forth,  was  provided  with  one  emblazoned  with  the  arms  of  the 
commonwealth.  These  flags,  seamed  and  battle  stained,  were  returned  at  the 
close  of  the  war,  and  are  now  preserved  in  a  room  devoted  to  the  purpose  in 
the  State  capitol — precious  emblems  of  the  daring  and  suffering  of  that  great 
army  that  went  forth  to  uphold  and  maintain  the  integrity  of  the  nation. 

When  the  war  was  over,  the  State  undertook  the  charge  of  providing  for 
all  soldiers'  orphans  in  schools  located  in  different  parts  of  its  territory,  fur- 
nishing food,  clothing,  instruction  and  care,  until  they  should  be  grown  to 
manhood  and  womanhood.  The  number  thus  gathered  and  cared  for  has  been 
some  7,500  annually,  for  a  period  of  nineteen  years,  at  an  average  annual  ex- 
pense of  some  $600,000. 


At  the  election  in  1866,  John  W.  Geary,  a  veteran  General  of  the  late  war. 
was  chosen  Governor.  During  his  administration,  settlements  were  made  with 
the  General  Government,  extraordinary  debts  incurred  during  the  war  were 
paid,  and  a  large  reduction  of  the  old  debt  of  $40,000,000  inherited  from  the 
construction  of  the  canals,  was  made.  A  convention  for  a  revision  of  the  con- 
stitution was  ordered  by  act  of  April  11,  1872.  This  convention  assembled  in 
Harrisburg  November  18,  and  adjourned  to  meet  in  Philadelphia,  where  it 
convened  on  the  7th  of  January,  1873,  and  the  instrument  framed  was  adopted 
on  the  18th  of  December,  1873.  By  its  provisions,  the  number  of  Senators 
was  increased  from  thirty-three  to  fifty,  and  Representatives  from  100  to  201, 
subject  to  further  increase  in  proportion  to  increase  of  population;  biennial, 
in  place  of  annual  sessions?  making  the  term  of  Supreme  Court  Judges  twenty- 
one  in  place  of  fifteen  years;  remanding  a  large  class  of  legislation  to  the  ac- 
tion of  the  courts;  making  the  term  of  Governor  four  years  in  place  of  three, 
and  prohibiting  special  legislation,  were»  some  of  the  changes  provided  for. 

In  January,  1873,  John  F.  Hartranft  became  Governor,  and  at  the  election 
in  1878,  Henry  F.  Hoyt  was  chosen  Governor,  both  soldiers  of  the  late  war. 
In  the  summer  of  1877,  by  concert  of  action  of  the  employes  on  the  several 
lines  of  railway  in  the  State,  trains  were  stopped  and  travel  and  traffic  were  in- 
terrupted for  several  days  together.  At  Pittsburgh,  conflicts  occurred  between 
the  railroad  men  and  the  militia,  and  a  vast  amount  of  property  was  destroyed. 
The  opposition  to  the  local  military  was  too  powerful  to  be  controlled,  and 
the  National  Government  was  appealed  to  for  aid.  A  force  of  regulars  was 
promptly  ordered  out,  and  the  rioters  finally  quelled.  Unfortunately,  Gov. 
Hartranft  was  absent  from  the  State  at  the  time  of  the  troubles. 

At  the  election  in  1882  Robert -E.  Pattison  was  chosen  governor.  The  Legis- 
lature, which  met  at  the  opening  of  1883,  having  adjourned  after  a  session  of 
156  days,  without  passing  a  Congressional  apportionment  bill,  as  was  required, 
was  immediately  reconvened  in  extra  session  by  the  governor,  and  remained 
in  session  until  near  the  close  of  the  year,  from  June  1  to  December  5,  without 
coming  to  an  agreement  upon  a  bill,  and  finally  adjourned  without  having 
passed  one.  This  protracted  sitting  is  in  marked  contrast  to  the  session  of  that 
early  Assembly  in  which  an  entire  constitution  and  laws  of  the  province  were 
framed  and  adopted  in  the  space  of  three  days. 

November  2,  1886,    James  A.  Beaver  was  elected  governor. 





Thomas  Mifflin 27,725 

Arthur  St.  Clair 2,802 


Thomas  Mifflin 18,590 

F.  A.  Muhlenberg 10,706 


Thomas  Mifflin 30,020 

F.  A.  Muhlenberg 1,011 


Thomas  McKean 38,036 

James  Ross 32,641 


Thomas  McKean 47,879 

James  Ross,  of  Pittsburgh 9,499 

James  Ross 7,538 


Simon  Snyder 67,975 

James  Riss 39,575 

John  Spayd 4,006 

W.  Shields 2 

Charles  Nice 1 

Jack  Koss 2 

W.  Tilghman 1 


Simon  Snyder 52,319 

William  Tighlman 3,609 

Scatt'ring,no  record  for  whom    1,675 


Simon  Snyder 51,099 

Isaac  Wayne 29,566 

G.  Lattimer 910 

J.  R.  Rust 4 


William  Findlay 66,331 

Joseph  Hiester 59,272 

Moses  Palmer 1 

Aaron  Hanson 1 

John  Seffer - I 

Seth  Thomas 1 

Nicholas  Wiseman 3 

Benjamin  R.  Morgan 2 

William  Tilghman 1 

Andrew  Gregg 1 


Joseph  Hiester 67,905 

William  Findlay 66,300 

Scattering  (no  record) 21 


J.  Andrew  Shulze 81,751 

Andrew  Gregg 64,151 

Andrew  Shulze 112 

John  Andrew  Shulze 7,311 

Andrew  Gragg 53 

Andrew  Greg 1 

John  A.  Shulze 754 

Nathaniel  B.  Boileau *....  3 

Capt.  Glosseader 3 

John  Gassender 1 

Isaac  Wayne 1 

George  Bryan 1 


J.  Andrew  Shulze 72,710 

John  Sergeant 1,175 

Scattering  (no  record) 1,174 


George  Wolf. 78,219 

Joseph  Ritner 51,776 

George  E.  Baum 6 

Frank  R.  Williams 3 


George  Wolf. 91,335 

Joseph  Ritner 88,165 


Joseph  Ritner 94,023 

Goorge  Wolf. 65,804 

Henry  A.  Muhlenberg 40,586 


David  R.  Porter 127,827 

Joseph  Ritner 122,321 


David  R.  Porter 136,504 

John  Banks 113,473 

T.J.  Lemoyne 763 

George  F.  Horton 18 

Samuel  L.  Carpenter 4 

Ellis  Lewis 1 


Francis  R.  Shunk 160,322 

Joseph  Markle 156,040 

Julius  J.  Lemoyne 10 

John  Haney 2 

James  Page 1 


Francis  R.  Shunk 146,081 

James  Irvin 128,148 

Emanuel  0.  Reigart 11,247 

F.  J.  Lemoyne 1,861 

George  M.  Keim 1 

Abijah  Morrison 3 


William  F.  Johnston.... 168,522 

Morris  Longstreth 168,225 

E.  B.  Gazzani 48 

Scattering  (no  record) 24 


William  Bigler. 186,489 

William  F.  Johnston 178,034 

Kimber  Cleaver 1,850 


James  Pollock 203,822 

William  Bigler 166,991 

B.  Rush  Bradford 2,194 


William  F.  Packer 188,846 

David  Wilmot 149,139 

Isaac  Hazlehurst 28,168 

James  Pollock 

George  R.  Barret 

William  Steel 

F.  P.  Swartz 

Samuel  McFarland 

George  F.  Horton 


Andrew  G.  Curtin 262,346 

Henry  D.  Foster 230,239 


A.  G.  Curtin 269,506 

George  W.  Woodward 254,171 

John  Hickman .' 1 

Thornau  M.  Howe -..  1 


John  W.  Geary 307,274 

Hiester  Clymer 290,097 

Giles  Lewis 7 


John  W.  Geary 290,552 

Asa  Packer 285,956 

W.  D.  Kelly ] 

W.  J.  Robinson 1 


John  F.  Hartranft 353,387 

Charles  R.  Buckalen 317,760 

S.  B.Chase 1,197 

William  P.  Schell 12 


John  F.  Hartranft 304,175 

Cyrus  L.  Pershing 292,145 

R.  Audley  Brown 13,244 

James  S.  Negley 1 

Phillip  Wendle 1 

J.  W.  Brown X 

G.  F.  Reinhard 1 

G.  D.  Coleman 1 

James  Staples 1 

Richard  Yaux 1 

Craig  Biddle 1 

Francis  W.  Hughes 1 

Henry  C.  Tyler 1 

W.  D.  Brown 1 

George  V.  Lawrence 1 

A.  L.Brown 1 


H.  M.  Hoyt 319,490 

Andrew  H.  Dill 297,137 

Samuel  R.  Ma3on 81,758 

Franklin  H.  Lane 3,753 

S.  Matson 2 

John  McKee 1 

D.  Kirk 1 

R.  L.  Miller 1 

J.  H.  Hopkins 1 

A.  G.  Williams 1 

Samuel  H.  Lane 1 

John  Fertig 1 

James  Musgrove 1 

Silas  M.  Baily 1 

A.  S.  Post 9 

C.  A.  Cornen 3 

Seth  Yocum 1 

Edward  E.  Orvis 1 


Robert  E.  Pattison 355,791 

James  A.  Beaver 315,589 

John  Stewart 43,743 

Thomas  A.  Armstrong 23,996 

Alfred  C.  Pettit 5,196 

Scattering SS 


James  A.  Beaver 412,285 

Chauncey  F.  Black 369,634 

CharlesS.  Wolfe 32,458 

Robert  J.  Houston 4,835 

Scattering 66 





klin  County. 

History  of  Franklin  County, 



The  Great  Eastern  Valley— The  Path  of  a  Probaele  Gulf  Stream— The 
Mountain  Ranges  and  their  Appendages— Systems  of  Drainage — Geo- 


THE  beautiful  valley,  of  which  Franklin  County  forms  but  a  small  part, 
sweeps  along  the  entire  eastern  coast  of  the  United  States,  extending, 
under  different  names,  from  the  southern  extremity  of  Vermont  across  the 
Hudson  at  Newburgh,  the  Delaware  at  Easton,  the  Susquehanna  at  Harris- 
burg,  the  Potomac  at  Harper's  Ferry,  the  James  at  Lynchburg,  the  Tennes- 
see at  Chattanooga,  and  losing  itself  in  Alabama  and  the  southwest.  By  some 
it  is  claimed  to  have  been  the  path  along  which  an  ocean  current,  possibly  the 
beneficent  Gulf  Stream,  whose  influence  changes  the  natural  and  social  con- 
ditions of  both  American  and  European  civilization,  flowed  long  prior  to  the 
present  order  of  things,  in  either  the  old  or  the  new  world.  It  is  bounded  on 
either  side  by  a  chain  of  the  great  Appalachian  Mountain  system,  running 
from  the  northeast  to  the  southwest,  and  is  of  nearly  uniform  width,  from 
twelve  to  twenty  miles — the  whole  distance.  It  is  broken  into  fertile  agricult- 
ural sections  by  the  beautiful  streams  already  mentioned,  apparently  to  meet 
the  diversified  wants  of  its  future  occupants. 

The  section  lying  between  the  Susquehanna  and  the  Potomac  is  usually 
designated  as  the  Cumberland  Valley.  The  valley  west  of  ' '  Harris  Ferry, ' ' 
as  Harrisburg  was  originally  known,  was  called  by  some  ' '  Kittochtinny, ' '  by 
others  "North  "  Valley.  The  northwestern  boundary  is  known  in  Pennsylva- 
nia as  North  Mountain,  or  the  Kittatinny  Mountain,  the  latter  name,  signify- 
ing endless,  being  an  euphonic  change  from  Kekachtannin,  by  which  the  Del- 
aware Indians  called  it.  The  southwestern  boundary  is  South  Mountain,  a 
beautiful  range,  parallel  with  the  Kittatinny.  From  the  Susquehanna  to  the 
Potomac,  the  Kittatinny  maintains  an  almost  uniform  summit  line,  ranging 
from  700  to  1,200  feet  above  the  valley  beneath.  Several  picturesque  points  or 
projections,  known  as  Clark's,  Parnell's,  Jordan's  and  Casey's  Knobs,  and 
Two-Top  Mountains,  give  fine  relief  to  the  range.  Of  these,  Parnell's  and 
Casey' s  were  used,  during  the  civil  war,  as  union  signal  stations.  Between  Kit- 
tatinny and  Tuscarora,  lying  still  farther  to  the  west,  are  several  beautiful 
and  productive  valleys:  Path  Valley,  terminating  at  the  extreme  north  end  in 
Horse  Valley,  and  sending  off  to  the  right  of  Knob  Mountain  another  known 
as  Amberson's  Valley;  Bear  and  Horse  Valleys,  elevated  and  of  smaller  extent, 
having  a  trend  northeastward ;  Cove  Gap,  a  picturesque  opening,  through  which 
packers  in  the  olden,  and  vehicles  in  the  modern  time,  pass  across  the  moun- 


tain  westward,  and  Little  Cove,  a  long  narrow  valley,  that  slopes  southwestward 
toward  the  Potomac.  In  the  southwestern  part  of  what  is  now  Franklin  Coun- 
ty, formed  by  Kittatinny  on  the  west,  Cross  Mountain  on  the  south,  and  Two- 
Top  Mountain  on  the  east,  lies  a  relic  of  the  mythical  days,  when  the  giants 
piled  Ossa  on  Pelion,  and  known  as  the  Devil's  Punch  Bowl.  From  its  spa- 
cious receptacle  the  gods,  in  their  Bacchanalian  revelry,  quaffed  their  intoxi- 
cating drinks. 

South  Mountain,  less  picturesque  in  its  scenery,  is  covered  with  a  good 
supply  of  valuable  timber.  Like  Kittatinny  range,  its  table-lands  are  valu- 
able for  the  fuel  supplies  they  furnish  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  valley,  as  well 
as  for  the  diversified  scenery  they  afford  to  the  passers-by.  The  richness  of 
view  afforded  by  these  two  mountain  ranges  is  calculated  to  inspire  a  remark- 
able love  for  the  beautiful  in  nature,  and  to  develop  the  poetic  sentiment  in 

The  drainage  of  Franklin  County  is  most  perfect,  and  consists  of  two  sys- 
tems. The  first,  flowing  northeastward  in  a  tortuous  course,  and  empyting 
into  the  Susquehanna  Kiver  at  "West  Fairview,  two  miles  above  Harrisburg, 
embraces  the  Conodoguinet  and  its  tributaries,  viz. :  Spring  Creek  and  its 
branches,  Furnace  and  Main's,  Muddy,  Keasey's,  Lehman's,  Paxton's,  Clip- 
pinger's  and  Trout  Runs.  The  northern  portion  of  the  county,  particularly 
Southampton,  Letterkenny,  Lurgan,  and  portions  of  St.  Thomas,  Peters,  Metal 
and  Fannett,  is  thus  provided  with  good  drainage  and  the  means  of  preserving 
animals  and  plants  against  drouth. 

The  second  system,  embracing  all  those  water-courses  which  flow  south- 
ward, and  finally  discharge  their  contents  into  the  Potomac  River,  includes  the 
following  streams: 

1.  The  Conococheague  with  two  distinct  branches,  East  Conococheague  and 
West  Conococheague,  which  unite  near  the  southern  part  of  the  county  on  the 
farm  of  Mr.  Lazarus  Kennedy,  empties  into  the  Potomac  at  "Williamsport. 
East  Conococheague  receives  from  the  central  portion  of  the  county  the  con- 
tributions of  Rocky  Creek,  Falling  Spring,  Back  Creek,  Campbell's  Run  and 
Muddy  Run.  Several  of  these  streams  are  supplied  with  abundant  mill  power, 
which  is  Titilized  to  the  best  advantage.  West  Conococheague,  traversing  the 
whole  extent  of  Path  Valley,  leaps  into  the  broad  open  valley  from  between 
Cape  Horn  and  Jordan's  Knob,  and,  gathering  in  the  waters  of  Broad  and 
Trout  Runs,  Licking  Creek,  Welsh  Run  and  other  small  streams,  hastens  to 
join  its  twin  sister  at  their  junction  on  the  Kennedy  place. 

2.  Marsh  Run,  which  divides,  a  part  of  the  way,  the  present  townships  of 
Antrim  and  Washington. 

3.  Little  Antietam,  which  with  its  two  branches,  East  Antietam  and  WTest 
Antietam,  thoroughly  drains  the  southeastern  part  of  the  county,  carrying  its 
sparkling  waters  finally  into  the  Potomac  River  near  Sharpsburg,  Md. 

All  these  streams  are  fed  by  beautiful  springs,  whose  sparkling  waters 
come  gushing  forth  from  mountain  and  hillside,  and  many  of  them,  in  addition 
to  supplying  pure  cold  water  for  man  and  beast,  are  richly  provided  with  an 
excellent  quality  of  fish.  They  supply  a  water-power,  which  has  long  been 
utilized  for  milling  and  manufacturing  purposes.  Chambersburg  and  Waynes- 
boro supply  their  own  citizens  with  the  clear  refreshing  water  found  in  these 
mountain  streams. 

An  observing  traveler  will  notice  that  the  ledges  or  beds  of  rocks  trend 
from  northeast  to  southwest,  corresponding  with  the  course  of  the  mountain 
ranges;  likewise  that  the  various  layers  have  positions  one  above  another  at 
different  angles  to  the  horizon.      They  have  been  broken  up  by  some  disturbing 


element  beneath,  and  have  left  their  edges  outcropping  at  various  angles  from 
a  level  to  a  perpendicular.  Along  the  range  of  South  Mountain  he  will  find 
the  rocks  of  a  different  character  from  those  in  the  valley,  being  a  hard,  com- 
pact, white  sandstone,  which  rings  when  it  is  struck,  and  when  broken  has  a 
splintery  and  sometimes  discolored  appearance.  At  the  northern  base  of  South 
Mountain  he  encounters  the  great  limestone  formation,  which  obtains  through- 
out the  whole  length  of  Cumberland  Valley.  "It  is  usually  of  a  bluish  but 
occasionally  of  a  grey  and  nearly  black  color,  generally  pure  enough  to  yield 
excellent  lime,  but  not  unfrequently  mixed  with  sand,  clay,  and  oxide  of  iron. 
Flint  stones  and  fossils  are  also  occasionally  met  with  in  some  parts  of  this 
formation.  In  the  soil  above  it,  iron  ore  is  sometimes  abundant  enough  to  be 
profitably  worked;  and  indeed  some  of  the  most  productive  ore  banks  in  the 
State  are  found  in  it  and  its  vicinity.  Pipe  ore  and  kindred  varieties  of  that 
material  have  been  obtained  of  good  quality  in  several  localities  in  this  lime- 
stone region.  About  the  middle  of  the  valley,  though  with  a  very  irregular 
line  of  demarcation,  we  meet  with  a  dark  slate  formation  extending  to  the  foot 
of  North  Mountain;  though  its  usual  color  is  brown  or  bluish,  it  is  sometimes 
reddish  and  even  yellow.  Lying  between  the  great  limestone  and  the  coarse 
grey  sandstone,  it  is  sometimes  intermingled  with  sandstone  which  contains 
rounded  pebbles  forming  conglomerate,  but  this  is  too  silicious  to  receive  a  good 
polish.  The  rocks  of  Kittatinny  or  North  Mountain  consist  almost  exclusively 
of  this  massive  grey  limestone  of  various  degrees  of  coarseness.  They  are  not 
valuable  for  either  building  or  mineral  purposes."* 

Iron  ore  in  extensive,  and  copper  in  limited  quantities  have  been  found; 
' '  beneath  the  surface  ore,  inexhaustible  deposits  of  magnetic  iron  conveniently 
near  to  valuable  beds  of  hematite,  which  lie  either  in  fissures  between  the  rocky 
strata  or  over  them  in  a  highly  ferruginous  loam.  This  hematite  is  of  every 
possible  variety  and  of  immense  quantities.  When  it  has  a  columnar  stalactite 
structure  it  is  known  under  the  name  of  pipe  ore.  It  usually  yields  a  superior 
iron,  and  at  the  same  time  is  easily  and  profitably  smelted.  It  generally  pro- 
duces at  least  fifty  per  cent  of  metallic  iron. ' ' 

The  nature  and  fertility  of  soil  are  determined  by  the  character  of  the  un- 
derlying rocks  by  whose  disintegration  it  is  produced.  The  limestone  lands 
are  very  productive.  The  slate  lands,  well  improved  by  lime  and  other  fertil- 
izers, and  properly  cultivated  by  skilled  labor,  yield  abundant  crops.  These 
two  kinds  of  soil,  the  limestone  and  the  slate,  are  both  rendered  product- 
ive. In  fact,  the  entire  belt  of  land  in  the  valley  is  susceptible  of  the  highest 
cultivation,  the  only  unproductive  land  lying  along  the  sides  of  the  mountain.. 
And  even  this  is  prized  highly  for  its  timber;  or,  when  cleared,  for  its  graz- 
ing and  fruit-growing  qualities. 

Says  Dr.  Wing:  "  The  natural  productions  of  the  soil,  when  it  was  first  dis- 
covered by  white  men,  awakened  admiration  quite  as  much  as  the  meadows 
and  the  fields  of  grain  have  done  at  a  later  period.  A  rich  luxuriance  of  grass 
is  said  to  have  covered  the  whole  valley,  wild  fruits  abounded,  and  in  some 
parts  the  trees  were  of  singular  variety.  Of  the  trees  there  were  many  species 
of  oak,  white  and  black  walnut,  hickory,  white,  fed  and  sugar  maple,  cherry, 
locust,  sassafras,  chestnut,  ash,  elm,  linden,  beech,  white  and  scrub  pine, 
dogwood  and  iron-wood.  The  laurel,  plum,  juniper,  persimmon,  hazel, 
wild  currant,  gooseberry,  blackberry,  raspberry,  spice  bush,  sumac  and  the 
more  humble  strawberry  and  dewberry  and  wintergreen  almost  covered  the 
open  country;  and  their  berries,  in  some  instances,  constituted  no  small  por- 
tion of  the  food  of  the  Indians  and  the  early  settlers." 

*State  Geological  Survey. 


The  climate  of  Cumberland  Valley  does  not  differ  essentially  from  that 
which  prevails  in  the  southeastern  portion  of  the  State.  Hedged  in  by  moun- 
tains, the  keenness  and  force  of  the  Atlantic  winds  are  necessarily  somewhat 
broken  and  modified;  and  yet  strong  mountain  storms  occasionally  break  in 
upon  its  peaceful  habitations.  The  statements  of  careful  observers  in- 
duce the  belief  that  perceptible  changes  in  climate  have  occurred  in  the  valley 
since  its  first  settlement.  Owing,  it  is  thought,  to  the  disappearance  of  for- 
ests and  the  consequently  increased  drainage  of  the  lands,  many  streams  are 
less  copious  and  violent,  the  averages  of  cold  and  heat  are  decreased,  and  the 
moisture  of  the  atmosphere  is  perceptibly  diminished.  Dr.  Rush,  of  Phila- 
delphia, a  close  observer  of  the  climatology  of  the  State  from  1789  to  1805, 
remarked  that  a  material  change  had  taken  place  since  the  days  of  the  found- 
ers: the  cold  of  winters  and  the  heat  of  summers  were  less  uniform  than  they 
had  been  for  forty  or  fifty  years  before  *         *  "The .variableness  of 

weather  in  our  State,"  he  continued,  "  is  found  south  of  41°  of  latitude, 
and  north  of  that  the  winters  are  steady  and  in  character  with  the  Eastern  and 
Northern  States;  but  no  two  successive  seasons  are  alike,  and  even  the  same 
months  differ  from  each  other  in  different  years.  There  is  but  one  steady 
trait,  and  that  is,  it  is  uniformly  variable  " 

What  Dr.  C.  P.  Wing  wrote  in  1879,  concerning  Cumberland  County,  may 
be  applied  with  equal  force  to  its  daughter,  Franklin  County.  Hear  him: 
'  'Within  the  past  thirty  years,  there  have  not  been  more  than  a  score  of  days 
when  the  thermometer  fell  below  zero,  and  about  as  many  when  it  rose  above 

"  The  summers  more  nearly  resemble  each  other  than  do  either  of  the  other 
seasons ;  most  of  the  days  are  hot  and  clear,  but  interrupted  by  violent  thunder 
gusts,  heavy  rains  from  the  northeast  and  warm  showers  from  the  south. 
Snow  sometimes  covers  the  ground  in  winter  for  months,  and  at  other  times 
there  is  scarcely  enough  for  sleighing.  The  prevailing  winds  are,  in  summer, 
from  the  northwest  and  southwest,  the  former  bringing  clear  and  the  latter 
cloudy  weather;  in  winter,  the  northwest  winds  bring  clear,  cold  weather,  and 
the  northeastern,  snow,  storms  and  rain.  The  winter  seldom  sets  in  with  sever- 
ity until  the  latter  part  of  December  and  commonly  begins  to  moderate  in  Feb- 
ruary.* Near  the  close  of  this  latter  month,  or  early  in  March,  the  snow  dis- 
appears, and  in  the  beginning  of  April  the  fruit  trees  blossom  and  vegetation 
commences.  At  this  season,  however,  the  atmosphere  is  often  damp,  chilly 
and  stormy,  and  until  the  beginning  of  May,  there  are  frequent  returns  of  wet 
and  disagreeable  weather,  Owing  to  these  changes,  vegetation  advances  very 
unequally  in  different  years,  and  the  promising  blossoms  of  the  early  spring  are 
often  blasted  by  the  frosts  of  April  and  May.  The  average  of  rain  and  snow 
fall  for  three  years  was  found  to  be,  for  the  spring,  9. 05  inches ;  for  the  sum- 
mer, 9.67;  for  the  autumn,  7.68;  for  the  winter,  7.61,  and  for  the  whole  year, 
34.01.  The  autumn  is  usually  the  most  agreeable  season.  The  mornings  and 
evenings  become  cool  about  the  middle  of  September,  and  soon  after  the  equi- 
noctial rain  and  after  the  first  frosts  of  November  commences  that  remarkable 
peculiarity  of  our  climate,  the  '  Indian  summer. '  The  name  is  probably  de- 
rived from  the  Indians,  who  were  accustomed  to  say  they  always  had  a  second 
summer  of  nine  days  just  before  the  winter  set  in.  It  was  the  favorite  time  for 
their  harvest,  when  they  looked  to  gather  in  their  corn,  and  when,  from  acci- 
dent or  design,  on  their  hunting  excursions,  the  woods  and  grass  of  the  moun- 
tains and  prairies  were  burned  and  their  game  was  driven  from  concealment. 

*The  compiler  of  this  history  spent  the  time  from   February  11  to  December  14,  1886,  in    Franklin 
County, during  which  he  did  not  find  it  necessary  to  wear  an  overcoat. 


Certainly  a  more  delightful  climate,  all  things  considered,  it  would  be  difficult 
to  find  in  the  United  States.  A  stagnant  pool  or  swamp,  sufficient  to  produce 
malarious  disease,  is  probably  not  known,  and  is  scarcely  possible  on  account 
of  the  peculiar  drainage  of  the  soil." 


Two  Classes:  Scotch-Irish,  their  Origin,  Arrivals,  Character  and  Loca- 
tions—Germans, Sketch  of  Persecutions,  Arrivals,  Trials,  etc.— Trend 
of  Settlements  in  Cumberland  Valley  Westward— Shippensburg  a  Dis- 
tributing Point— Settlements  at  Falling  Spring— Sketch  of  Benjamin 
Chambers— Other  Settlements  and  Settlers  in  Various  Parts  of  the 
County— List  of  Taxables  in  1751-52— Mason  and  Dixon's  Line. 

Ye  pioneers,  it  is  to  you 

The  debt  of  gratitude  is  due; 

Ye  builded  wiser  than  ye  knew 

The  broad  foundation 

On  which  our  superstructure  stands; 

Your  strong  right  arms  and  willing  hands, 

Your  earnest  efforts  still  command 

Our  veneration. — Pearre. 

TWO  general  classes  of  people  constituted  the  early  settlers  of  Cumberland 
Valley,  viz:  the  Scotch -Irish  and  the  Germans. 

The  Scotch- Irish  were  a  numerous  but  honorable  class  who  migrated  to 
Pennsylvania  and  other  Eastern  States  at  an  early  day.  The  origin  of  the  term 
is  traceable  to  events  that  occurred  early  in  the  seventeenth  century.  James 
I,  of  England  [reign  1603-25],  was  very  desirous  of  improving  the  civiliza- 
tion of  Ireland.  The  Irish  Earls  of  Tyrone  and  Tyrconell  having  conspired 
against  the  English  Government,  and  been  compelled  to  flee  the  country,  their 
estates,  consisting  of  about  500, 000  acres,  were  confiscated.  These  estates  the 
king  divided  into  small  tracts,  and  induced  many  Protestant  people  from  his 
own  country  (Scotland)  to  locate  upon  them  on  condition  that  possession  should 
be  taken  within  four  years. 

A  second  revolt  occurring  soon  after,  another  large  forfeiture  of  the  six 
counties  in  the  Province  of  Ulster  followed,  the  confiscated  property  being 
seized  by  Government  officials.  The  King,  being  a  zealous  Protestant,  aimed 
to  root  out  the  native  Irish  who  were  all  Catholic,  hostile  to  his  government  and 
incessantly  plotting  against  it.  Their  places  he  intended  to  supply  with  peo- 
ple concerning  whose  loyalty  he  had  no  doubt,  the  sturdy  inhabitants  of  his 
own  land,  Scotland.  Encouraged  and  aided  by  the  Government,  these  Scotch 
went  in  great  numbers  across  to  the  near  Province  of  Ulster,  and  took  posses- 
sion of  the  lamp,  which  had  been  hitherto  neglected  and  almost  ruined  by  their 
indolent  occupants.  They  addressed  themselves,  at  once,  with  intelligence 
and  industry,  to  reclaim  the  country  and  introduce  a  higher  material  and  social 
order  of  things.  The  counties  of  Antrim,  Armagh,  Caven,  Donegal,  Down, 
Fermanagh,  Londonderry,  Monaghan  and  Tyrone — names  familiar  to  all  intel- 
ligent Pennsylvanians — soon  became  prominent  because  of  the  new  blood  and 
brains  introduced. 


Thus  Protestantism  was  planted  in  Ireland.  Its  Scotch  advocates,  like 
the  Jews,  have  maintained  a  separate  existence,  refusing  to  intermarry  with 
their  Irish  neighbors.  Protestant  in  religion,  they  have  steadily  refused  to 
unite  with  the  Irish,  Celtic  in  origin  and  Roman  Catholic  in  faith.  This 
marked  isolation  has  continued  through  a  period  of  more  than  250  years. 

In  the  succeeding  reign  of  Charles  I  (1625-49),  a  spirit  of  bitter  retalia- 
tion was  engendered,  on  the  part  of  the  native  Irish,  against  this  foreign 
element,  resulting  in  a  most  deplorable  condition  of  affairs.  Incited  by  two 
ambitious  and  unscrupulous  leaders,  Roger  More  and  Philim  O'Neale,  the 
Irish  Catholics  began,  October  27,  1741,  a  massacre  which  continued  until 
more  than  40,000  victims  were  slaughtered. 

Owing  to  these  persecutions  and  others  of  similar  nature  during  the  suc- 
ceeding century,  owing  to  the  want  of  religious  toleration  by  the  reigning 
powers,  owing  to  their  inability  to  renew  their  land  rents  on  satisfactory 
terms  and  owing  to  the  general  freedom  offered  them  by  William  Penn  in  his 
new  American  colony — free  lands,  free  speech,  free  worship  and  free  govern- 
ment— these  Scotch  settlers  left  the  north  of  Ireland  and  came  to  America  by 
thousands,  where  they  are  known  as  Scotch-Irish. 

According  to  Watson,  these  ' '  immigrants  did  not  come  to  Pennsylvania  as 
soon  as  the  Germans,"  few,  if  any,  arriving  prior  to  1719.  The  first  arrivals 
usually  settled  near  the  disputed  line  between  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania. 
James  Logan  (an  intelligent  and  influential  representative  of  the  Penn  govern- 
ment, and  though  of  Irish  extraction  thoroughly  in  sympathy  with  the  Quaker 
principles)  complains,  in  1724,  to  the  proprietaries  of  these  people  as  "bold 
and  indigent  strangers ' '  because  they  had  taken  up  lands  near  the  disputed 
line  without  securing  proper  authority  from  him  as  the  representative  of  the 
Government.  In  1725  he  stated  that  at  least  100,000  acres  of  land  were 
possessed  "by  persons  (including  Germans)  who  resolutely  set  down  and 
improved  it  without  any  right  to  it,"  and  that  he  was  "much  at  a  loss  to  deter- 
mine how  to  dispossess  them. ' '  In  1728,  4, 500  persons,  chiefly  from  Ireland, 
arrived  in  New  Castle.  In  1729  Logan  expressed  his  gratification  that  parlia- 
ment was  ' '  about  to  take  measures  to  prevent  the  too  free  emigration  to  this 
country,"  intimating  that  the  prospects  were  that  Ireland  was  about  "to  send 
all  her  inhabitants  hither,  for  last  week  not  less  than  six  ships  arrived. "  "It 
is  strange,"  continued  he,  "that  they  thus  crowd  where  they  are  not  wanted. 
The  common  fear  is  that  if  they  continue  to  come,  they  will  make  themselves 
proprietors  of  the  province. "  In  1730  he  again  complains  of  them  as  "  auda- 
cious and  disorderly  "  for  having,  by  force,  taken  possession  of  the  Conestoga 
Manor,  containing  15, 000  acres  of  the  ' '  best  land  in  the  country. ' '  Of  this  they 
were,  by  the  sheriff,  subsequently  dispossessed  and  their  cabins  burned. 
About  the  same  time,  he  says,  in  another  letter,  "I  must  own,  from  my  own 
experience  in  the  land  ofiice,  that  the  settlement  of  five  families  from  Ireland 
gives  me  more  trouble  than  fifty  of  any  other  people." 

The  captious  spirit  manifested  by  Logan  against  both  German  and  Scotch- 
Irish  settlers,  and  especially  the  latter,  and  which  was  subsequently  shared,  to 
some  extent,  by  Peters,  Dickinson  and  Franklin,  is  readily  accounted  for  by 
his  fear  of  losing  his  position  in  the  Government,  should  any  other  than  the 
Quaker  influence  prevail. 

From  1730  to  1740  the  influx  was  great.  Settlements  were  commenced  in 
Cumberland  (then  Lancaster)  County  in  1730  and  1731,  the  Chambers  broth- 
ers having  crossed  west  of  the  Susquehanna  about  that  time.  After  1736, 
during  the  month  of  September,  in  which  year  alone  1,000  families  are  said 
to  have  sailed  from  Belfast,  the  influx  into  the  Kittochtinny  Valley,    west  of 


the  Susquehanna,  increased  rapidly;  for,  in  1748,  the  number  of  taxables,  not 
counting  the  fifty  Germans,  was  about  800. 

Soon  after  the  erection  of  Cumberland  County  (1750),  "  in  consequence  of 
the  frequent  disturbances  between  the  governor  and  Irish  settlers,  the  proprie- 
taries gave  orders  to  their  agents  to  sell  no  lands  in  either  York  or  Lancaster 
Counties  to  the  Irish;  and  also  to  make  to  the  Irish  settlers  in  Paxton,  Swa- 
tara  and  Donegal  Townships  advantageous  offers  of  removal  to  Cumberland 
County,  which  offers  being  liberal  were  accepted  by  many." 

Injustice  has  been  done  to  the  Scotch-Irish  settlers  of  these  early  days  by 
two  classes  of  writers:  first,  those  who  were  actuated  by  jealousy,  as  was  Lo- 
gan, in  his  inability  to  see  good  in  any  classes  not  directly  connected  with  the 
original  Friend  or  Penn  element;  secondly,  those  who  have  failed  to  study 
carefully  the  circumstances  which  surrounded  the  Scotch-Irish  immigrants  in 
their  settlements  and  conduct  toward  the  Indians.  Under  these  circumstances 
we  are  not  surprised  to  hear  Mr.  Sherman  Day,  in  his  Historical  Collections 
of  Pennsylvania,  call  them  "  a  pertinacious  and  pugnacious  race,"  ''pushing 
their  settlements  upon  unpurchased  lands  about  the  Juniata,  producing  fresh 
exasperation  among  the  Indians. "  "As  the  result  of  this, ' '  he  continues, 
"  massacres  ensued,  the  settlers  were  driven  below  the  mountains,  and  the 
whole  province  was  alive  with  the  alarms  and  excitements  of  war." 

In  reply  to  these  serious  charges,  Judge  George  Chambers,  in  his  "Tribute 
to  the  Principles,  Virtues,  Habits  and  Public  Usefulness  of  the  Irish  and 
Scotch  Early  Settlers  of  Pennsylvania,"  a  carefully  written  and  most  admira- 
ble little  book,  enters  a  most  emphatic  protest.  Without  attempting  to  pre- 
sent in  detail  the  facts  which  enable  him  to  reach  his  conclusions,  we  give  a 
brief  summary  of  his  argument:  Admitting  the  aggressive  character  of  the 
early  Scotch-Irish  settlers  in  pushing  into  the  forests  and  occupying  lands,  the 
outrages  and  massacres  by  the  Indians  were,  nevertheless,  not  the  direct  result 
of  these  encroachments,  but  a  retaliatory  protest  against  the  unjust  manner  in 
which  tneir  lands  and  hunting  grounds  had  been  taken  from  them  by  so-called 
purchases  and  treaties  with  the  government.  By  the  cession  of  1737,  the  Indi- 
ans were  to  convey  lands  on  the  Delaware  to  extend  back  into  the  woods  as 
far  as  man  can  go  in  one  day  and  a  half.  By  the  treaty  of  Albany,  in  1754, 
between  the  Proprietary  of  Pennsylvania  and  the  Six  Nations,  nearly  all  the 
lands  claimed  by  them  in  the  province  were  ceded  for  the  small  sum  of  £400. 
The  dissatisfaction  produced  by  this  cession,  which  the  Indians  claim  they  did 
not  understand,  was  fanned  by  the  French  into  open  hostility,  manifesting 
itself  in  the  indiscriminate  and  wholesale  devastation  and  massacres  following 
the  Braddock  campaign.  The  wrongs  of  the  government,  and  not  the  en- 
croachments of  a  few  daring  settlers,  it  is  claimed  by  Mr.  Chambers,  produced 
these  destructive  Indian  outrages.  Gov.Morris,  in  his  address  to  the  Assembly, 
of  November  3,  1755,  clearly  reminds  them  ' "  that  it  seemed  clear,  from  the 
different  accounts  he  had  received,  that  the  French  had  gained  to  their  interest 
the  Delaware  and  Shawnese  Indians,  under  the  ensnaring  pretense  of  restoring 
them  to  their  country." 

The  Assembly,  in  their  reply  to  Gov.  Denny,  in  June,  1757,  say:  "It  is 
rendered  beyond  contradiction  plain,  that  the  cause  of  the  present  Indian  in- 
cursions in  this  province,  and  the  dreadful  calamities  many  of  the  inhabitants 
have  suffered,  have  arisen,  in  a  great  measure,  from  the  exorbitant  and  unrea- 
sonable purchases  made,  or  supposed  to  be  made  of  the  Indians,  and  the  man- 
ner of  making  them — so  exorbitant,  that  the  natives  complain  that  they  have 
not  a  country  left  to  subsist  in." — Smith's  Laws. 

A  careful  study  of  these  people  clearly  shows  that,  while  they  were  aggress- 


ive,  they  moved  along  the  line  of  a  higher  civilization;  while  they  were  firm 
in  their  convictions,  they  advocated  the  rights  of  man  to  liberty  of  thought  and 
action;  while  they  cherished  many  of  the  institutions  and  beliefs  of  the  old 
country,  they  were  intensely  patriotic  and  loyal  to  the  new;  and  while  they 
possessed  what  they  regarded  the  best  lands,  they  were  just  in  their  dealings 
with  the  untutored  red  man.  These  were  the  people  who  laid  broad  and  deep 
the  foundations  of  social,  educational  and  religious  liberty  in  America. 

The  German  immigrants,  as  a  class,  were  hardy,  industrious,  honest  and 
economical,  retaining,  to  a  great  extent,  the  prejudices,  superstitions,  manners, 
language  and  characteristics  of  the  fatherland.  Like  the  Scotch-Irish,  their 
migration  to  America  was  the  result  of  a  deprivation  of  certain  religious  rights 
in  their  native  countries,  and  a  desire  to  improve  their  physical  condition  in 
the  new  world. 

Like  the  Scotch-Irish,  they,  too,  were  Protestants,  belonging  to  different 
denominations:  (1)  The  Swiss  Mennonites  were  among  the  earliest  to  come, 
about  the  beginning  of  the  last  centuiy,  and  settled  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Philadelphia  and  at  Pequea  and  other  points  in  what  is  now  Lancaster  County. 
They  were  orderly,  honest,  peaceable  and  advocates  of  non-resistant  or  peace 
principles.  (2)  German  Baptists  (Dunkards),  Moravians,  Seventh-day  Bap- 
tists. (3)  Lutherans  and  German  Beformed,  the  latter  two  constituting  the 
great  body  of  the  arrivals,  and  furnishing  the  aggressive  element  of  the  new 
settlers.     They  came  later  than  the  others  and  entered  new  fields. 

Many  of  these  early  Germans,  having  first  located  In  the  State  of  New 
York,  were  dissatisfied  with  the  unjust  treatment  received  at  the  hands  of  the 
authorities,  and  therefore  came  to  Pennsylvania.  They  wrote  messages  to 
their  friends  in  Europe,  advising  them  to  shun  New  York  and  come  direct  to 
the  province  of  Penn,  which  afforded  superior  inducements. 

Their  arrivals  in  the  province  were,  briefly:  Henry  Frey  came  two  years 
earlier  than  William  Penn  and  one  Platenbach  a  few  years  later.  In  1682  a 
colony  arrived  and  formed  a  settlement  at  Germantown;  and  in  1684-85,  a  com- 
pany of  ten  persons  was  formed  in  Germany,  called  the  Frankfort  Land  Com- 
pany, of  which  F.  D.  Pastorius  was  appointed  attorney.  They  bought  25,000 
acres  of  land  from  Penn,  in  addition  to  other  tracts.  From  1700  to  1720,  the 
Palatines,  so  called  because  they  sprang  principally  from  the  Palatinate  in  Ger- 
many, whither  they  had  been  driven  by  persecutions  in  various  parts  of  Europe, 
came  in  vast  numbers.  They  suffered  great  privations.  In  1708-09,  more  than 
10,000  went  to  England,  where,  in  a  sickly  and  starving  condition,  they  were 
cared  for  by  the  generous  Queen  Anne  who,  at  an  expense  to  herself  of 
£135,775,  alleviated  their  sufferings  in  that  country  and  assisted  them  to  come 
to  New  York  and  Pennsylvania.  Their  number  was  so  great  as  to  draw  from 
James  Logan,  secretary  of  the  province  of  Pennsylvania  in  1717,  the  remark: 
"  We  have,  of  late,  a  great  number  of  Palatines  poured  in  upon  us  without  any 
recommendation  or  notice,  which  gives  the  country  some  uneasiness;  for  for- 
eigners do  not  so  well  among  us  as  our  own  English  people."  In  1719  Jona- 
than Dickinson  said:  "We  are  daily  expecting  ships  from  London,  which  bring 
over  Palatines,  in  number  about  six  or  seven  thousand. " 

The  arrivals  from  1720  to  1730  were  so  numerous  as  to  produce  some 
alarm  lest  the  colony  should  become  a  German  one.  Says  Bupp :  "To  arrest 
in  some  degree  the  influx  of  Germans,  the  assembly  assessed  a  tax  of  twenty 
shillings  a  head  on  newly  arrived  servants;  for  as  early  as  1722  there  were  a 
number  of  Palatine  servants  or  Bedemptioners  sold  to  serve  a  term  of  three  or 
four  years  at  £10  each  to  pay  their  freight. ' ' 

From  1730  to  1740,   about  sixty-five  vessels  well  filled  with  immigrants, 


having  with  them  their  own  preachers  and  teachers,  landed  at  Philadelphia, 
from  which  they  scattered  in  various  directions ;  many  of  these  located  in  York 

From  1740  to  1755,  more  than  a  hundred  vessels  arrived,  some  of  them, 
though  small,  containing  from  500  to  600  passengers.  In  the  summer  and 
autumn  of  1749,  not  less  than  12,000  came.  This  period— 1740  to  1755— 
witnessed  many  outrages  upon  the  unsuspecting  passengers.  Within  the  State 
were  certain  Germans  known  as  neulaenders,  who,  having  resided  in  this 
country  long  enough  to  understand  the  business,  profited  by  the  ignorance  and 
credulity  of  their  own  people  abroad.  Going  to  various  parts  of  Germany  and 
presenting  the  new  world  in  glowing  colors,  they  induced,  by  misrepresenta- 
tions and  fraudulent  practices,  many  of  their  friends  and  kinsmen  to  sell,  and 
in  some  cases  even  to  abandon  their  property  and  forsake  their  firesides  in 
order  to  reach  this  new  land  of  promise.  Many,  starting  with  inadequate 
means,  were  unable  to  pay  their  passage,  and  on  arriving  were  sold  for  a  series 
of  years  as  servants,  to  liquidate  their  claims.  These  were  called  redemption- 
ers,  or  Palatine  servants. 

The  number  of  Germans  in  Pennsylvania  about  1755  was  from  60,000  to 
70,000.  About  nine-tenths  of  the  first  settlers  of  York  County,  then  including 
Adams,  were  Germans.  The  great  influx  into  Cumberland  County  which,  with 
the  exception  of  a  few  English,  was  settled  almost  exclusively  by  Scotch  and 
Scotch -Irish,  began  about  1770;  though  as  early  as  the  period  from  1736  to 
1745,  there  were  found  in  the  Conococheague  settlements,  the  Snivelys,  Schnei- 
ders, Piscackers,  Liepers,  Ledermans,  Haricks,  Laws,  Kolps,  Gabriels,  Ring- 
ers, Steiners,  Senseneys,  Radebachs,  Reischers,  Wolffs,  Schneidts.*  Rev. 
Michael  Schlatter,  a  German  reformed  minister,  in  a  letter  dated  May  9,  1748, 
thus  describes  a  visit  through  the  valley :  ' '  On  the  Conogogig  we  reached  the 
house  of  an  honest  Schweitzer  [supposed  to  be  Jacob  Snively,  of  Antrim 
Township,]  where  we  received  kind  entertainment  with  thankfulness.  In  this 
neighborhood  there  are  very  fine  lands  for  cultivation  and  pasture,  exceedingly 
fruitful  without  the  application  of  manures.  Turkish  corn  (Indian  maize) 
grows  to  the  height  of  ten  feet  and  higher,  and  the  grasses  are  remarkably 
fine.  Hereabout,  there  still  remain  a  good  number  of  Indians,  the  original 
dwellers  of  the  soil.  They  are  hospitable  and  quiet,  and  well  affected  to  the 
Christians  until  the  latter  make  them  drunk  with  strong  drink." 

The  original  German  has,  by  imperceptible  changes,  been  gradually  trans- 
formed into  a  being  very  unlike  the  original,  known  as  the  Pennsylvania 
Dutch.  The  latter  has  in  him  more  of  the  democratic  spirit,  which  ignores 
the  clannishness  of  the  olden  time  and  forms  friendships  and  alliances  with 
people  of  other  nationalities.  The  dialect,  Pennsylvania  Dutch,  is  sui  generis 
an  anomaly  in  the  domain  of  language.  Its  possessor  is  a  cosmopolitan,  fond 
of  social  life,  ambitious  and  industrious,  and  in  these  latter  days  quite  fond  of 
public  office  and  other  ' '  soft  places. ' '     He  is  destined  to  take  the  land. 

The  three  original  counties  of  Pennsylvania,  established  by  William  Penn 
in  1682,  were  Chester,  Philadelphia  and  Bucks.  Chester  County  included  all 
the  land  (except  a  small  portion  of  Philadelphia  County)  southwest  of  the 
Schuylkill  Lo  the  extreme  limits  of  the  State.  Lancaster  County  was  formed 
and  taken  from  Chester  May  10,  1729;  York  was  taken  from  Lancaster  August 
9,  1749.  Cumberland  County  remained  a  part  of  Lancaster  until  it  was  itself 
erected  a  separate  county,  January  27,  1750.  Franklin  County,  the  then 
southwestern  part  of  Cumberland,  and  known  as  the  ' '  Conococheague  Settle- 
ment," was  established  September  9,  1784.  To  understand  the  early  history 
of  this  county,  the  reader  will  need,  therefore,  to  bear  in  mind  two  facts : 



1.  Prior  to  January  27,  1750,  its  territory  (with  the  exception  of  Warren 
Township)  was  found  in  the  county  of  Lancaster. 

2.  From  January  27,  1750,  to  September  9,  1781,  it  belonged  to  Cumber- 
land County.  Since  the  latter  date  (September  9,  1784,)  it  has  had  a  distinct 
organization  of  its  own. 

Long  prior  to  Greeley' s  famous  advice,  ' '  Go  west,  young  man, ' '  or  Bishop 
Berkley's  oft-quoted  "Westward  the  course  of  empire  takes  its  way,"  the 
tide  of  migration  was  toward  the  setting  sun.  Since  the  race  began,  the  line 
of  movement  has  been  along  the  parallels,  and  in  the  direction  of  the  receding 
darkness.  The  early  settlers  of  the  Kittatinny  or  Cumberland  Valley  came 
from  the  older  eastern  counties,  where  they  located  soon  after  their  landing  on 
the  Atlantic  coast.  No  record  exists  of  those  who  may  have  wandered  through 
this  region  on  prospecting  or  hunting  tours,  if  any  such  adventurers  ever  did 
make  these  hazardous  trips.  As  early  as  1719,  John  Harris  had  commenced  a 
settlement  near  the  present  site  of  Harrisburg,  and  for  many  years  afterward 
ran  a  ferry  across  the  Susquehanna  at  that  point  known  as  Harris'  Ferry.  On 
either  side  of  the  river  were  Indian  villages,  the  one  where  Harris  lived  being 
known  as  Peixtan  or  Paxtan.  On  the  western  side  of  the  river,  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Conodoguinet,  at  the  present  site  of  Bridgeport,  and  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Yellow  Breeches,  were  three  Indians  towns,  at  which  trading  posts  were 
established.  At  the  last-named  place,  James  Chartier,  an  Indian  trader,  had 
a  store  and  landing  place.  It  is  claimed  by  some  that  James  Le  Tort,  one  of 
these  traders,  after  whom  the  beautiful  stream  in  Cumberland  County  was 
named,  lived  at  a  very  early  period  at  a  place  called  Beaver  Pond,  near  the 
present  site  of  Carlisle. 

What  is  now  Cumberland  County  had  settlements  at  various  points  away 
from  the  river.  Richard  Parker  and  his  wife  settled  three  miles  north  of  Car- 
lisle in  1724.  His  application  at  the  land  office  in  1734  was  for  a  warrant  to 
land  on  which  he  "had  resided  ye  ten  years  past."  George  Croghan,  an 
Indian  trader,  whose  name  occurs  frequently  in  early  records,  lived  about  five 
miles  from  the  river  on  the  north  side  of  the  Conodoguinet.  He  owned  tracts 
in  various  parts  of  the  county,  a  large  one  being  north  of  Shippensburg.  He 
did  not  cultivate  all  these,  but  changed  about  as  his  convenience  and  trade 
demanded.  He  was  an  Irishman  of  common  education,  and  in  later  years 
lived  at  Aughwick  or  Old  Town,  west  of  the  North  Mountains,  where  he  was 
trusted  as  an  Indian  agent.  In  the  settlement  commenced  by  James  Cham- 
bers near  Newville,  then  known  as  Big  Spring,  a  group  of  inhabitants,  so 
numerous  as  to  form  and  support  a  religious  society  as  early  as  1738,  was 
found,  consisting  of  David  Ralston,  Robert  Patterson,  James  McKehan,  John 
Carson,  John  Erwin,  Richard  Fulton,  Samuel  McCullough  and  Samuel  Boyd. 
Robert  Chambers,  brother  of  the  preceding,  as  well  as  of  Benjamin,  who 
located  at  Falling  Spring,  formed  a  prosperous  settlement  near  Middle  Spring, 
about  two  miles  north  of  Shippensburg,  at  the  same  early  date.  The  first  set- 
tlers were  such  men  as  Hugh  and  David  Herron,  Robert  McComb,  Alexander 
and  James  Young,  Alexander  McNutt,  Archibald,  John  and  Robert  Machan, 
James  Scott,  Alexander  Sterrett,  Wm.  and  John  Piper,  Hugh  and  Joseph 
Brady,  John  and  Robert  McCune  and  Charles  Morrow.  In  asking  that  the 
State  road,  which  was  laid  out  in  1735-36,  might  be  directed  through  that 
neighborhood  rather  than  through  Shippensburg,  the  petitioners  claimed  that 
theirs  was  the  more  thickly  settled  part.  By  some*  it  is  claimed  that  in  the 
Middle  Spring  settlement  the  first  land  in  the  Cumberland  Valley  taken  under 

♦Historical  discourse  of  Rev.  S.  S.  Wyiie  at  the  Centennial  celebration  of  Middle  Spring.  This  claim,  how- 
ever, is  incorrect.    Blunston's  license  to  Benjamin  Chambers  at  Falling  Spring  was  dated  March  30,  1734. 



authority  of  the  "Blunston  Licenses*"  and  assigned  to  Benjamin  Furley,  was 
located.  According  to  the  record  in  the  county  surveyor's  office  at  Chambers- 
burg,  this  tract,  embracing  some  1,094  acres  and  allowances,  warranted  De- 
cember 18,  1735,  and  surveyed  April  15,  1738.  was  situated  on  the  Conodoguinet 
Creek  in  what  was  then  Pennsborough  Township,  Lancaster  County,  but  now 
Southampton  Township,  Franklin  County.  It  was  subsequently  occupied  by 
William,  David,  James  and  Francis  Herron.  William  Young  and  John  Watt. 
Where  Shippensburg  now  stands,  a  settlement  was  made  as  early  as  1730. 
In  June  of  that  year,  according  to  Hon.  John  McCurdy,  the  following  persons 
came  to  that  locality  and  built  their  habitations:  Alexander  Steen,  John 
McCall,  Richard  Morrow,  Gavin  Morrow,  John  Culbertson,  Hugh  Rippey, 
John  Rippey,  John  Strain,  Alexander  Askey,  John  McAllister,  David  Magaw 
and  John  Johnston.  They  were  soon  followed  by  Benjamin  Blythe,  John 
Campbell  and  Robert  Caskey.  From  this  settlement  ultimately  sprang  a  vil- 
lage older  than  any  other  in  the  Cumberland  Valley.  It  was  a  distributing 
point  for  settlers,  and  hence  important,  as  will  be  shown  by  the  following  let- 
ter written  therefrom: 

May  21,  1733. 
Dear  John:  I  wish  you  would  see  John*  Harris,  'at  the  ferry,  and  get  him  to  write 
to  the  Governor,  to  see  if  he  can't  get  some  guns  for  us;  there's  a  good  wheen  of  ingns 
about  here,  and  I  fear  they  intend  to  give  us  a  good  deal  of  troubbel,  and  may  do  us  a  grate 
dale  of  harm.  We  was  three  days  on  our  journey  coming  from  Harrisses  ferry  here.  We 
could  not  make  much  speed  on  account  of  the  childer;  they  could  not  get  on  as  fast  as 
Jane  and  me.  I  think  we  will  like  this  part  of  the  country  when  we  get  our  cabbiu  built.. 
I  put  it  on  a  level  peese  of  groun,  near  the  road  or  paih  in  the  woods  at  the  fut  of  a  hill. 
There  is  a  fine  stream  of  watter  that  comes  from  a  spring  a  half  a  mile  south  of  where 
our  cabbin  is  bilt.  I  would  have  put  it  near  the  watter,  but  the  land  islo  and  wet.  John 
McCall,  Alick  Steen  and  John  Rippey  bilt  theirs  near  the  stream.  Hu<dV  Rippey's  daugh- 
ter Mary  (was)  berried  yesterday;  this  will  be  sad  news  to  Andrew  Simpson,  when  it 
reaches  Maguire's  bridge.  He  is  to  come  over  in  the  fall  when  they  were  to  be  married, 
Mary  was  a  verry  purty  gerl;  she  died  of  a  faver,  and  they  berried  her  up  on  rising  groun, 
north  of  the  road  or  path  where  we  made  choice  of  a  peese  of  groun  for  a  graveyard. 
She  was  ihe  furst  berried  there.  Poor  Hugh  has  none  left  now  but  his  wife,  Sam  and  lit- 
tle Isabel.  There  is  plenty  of  timmer  south  of  us.  We  have  18  cabbins  bilt  here  now. 
and  it  looks  (like)  a  town,  but  we  have  no  name  for  it.  I'll  send  this  with  .John  Sin'pson. 
when  he  goes  back  to  paxtan.  Come  up  Soon;  our  cabbin  will  be  ready  to  go  into  a  week 
and  you  can  go  in  till  you  get  wan  bilt;  we  have  planted  some  corn  and  potatoes.  Dan 
McGee,  John  Sloan  and  Robert  Moore  was  here  and  left  last  week.  Remember  us  to  Mary 
and  the  childer;  wc  are  all  well.  Tell  Billy  Parker  to  come  up  soon  and  bring  Nancy 
with  him.  I  know  he  will  like  the  countr}\  I  forgot  to  tell  you  that  Sally  Brown  was 
bit  by  a  snaik,  but  she  is  out  of  danger.     Come  up  soon. 

Yr.  aft.  brother, 

James  Maohaw 

The  first  settlement,  in  what  is  now  Franklin  Countv,  was  made  in  1730,  at 
Falling  Spring  (now  Chambersburg) — the  confluence  of  the  two  streams,  Fall- 
ing Spring  and  Conococheague — by  Col.  Benjamin  Chambers  and  his  older 
brother,  Joseph.  Between  1726  and  1730,  four  brothers,  James,  Robert,  Jo. 
seph  and  Benjamin  Chambers,  emigrated  from  the  county  of  Antrim,  Ireland, 
to  the  province  of  Pennsylvania.  They  settled  and  built  a  mill  shortly  after 
their  arrival,  at  the  mouth  of  Fishing  Creek,  in  what  is  now  Dauphin  County, 

♦Samuel  Blunston  of  Wright's  Ferry  'now  Columbia)  was  authorized  by  the  proprietaries?^!  make  a  par- 
tial survey  of  ;:>ud  and  to  grant  to  settlers  permission  to  take  up  and  improve,  or  continue  to  improve,  such 
lands  as  they  desired,  with  the  promise  that  a  more  perfect  title  should  be  given  them  when  the  Indian  claims 
should  be  extinguished.  The  Indians  were  also  assured  that  these  claims  would  be  satisfied  as  soon  as  the 
pemliug  Indian  treaties  should  be  completed.  The  first  of  these  licenses  was  dated  January  24,  1733-34  and 
the  last  October  31,  1737.     Appended  is  a  copy  of  one  of  these: 

"Lancaster  County,  ss. — By  the  Proprietary:  These  are  to  license,  and  allow  Andrew  Ralston  to  run, 
tiuue  to  improve  and  dwell  on  a  tract  of  two  hundred  acres  of  land  on  the  Great  Spring,  a  branch  of  the  (  Vine* 
doguinet,  joyning  to  the  upper  side  of  a  tract  granted  to  Handle  Chambers  for  the  use  of  his  son,  .lames  Cham.- 
bers;  to  be  hereafter  surveyed  to  the  said  Ralston  on  the  common  terms  other  lands  in  those  parts  are  sold; 
provided  the  same  has  not  been  already  granted  to  any  other  person  and  so  much  can  be  had  without  prejudice 
to  other  tracts  before  granted.    Given  under  my  hand  this  third  day  of  January,  Anno  Domini,  1736-7. 

Pennsylvania,  ss.  Sa.  Blunston." 



where  they  occupied  a  tract  of  fine  land.  These  brothers  were  among  the 
first  to  explore  and  settle  the  valley.  James  made  a  settlement  at  the  head  of 
Great  Spring,  near  Newville;  Robert,  at  the  head  of  Middle  Spring,  near 
Shippensburg,  and  Joseph  and  Benjamin  at  Falling  Spring,  where  Chambers- 
burg  now  stands. 

By  an  arrangement  among  the  brothers,  Joseph  returned  to  supervise  their 
property  at  the  mouth  of  Fishing  Creek,  and  Benjamin  remained  to  develop 
the  settlement  at  Falling  Spring.  He  built  a  one-storied  hewed-log  house 
which  he  covered  with  lapped  cedar  shingles  secured  by  nails — an  innovation 
upon  the  prevailing  style  of  architecture,  which  consisted  of  a  round  log  struct- 
ure covered  with  a  roof  of  clapboards,  held  in  position  by  beams  and  wooden 
pins.  Having  completed  this,  the  finest  .residence  in  the  settlement,  he  ad- 
dressed himself  to  clearing  land,  erecting  necessary  buildings  and  planning 
the  future  growth  of  the  colony.  Some  time  after  this,  Benjamin  had  occa- 
sion to  visit  his  former  homestead  at  Fishing  Creek.  Returning,  he  found  his 
house  had  been  burned  by  some  avaricious  person  for  the  "  sake  of  the  nails," 
which  were  a  rarity  in  those  days. 

Subsequently  Mr.  Chambers  received  what  was  then  the  only  authority 
for  the  taking  up  and  occupying  of  land.  The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  inter- 
esting instrument,  which  was  a  narrow  strip  of  common  writing  paper,  the 
chirography  on  which  would  not  stand  the  crucial  test  of  modern  straight 
lines,  ovals  and  right  and  left  curves. 

Pennsylvania,  ss. 

By  order  of  the  Proprietary.  These  are  to  License  and  allow  Benjamin  Chambers  to 
take  and  settle  and  Improve  of  four  hundred  acres  of  Land  at  the  falling  spring's  mouth 
and  on  both  sides  of  the  Conegochege  Creek  for  the  conveniency  of  a  Grist  Mill  and  plan- 
tation. To  be  hereafter  surveyed  to  the  said  Benjamin  on  the  common  terms  other  Lands 
in  these  parts  are  sold.     Given  under  my  hand  this  thirtieth  day  of  March,  1734. 

Lancaster  County.  Samuel  Blunston. 

A  rnill-wright  by  occupation,  he  at  once  erected  a  saw-mill  and  subsequently 
a  flouring-mill.  These  were  both  indispensable  to  the  comfort  and  growth  of  the 
settlement,  and  were  evidently  heralded  as  strong  inducements  for  others  to  cast 
in  their  lot  with  this  growing  colony.  The  saw-mill  stood  on  what  is  known  as 
the  "  Island,"  a  few  rods  northwest  of  where  the  woolen-mill  now  stands;  the 
flouring-mill,  constructed  mainly  of  logs,  stood  near  the  residence  of  its  owner. 
It  was  shortly  destroyed  by  fire,  but  its  place  was  occupied  by  a  new  one,  whose 
walls  were  made  of  stone. 

Benjamin  Chambers  was  upward  of  twenty  one  years  of  age  when  he  settled 
at  Falling  Spring.  His  death  occurring  February  17,  1788,  in  his  eightieth  year, 
he  must  have  been  born  about  1708  or  1709.  Shortly  after  (1741),  he  married  a 
Miss  Patterson,  residing  near  Lancaster,  who  was  the  mother  of  his  eldest  son, 
James.  She  lived  but  a  few  years.  In  1748  he  married  a  second  time,  his 
choice  being  a  Miss  Williams,  the  daughter  of  a  Welsh  clergyman  living  in 
Virginia.  She  bore  seven  children,  viz. :  Ruhamah,  married  to  Dr.  Calhoun ; 
William;  Benjamin;  Jane,  married  to  Adam  Ross;  Joseph,  George  and  Hetty, 
married  to  Wm.  M.   Brown.  Esq. 

He  used  his  influence  with  his  acquaintances  to  settle  in  his  neighborhood, 
directing  their  attention  to  desirable  locations  for  farms.  He  was  early  com- 
missioned a  justice  of  the  peace,  and  later  a  colonel  of  the  militia  organized. 
He  served  as  a  daysman  to  adjust  many  controversies  between  his  neighbors, 
and  thus  became  a  general  counselor  in  the  community.  During  the  contro- 
versy between  Lord  Baltimore  and  the  Penns,  concerning  the  boundary  between 
Pennsylvania  and  Maryland,  he  went  to  England  to  assist,  by  his  evidence  and 
advice,  in  the  adjustment  of  the  difficulties  involved.     From  England  he  went 


to  Ireland,  his  native  soil,  where  he  induced  many  acquaintances  with  their 
families  to  remove  to  his  new  settlement. 

In  1764  Col.  Chambers  laid  out  the  town  of  Chambersburg,  whose  history 
is  sketched  elsewhere  in  this  volume.  The  history  of  this  sturdy  early  settler 
is  the  history  of  the  county  and  of  the  commonwealth  for  more  than  half  a 
century.  From  the  time  he  landed  at  the  Falling  Spring  till  his  declining 
health  rendered  further  activity  impossible,  he  was  the  acknowledged  leader  of 
the  people  in  all  civil,  military  and  religious  movements. 

We  have  no  means  of  determining  the  exact  order  of  settlements  in  other 
parts  of  the  county. 

In  what  is  Antrim  Township  there  must  have  been  settlers  as  early  as 

1734.  In  the  Johnston  graveyard,  near  Shady  Grove,  is  a  tablet  bearing  the 
name  of  James  Johnston,  who  died  in  1765.  "  From  documents  still  extant," 
says  the  inscription,  ' '  he  settled  on  the  land  on  which  he  died  as  early  as 

1735,  and  was  probably  the  first  white  settler  in  what  is  now  Antrim  Township, 
Franklin  County."  He  had  two  sons,  James  and  Thomas,  both  of  whom 
were  colonels  in  the  Revolutionary  war.  About  the  same  time  settlements 
were  made  near  the  present  site  of  Green  Castle,  by  Joseph  Crunkleton,  Jacob 
Snively  and  James  Rody.  Snively  was  the  progenitor  of  a  large  and  respecta- 
ble family,  many  of  whom  still  live  in  the  township,  concerning  whom  much 
will  be  said  in  the  township  and  biographical  sketches.  * 

At  that  time  the  settlements  in  the  county  were  known  in  the  aggregate  as 
the  "  Conococheague  Settlement. "  Owing  to  the  peculiar  condition  of  land 
arrangements,  settlers  occupied  certain  tracts  by  virtue  of  a  sort  of  "squatter 
possession,"  each  one  choosing  a  site  according  to  his  taste.  Hence,  families 
lived,  often,  for  a  series  of  years  on  tracts  before  they  received  proper  legal 
authority  for  the  same. 

On  the  west  bank  of  the  Conococheague,  near  the  present  site  of  Bridge- 
port, in  Peters  Township,  settled  William  McDowell  in  1730  or  1731.  He  had 
a  large  family  of  sons  and  daughters,  who  became  prominent  in  the  subsequent 
development  of  the  country.  The  records  of  the  surveyor's  office  show  that 
warrants  for  land  were  held  in  what  is  Peters  Township,  as  early  as  1737,  by 
Rev.  John  Black  and  Samuel  Han-is;  1738,  Andrew  McCleary;  1742,  Henry 
Johnston  and  John  Taylor;  1743,  James  Glenn,  William  Burney  and  James 
McClellan;  1744,  Robert  McClellan.  By  McCauley  it  is  claimed  that  some  of 
these  were  settlers  as  early  as  1730.  They  were  mainly  Scotch-Irish,  as  will  be 
seen  by  the  names. 

Path  Valley  had  early  settlers,  likewise.  The  records  of  the  surveyor's 
office  show  that  Samuel  Bechtel  had  a  warrant  in  what  is  now  Fannett  Town- 
ship, for  176  acres,  which  bore  date  January  24,  1737,  and  was  surveyed  the 
24th  of  the  following  May  by  Zach.  Butcher,  deputy  surveyor.  At  that  time 
it  was  in  Hopewell  Township,  Lancaster  County.  The  same  records  show  that 
Thomas  Doyle  had  a  warrant  in  same  region  for  530  acres,  dated  November 
29,  1737,  and  surveyed  December  30  following.  Neither  of  these  men  had 
neighbors  immediately  adjoining  them,  showing  the  settlements  to  be  sparse. 
Settlements  must  have  been  made  quite  rapidly  in  the  valley,  notwithstanding 
its  ownership  by  the  Indians;  for  in  1750  Richard  Peters,  secretary  of  the  com- 
monwealth, in  a  letter  to  the  governor  dated  July  2,  in  which  he  gives  an 
account  of  the  removal  of  certain  citizens  because  of  their  encroachments  on 
interdicted  territory,   says:    "On   Wednesday,   the   30th  of  May,   the  magis- 

*Some  of  the  earliest  warrants  found  in  the  surveyor's  office  hear  date  as  follows:  1737,  John  Mitchell, 
David  McGaw ;  1738,  David  Scott,  George  Reynolds  ;  1740-42,  David  Kennedy,  Humphrey  Jones  ;  1743-50,  John 
Potter,  Samuel  McPherren,  John  Brotherton,  Hohert  Wallace.  William  Magaw,  Thomas  Poe,  George  Gibson, 
William  Smith,  Jacob  Snively,  William  Allison,  Abraham  Gable  and  John  Davison. 


trates*  and  company*}-,  being  detained  two  days  by  rain,  proceeded  over  the 
Kittochtinny  Mountains,  and  entered  into  Tuscara  [Tuscarora]  Path  or  Path 
Valley,  through  which  the  road  to  Alleghany  lies.  Many  settlements  were 
formed  in  this  valley,  and  all  the  people  were  sent  for,  and  the  following  per- 
sons appeared,  viz. :  Abraham  Slach,  James  Blair,  Moses  Moore,  Arthur  Dun- 
lap,  Alexander  McCartie,  David  Lewis,  Adam  McCartie,  Felix  Doyle,  Andrew 
Dunlap,  Robert  Wilson,  Jacob  Pyatt,  Jacob  Pyatt,  Jr. ,  William  Ramage,  Rey- 
nolds Alexander,  Samuel  Patterson,  Robert  Baker,  John  Armstrong  and  John 
Potts,  who  were  all  convicted,  by  their  own  confession  to  the  magistrates,  of  the 
like  trespasses  with  those  at  Shearman's  Creek,  and  were  bound  in  the  like 
recognizances  to  appear  at  court,  and  [give]  bonds  to  the  proprietaries  to  remove, 
with  all  their  families,  servants,  cattle  and  effects,  and  having  all  voluntarily 
given  possession  of  their  houses  to  me,  some  ordinary  log  houses,  to  the  num- 
ber of  eleven,  were  burnt  to  the  ground,  the  trespassers,  most  of  them  cheer- 
fully and  a  very  few  of  them  with  reluctance,  carrying  out  all  their  goods. 
Some  had  been  deserted  before,  and  lay  waste. ' ' 

John  Hastin  was  one  of  the  early  settlers  on  the  line  of  Lurgan  and  Letter  - 
kenny  Townships.  He  may  have  radiated  from  Shippensburg  as  a  center. 
The  statement  of  his  survey,  made  by  Zach.  Butcher,  D.  S. ,  November  4,  1736, 
says:   "By  virtue  of  a  warrant  from  the  honorable  proprietaries,  bearing  date 

,  I  have  surveyed  and  laid  out  unto  John  Hastin,  in  the  township 

of  Hopewell,  in  the  county  of  Lancaster,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Susquehanna 
River,  six  hundred  and  three  acres  of  land  with  allowance  of  six  per  cent. ' ' 
The  warrant,  it  seems,  though  no  date  is  given,  was  of  prior  time.  Francis 
and  Samuel  Jones  are  represented  as  neighbors. 

John  Reynolds  had  a  warrant  for  land,  in  what  is  now  Lurgan  Township, 
dated  October  6,  1738,  and  surveyed  May  16,  1743.  His  neighbors  at  the 
time  were  Robert  Edmonson,  Samuel  Reynolds  and  Edward  Shippen,  Esq. 
In  what  is  now  Hamilton  Township,  warrants  were  issued  in  1737  to  Matthew 
Patton  and  George  Leonard;  in  1738  to  David  Black  and  Samuel  Morehead. 
Their  neighbors  at  the  time  were  Samuel  Jones,  Nathaniel  Newlins,  Robert 
Patton,  James  Brotherton,  Adam  Hoops,  Benjamin  Gass,  James  Young, 
Thomas  Morehead  and  Thomas  Patterson.  In  Montgomery,  as  it  now  exists, 
was  Philip  Davis  in  1737;  James  Harland  and  John  Davyrich  were  his  neigh- 
bors; in  1740,  Thonlas  Evans,  with  David  Alexander,  John  Davis  and  Aaron 
Alexander  as  neighbors;  in  1743,  William  Maxwell,  with  John  McLellandand 
Robert  McCoy  as  neighbors;  and  in  same  year,  Robert  Culbertson,  with  Will- 
iam and  Thomas  Dinwiddy  and  James  Gardner  as  neighbors.  About  the  same 
time,  also,  Alexander  Brown,  Thomas  Sellers,  John  McClellan,  Walter  Beatty, 
Alex  White,  Wilson  Halliday  and  Martha  Howry  were  settlers.  In  the 
present  Southampton,  Rev.  John  Blair  and  Thomas  Edmundson  had  warrants 
as  early  as  1743. 

In  St.  Thomas  were,  1738,  Thomas  Armstrong ;  in  1742,  John  Holliday; 
1743  and  1744,  Robert  Clugadge,  James  Campbell,  George  Galloway,  Michael 
Campbell,  William  Campbell,  George  Cuming,  John  McConnell,  Samuel  Mc- 
Clintock,  Robert  Ritchey. 

In  Greene  the  oldest  warrant  found  was  that  of  Joseph  Culbertson,  in  1744. 
Alexander  Culbertson  had  one  dated  1749.  Their  neighbors  at  the  time  were 
John  Neal,  William  Carr,  Reuben  Gillespie,  John  Stump.  This  settlement 
was  known  as  Culbertson' s  Row. 

At  the  early  period  we  have  thus  far  borne  in  mind,  Little  Cove  seems  not 

♦Matthew  Dill,  George  Croghan,  BeDjamin  Chambers,  Thomas  Wilson,  John  Findlay  and  James  Galbreath, 
Esqs.,  justices  of  the  county  of  Cumberland. 

•"■Under-sheriff  of  Cumberland  County. 


to  have  been  settled,  it  being  greatly  exposed  to  Indian  depredations.  As  a 
rule,  warrants  date  from  1755,  the  earliest  one  found,  to  1769,  between  which 
dates  are  found  Enoch  Williams,  Rees  Shelby,  "William  Smith,  William  Pin- 
dell,  Evan  Phillips,  Samuel  Owen,  James  McClellan,  Hugh  Martin,  John  Mar- 
tin, David  Huston,  Lewis  Davis  and  David  Brown. 

Washington  Township,  it  seems,  was  not  settled  so  early  as  some  of  the 
eastern  and  southwestern  districts.  It  and  Quincy  Township  became  largely 
the  homes  of  the  Germans,  who  crossed  South  Mountain  from  York  and  Ad- 
ams Counties.  Warrants  from  1743  to  1750  embrace  Michael  Legate,  John 
Markley,  John  Moorhead,  James  Johnston,  Jacob  Beesecker,  Edward  Nichols, 
Michael  Raumsawher,  Mathias  Ringer,  John  Stoner,  John  Steiner,  John  Snow- 
berger,  James  Whitehead  and  John  Wallace. 

In  Quincy,  between  same  dates,  George  Cook,  William  Patrick,  John 
Leeper,  James  Jack. 

It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  the  names  of  these  early  pioneers,  who 
struggled  so  heroically  against  the  wilds  of  the  forest  and  the  depredations  of 
the  savages,  have  not  been  more  carefully  preserved.  We  append,  however,  a 
list  of  taxable  names  in  1751  and  1752.  From  it  may  be  learned  the  general 
locations  of  these  settlers: 

TAXABLES'  NAMES,  1751  AND  1752. 

In  Antrim  Township — which  embraced  the  territory  now  in  Antrim,  Wash- 
ington and  Quincy  Townships — the  taxables'  names  were  as  follows:  William 
Allison,  Widow  Adams,  Joshua  Alexander,  Thomas  Brown,  Jacob  Batterly, 
William  Brotherton,  John  Chambers,  George  Cassil,  William  Clark,  William 
Cross,  Joshua  Coal,  Josh.  Crunkleton,  Jr.,  Peter  Craul,  John  Crunkleton, 
William  Dunbar,  Thomas  Davis,  John  Davies,  Henry  Dutch,  David  Dun- 
can, William  Erwin,  Robert  Erwin,  James  Finley,  William  Grimes,  Nicholas 
Gulp,  John  Gyles,  Lorance  Galocher,  Thomas  Grogan,  George  Gordon,  Abra- 
ham Gabriel,  Paulus  Harick,  Robert  Harkness,  William  Hall,  Nath.  Harkness, 
Christian  Hicks,  Robert  Hamilton,  Adam  Hoops,  James  Jack,  James  Johnston, 
Peter  Johnston,  Henry  Kefort,  James  Kerr,  David  Kennedy,  Widow  Leiper, 
Peter  Leiper,  Kath.  Leatherman,  Dietrich  Lauw,  James  Lilon,  Thomas 
Long,  William  McGaw,  Samuel  McFaran,  John  Mitchel,  William  McAlmory, 
William  Mearns,  William  McLean,  George  Martin,  John  Monk,  John  Moor- 
head, John  McMath,  William  McBriar,  David  McBriar,  James  McBride,  Josh. 
McFaran,  David  McClellan,  James  McClanahan,  Hugh  McClellan,  Patrick 
Mclntire,  Arch.  McClean,  Samuel  Monagh,  William  McClellan,  John  Moor, 
John  McCoon,  John  McDowell,  Alexander  Miller,  James  McKee,  Patrick  Mc- 
Clarin,  Edward  Nichols,  Thomas  Nisbit,  Jacob  Pisacker,  Thomas  Patterson, 
John  Pritchet,  Thomas  Poa,  Henry  Pauling,  John  Potter,  James  Paile,  Will- 
iam Patrick,  James  Pattro,  John  Reynolds,  William  Rankin,  William  Ram- 
sey, James  Ramsey,  John  Roass,  Mathias  Ringer,  Joseph  Roddy,  John  Roal, 
Samuel  Smith,  John  Scott,  Robert  Southerland,  John  Smith,  James  Scott, 
Daniel  Scott,  John  Staret,  Henry  Stall,  Jacob  Snider,  William  Shanon,  Jacob 
Snively,  John  Stoaner,  Katharine  Thomson,  Anthony  Thomson,  Moses  Thom- 
son, Joseph  Walter,  John  Wlllocks,  John  Wallace.  Freemen:  E.  Alexander, 
Alex.  Cook,  W.  Campbel,  Jacob  Gabrial,  Hugh  Galocher,  Adam  Murray, 
Hugh  McKee,  Daniel  McCoy,  Daniel  McCowan,  Wm.  McGaughey,  James 
McGowan,  Joseph  Morgan,  James  Ross,  John  Snively,  Charles  White,  James 
Young— 128. 

In  Guilford — including  what  is  now  Chambersburg — John  Anderson,  Wm. 
Adams,  Thomas  Baird,  George  Cook,   Benjamin  Chambers,  Frederick  Croft, 


Peter  Coaset,  James  Crawford,  Edward  Crawford,  Mayant  Duff,  John  For- 
syth, Benjamin  Gass,  John  Henderson,  James  Jack,  Patrick  Jack,  James  Lind- 
say, John  Lindsay,  Charles  McGill,  Wm.  McKinney,  John  Mushet,  John 
Noble,  William  Nujant,  John  O'Cain,  Solomon  Patterson,  Robert  Patrick, 
Nathaniel  Simpson,  Henry  Thomson.  Freemen:  Archibald  Douglass,  Henry 
Black,  Alexander  McAlister,  Robert  Uart,  31. 

In  Hamilton— which  then  included  the  present  township  of  Hamilton  and 
about  one-half  of  the  present  township  of  St.  Thomas — Joseph  Armstrong, 
Matthew  Arthur,  Josh.  Barnet,  James  Barnet,  Thomas  Barnet,  Jr.,  James 
Boyd,  Thomas  Barnet,  Andrew  Brattan,  John  Blain,  Wm.  Boal,  Robert  Bar- 
net,  John  Campbell,  Adam  Carson,  James  Denny,  Robert  Donelson,  John 
Dixon,  Matthew  Dixon,  John  Eaton,  Josh.  Eaton,  James  Eaton,  Robert  Elliot, 
Johnston  Elliot,  Wm.  Eckery,  John  Galaway,  James  Hamilton,  John  Hind- 
man,  Alex.  Hamilton,  Edward  Johnston,  Patrick  Knox,  William  McCord,  Sam- 
uel McCamish,  Samuel  Moorhead,  Thomas  Patterson,  Joshua  Pepper,  George 
Reynolds,  William  Rankin,  John  Swan,  Widow  Swan,  Edward  Thorn,  Aaron 
Watson.     Freemen:  Dennis  Kease,  Josh.  McCamish,  42. 

In  Lurgan — which  then  included  the  present  townships  of  Lurgan,  Letter  - 
kenny,  Southampton  and  Greene — Benjamin  Allworth,  James  Allison,  Thos. 
Alexander,  Andrew  Baird,  Jr. ,  James  Breckenridge,  John  Boyd,  James  Boall, 
James  Boyd,  Laird  Burns,  Robert  Boyd,  Samuel  Buckenstos,  William  Barr, 
William  Baird  (turner),  William  Baird  (at  Rocky  Spring),  John  Burns,  Fran- 
cis Brain,  William  Breckenridge,  Alexander  Culbertson,  Archibald  Campbell, 
Dennis  Cotter,  Joseph  Culbertson,  John  Cessna,  James  Calwell,  John  Craw- 
ford, John  Cumins,  James  Culbertson,  Nathaniel  Cellar,  Oliver  Culbertson, 
Samuel  Culbertson,  Samuel  Cochran,  Steven  Colwell,  William  Cox,  William 
Cochran,  William  Chambers,  David  Carson,  Wm.  Devanner,  Jacob  Donelson, 
William  Erwin,  John  Evans,  John  Erwin,  Andrew  Finley,  John  Finley,  Sr., 
John  Finley,  Esq. ,  John  Finley  (sawyer),  James  Finley,  Robert  Finley,  George 
Ginley,  John  Graham,  Robert  Gabie,  Thomas  Grier,  William  Greenlee,  Will- 
iam Guthrie,  John  Grier,  Arthur  Graham,  Isaac  Grier,  John  Gaston,  David 
Heron,  Francis  Heron,  Gustavus  Henderson,  James  Henderson,  Joshua  Hen- 
derson, James  Henry,  John  Hawthorn,  Christian  Irwin,  William  Jack,  Samuel 
Jordan,  John  Jones,  Nathaniel  Johnson,  David  Johnson,  John  Johnson,  Thomas 
Jack,  John  Kirkpatrick,  John  Kirkpatrick,  Jr.,  John  Kerr,  John  Kennedy, 
James  Kirkpatrick,  John  Lowrie,  John  Leckey,  James  Lawder,  Robert  Long, 
Samuel  Laird,  William  Linn,  William  Linn,  Jr.,  David  Linn,  Archibald 
Machan,  Arthur  Miller,  Andrew  Murphey,  Alexander  Mitchell,  Alexander 
McNutt,  Charles  McGlea,  David  McCright,  George  Mitchell,  Gavin  Mitchell, 
Humphrey  Montgomery,  Henry  Machan,  John  Miller,  Esq.,  James  McCamant, 
John  McKeany,  John  McCall,  James  McCall,  John  McCrea,  John  McKee,  John 
Mitchel,  James  Mitchel,  John  Mitchel,  Jr.,  John  McCrea,  John  Machen, 
Joseph  McKibben,  John  McNaught,  John  McCappin,  John  Montgomery,  John 
McCombs,  Machan  McCombs,  Mat.  McCreary,  Robert  McConnell,  Robert  Mil- 
ler, Robert  Machan,  Thomas  McComb,  Thomas  Miner,  William  McConnell, 
William  Mitchell,  William  McNutt,  William  McCall,  Charles  Murray,  Joseph 
Mitchell,  Andrew  Neal,    James  Norrice,    Thomas  Neal,    James  Ortan,  David 

Paxon,   George  Pumroy,   James  Patterson,    Mr. Riley  (at  Mr.  Hoops'), 

John  Rippie,  Josiah  Ramage,  James  Reed,  Sr. ,  James  Reed,  Jr. ,  James  Reed, 
Samuel  Rippie,  Wm.  Reed,  Robert  Reed  (cordwainer),  Charles  Stewart,  James 
Sharp,  Robert  Scott,  Ranald  Slack,  William  Turner,  Alvard  Terrence,  Joseph 
Thomson,  James  Tait,  Robert  Urie,  Thomas  Urie,  Abm.  Wier,  David  Watson, 
Hugh  Wier,  John  Weyley,  John  Weir,  James  Waid,  John  Wilson,  Nathaniel 


Wilson,  Oliver  Wallace,*  Wm.  Withrow,  Wm.  Woods,  Wm.  Walker,  Alexander 
Walker,  William  Young.  Freemen:  James  Hawthorne,  Morgan  Linch,  Geo. 
McKeaney,  William  Milrea,  Charles  Moor,  George  Ross,  John  Tait — 176. 

In  Peters  Township — which  then  included  the  present  townships  of  Peters 
and  Montgomery,  and  that  part  of  St.  Thomas  Township  west  of  Campbell's 
Run — Daniel  Alexander,  Andrew  Alexander,  Wm.  Armstrong,  Hezekiah  Alex- 
ander, Adam  Armstrong,  Arthur  Alexander,  John  Baird,  James  Blair,  Alex. 
Brown,  Thomas  Barr,  Ann  Black  (widow,)  Thomas  Boal,  Samuel  Brown,  Wm. 
Barnett,  Joshua  Bradner,  John  Black,  John  Baird,  James  Black,  Widow 
Brown,  Robert  Barnet,  David  Bowel,  John  Blair,  George  Brown,  Wm.  Clark, 
Robert  Clugage,  AVm.  Campbell,  Michael  Carsell,  Samuel  Chapman,  Thomas 
Calhoun,  Michael  Campbell,  Robert  Crawford,  Patrick  Clark,  Wm.  Campbell, 
Robert  Culbertson,  Charles  Campbell,  Thomas  Clark,  John  Dickey,  James 
Dickey,  Widow  Donelson,  Wm.  Dunwood,  John  Docherty,  Samuel  Davis, 
David  Davis,  James  Davis,  Widow  Davis,  Philip  Davis,  Joseph  Dunlop,  Ar- 
thur Donelson,  David  Davis,  Nath.  Davis,  Josh.  Davis,  Thomas  Davis,  James 
Erwin,  Widow  Farier,  John  Flanaghin,  James  Flanaghin,  Moses  Fisher,  James 
Galbreath,  John  Gilmore,  Widow  Garison,  Samuel  Gilespie,  James  Galaway, 
Josh.  Harris,  John  Harris,  Jeremiah  Harris,  Charles  Harris,  Widow  Huston, 
James  Holland,  John  Huston,  John  Hamilton,  Joseph  How,  John  Holyday, 
Wm.  Holyday,  Wm.  Hanbey,  David  Huston,  John  Hill,  James  Holiday,  Alex. 
Hotchison,  Mesech  James,  Hugh  Kerrell,  Wm.  Lowrie,  Henry  Larkan,  Wm. 
Maxwell,  James  Mitchell,  John  Morlan,  John  Martin,  James  Mercer,  John 
Mercer,  Wm.  Marshall,  Wm.  Moor,  Widow  McFarland,  Andrew  Morison, 
John  McDowell,  Alex.  McKee,  Robert  McClellan,  Wm.  McDowell,  Jr. ,  Wm. 
McClellan,  John  McClellan,  Andrew  Moor,  Wm.  McDowell,  James  McConnell, 
Robert  McCoy,  Wm.  McHlhatton,  James  McMahon,  James  Murphy,  Wm. 
Morrison,  James  McClellan,  Robert  Newell,  Victor  Neely,  James  Orr,  Thomas 
Orbison,  Thomas  Owins,  Nathan  Orr,  Matthew  Patton,  John  Patton,  Francis 
Patterson,  David  Rees,  James  Rankin,  Alex.  Robertson,  Wm.  Semple,  James 
Sloan,  Richard  Stevens,  Andrew  Simpson,  Wm.  Shannon,  Hugh  Shannon, 
Widow  Scott,  Alex.  Staret,  Collin  Spence,  John  Taylor,  James  Wright,  Wm. 
Wilson,  John  Wilson,  John  Winton,  James  Wilkey,  James  Wilson,  Matthew 
Wallace,  Moses  White,  John  Wasson,  Joseph  Williams,  John  Wood,  Joseph 
White,  Thomas  Waddle.  Freemen:  Robert  Anderson,  David  Alexander,  Rob- 
ert Banefield,  James  Brown,  James  Blair,  Gavin  Cluggage,  James  Carswell, 
James  Coyle,  William  Gueen,  Alex.  Hutchison,  Ed.  Horkan,  John  Laird,  Alex. 
McConnell,  Samuel  Templeton,  Wm.  Tayler,  James  Wilson,  James  Wallace,. 
Andrew  Willabee,  Oliver  Wallace,  David  Wallace — 162. 

One  of  the  complications  in  earlier  times,  along  the  southern  portion  of  the 
county,  was  the  difficulty  which  settlers  had  in  determining  whether  their  pos- 
sessions were  in  Pennsylvania  or  Maryland.  This  involved  the  famous  Mason 
and  Dixon's  line. 

This  remarkable  line,  alluded  to  by  political  writers  and  speakers  through 
the  whole  period  of  our  national  existence,  and  even  anterior  to  it,  is  named 
in  honor  of  its  surveyors,  and  marks  the  boundary  between  Pennsylvania  and 
Maryland.  Since  1820,  when  John  Randolph  was  continually  harping  on  the 
words  "  Mason  and  Dixon' s  Line, "  as  Felix  Walker,  of  North  Carolina,  was 
on  ' '  Buncombe, "  one  of  the  counties  of  his  district,  it  has  been  the  line  of 
demarkation  between  two  distinct  schools  of  politicians,  the  representatives  of 
two  opposing  sections  of  territory. 

The  original  controversy  between  the  States,  thus  lying  side  by  side,  was 
waged   with   great  spirit  and  varying  results   between  the  Lords  Baltimore 


and  the  Perm  family,  from  1682  to  1767.  These  various  phases,  interesting 
and  exciting  in  themselves,  can  not  here  be  given.  The  reader  is  referred  to 
the  special  works  which  trace  the  controversy.  It  needs  simply  to  be  stated 
briefly  that  "on  the  4th  of  August,  1763,  the  Penns — Thomas  and  Eichard, 
and  Frederick  Lord  Baltimore,   then  being  .together  in  London,   agreed  with 

7  O    *  O  7  & 

Charles  Mason  and  Jeremiah  Dixon,  two  mathematicians  and  surveyors,  to 
mark,  run  out,  settle,  fix  and  determine  all  such  parts  of  the  circle,  marks, 
lines  and  boundaries,  as  were  mentioned  in  the  several  articles  or  commissions, 
and  were  not  yet  completed;  that  Mason  and  Dixon  arrived  in  Philadelphia, 
November  15,  1763,  received  their  instructions  from  the  commissioners  of  the 
two  provinces,  December  9,  1763,  and  forthwith  engaged  in  the  work  assigned 
them;  that  they  ascertained  the  latitude  of  the  southernmost  part  of  the  city  of 
Philadelphia  (viz. :  39°  56'  29. 1"  north — or,  more  accurately,  according  to  Col. 
Graham,  39°  56'  37.4"),  which  was  agreed  to  be  in  the  north  wall  of  the  house 
then  occupied  by  Thomas  Plumstead  and  Joseph  Huddle,  on  the  south  side  of 
Cedar  Street;  and  then,  in  January  and  February,  1764,  they  measured  thirty- 
one  miles  westward  of  the  city  to  the  forks  of  the  Brandy  wine,  where  they 
planted  a  quartzose  stone,  known  then,  and  to  this  day,  in  the  vicinage,  as  the 
star-gazer's  stone;  that,  in  the  spring  of  1764,  they  ran,  from  said  stone,  a 
due  south  line  fifteen  English  statute  miles,  horizontally  measured  by  levels, 
each  twenty  feet  in  length,  to  a  post  marked  '  west;'  that  they  then  repaired  to 
a  post  marked  'middle.'  at  the  middle  point  of  the  peninsula;  west 
line  running  from  Cape  Healopen  to  Chesapeake  Bay,  and  thence,  during 
the  summer  of  1764,  they  ran,  marked  and  described  the  tangent  line  agre  d 
on  by  the  proprietaries.  Then,  in  the  autumn  of  1764,  from  the  post  marked 
'west,'  at  fifteen  miles  south  of  Philadelphia  they  set  off  and  produced  a 
parallel  of  latitude  westward,  as  far  as  the  river  Susquehanna ;  then  they  went 
to  the  tangent  point,  and  in  1764-65  ran  thence  a  meridian  line  northward  until 
it  intersected  the  said  parallel  of  latitude,  at  the  distance  of  five  miles,  one 
chain  and  fifty  links — thus  and  there  determining  and  fixing  the  northeast 
corner  of  Maryland.  Next,  in  1765,  they  described  such  portion  of  the  semi- 
circle around  New  Castle,  as  fell  westward  of  the  said  meridian,  or  due  north 
line  from  the  tangent  point.  This  little  bow,  or  arc,  reaching  into  Maryland, 
is  about  a  mile  and  a  half  long,  and  its  middle  width,  116  feet;  from  its  upper 
end,  where  the  three  States  join,  to  the  fifteen-mile  point,  where  the  great  Ma- 
son and  Dixon's  line  begins,  is  a  little  over  three  and  a  half  miles;  and  from 
the  fifteen-mile  corner  due  east  to  the  circle,  is  a  little  over  three-quarters  of 
a  mile — room  enough  for  three  or  four  good  Chester  County  farms.  This  was 
the  only  part  of  the  circle  which  Mason  and  Dixon  ran." 

In  1766-67  they  continue!  the  west  line  beyond  the  Susquehanna,  extending 
the  same  to  the  distance  of  230  miles,  IS  chains  and  21  links  from  the  northeast 
corner  of  Maryland  near  to  an  Indian  war-path,  on  the  borders  of  a  stream 
called  Dunkard  Creek.  The  hostile  attitude  of  the  Indians  prevented  Mason 
and  Dixon  from  continuing  the  line  to  the  western  boundary  of  Pennsylvania. 
The  remainder  of  the  line,  less  than  twenty  miles,  was  subsequently  run  (1782) 
by  other  surveyors.  The  portion  run  by  Mason  and  Dixon  was  certified  by 
commissioners  November  9,  1768,  as  having  been  properly  marked  by  stones 
distant  one  mile  from  each  other,  every  fifth  mile-stone  having  on  the  north 
face  the  arms  of  Thomas  and  Richard  Penn,  and  on  the  south  face  the  arms  of 
Lord  Baltimore.  These  stones  were  oolitic  rock,  imported  for  the  purpose 
from  England. 

These  surveyors  were  paid  twenty-one  shillings  eaco  per  day  for  services 
and  expenses,  from  the  time  they  came  to  this  country  till  they  reached  Eng- 



land.      The  amount  paid  by  the  Penns  from  1760  to  1768  was  £34,200,  Penn- 
sylvania currency. 


Indian  Nations  Described — War  Between  French  and  English — Colonies  In- 
volved— Braddock's  Defeat  and  its  Effects — Forts  Located  and  De- 
scribed— Massacres  from  1754  to  1765 — Conflict  Between  the  Civil 
and  Military  at  Fort  Loudoun. 

AT  the  time  the  Cumberland  Valley  was  opened  up  to  the  colonization  of  the 
white  race,  it  was  virtually  in  possession  of  the  aggregation  of  tribes  known 
as  the  Six  Nations.  At  the  opening  of  the  seventeenth  century,  it  is  declared, 
"the  lower  valley  of  the  Susquehanna  appears  to  have  been  a  vast  uninhabited 
highway,  through  which  hordes  of  hostile  savages  were  constantly  roaming  be- 
tween the  northern  and  southern  waters,  and  where  they  often  met  in  bloody 
encounters.  The  Six  Nations  were  acknowledged  as  the  sovereigns  of  the 
Susquehanna,  and  they  regarded  with  jealousy  and  permitted  with  reluctance 
the  settlement  of  other  tribes  upon  its  margin. ' '  * 

The  Six  Nations  were  the  Onondagas,  Cayugas,  Oneidas,  Senecas,  Mo- 
hawks and  the  Tuscaroras,  the  last-named  tribe  joining  the  other  five  from  North 
Carolina  in  1712.  By  the  French  they  were  called  the  Iroquois.  The  Lenni 
Lenape,  another  powerful  Indian  confederacy,  disputed  the  claim  of  the  Six 
Nations  to  this  rich  territory,  and  professed  to  be,  as  their  name  implies,  "the 
original  people."  The  Lenni  Lenape  were  known  among  the  white  settlers  as 
the  Delaware  Indians.  They  were  divided  into  three  principal  tribes  viz. : 
the  Turtle,  the  .Turkeys  and  Monseys  or  Wolf  tribes.  Monseys  or  Wolf  tribe 
occupied  the  country  between  the  Kittatinny  or  Blue  Mountain,  and  the  sources 
of  the  Susquehanna  and  Delaware  Rivers,  and  had  settlements  also  on  the 
banks  of  the  Susquehanna.  The  Shawanees,  also,  by  the  permission  of  the 
Six  Nations,  held  for  a  time  the  Cumberland  Valley  as  a  hunting-ground. 
This  rivalry  between  these  two  great  Indian  Confederacies,  the  Lenni  Lenape 
and  the  Six  Nations,  both  of  which  laid  claim  to  the  original  right  to  the  soil 
of  Pennsylvania,  and  hence  to  the  Cumberland  Valley,  led  to  bloody  conflicts, 
and  greatly  retarded  the  permanent  settlement  of  the  region  between  the  Sus- 
quehanna and  the  Potomac.  It  led,  also,  to  unpleasant  complications  in  the 
securing  of  legal  titles.  The  Indians  had  as  serious  disputes  among  them- 
selves relative  to  their  lands  as  the  inhabitants  of  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland 
subsequently  did.  The  result  of  this  quarrel  among  the  Indians  was  that  the 
Six  Nations  overcame  the  Lenni  Lenape  and  held  them  in  a  state  of  vassalage 
until  the  year  1756.  The  Shawanees  ultimately  proved  bad  neighbors  to  both 
the  Delawares  and  the  Iroquois,  and  were  removed  by  the  latter,  in  1755,  to 
the  head  waters  of  the  Ohio. 

For  the  reasons  previously  given,  Kittatinny  or  Cumberland  Valley  was  a 
hunting-ground  for  the  Indians,  and  highly  prized  by  them.  None  of  the 
tribes  made  permanent  settlement  in  its  forests,  which  accounts  for  the  absence 

♦Historical  Collections  of  Pennsylvania. 


of  Indian  relics  so  numerous  in  certain  western  and  southern  localities.  With 
reluctance,  therefore,  did  they  leave  this  beautiful  valley,  and  seek  their  wild 
game  and  fish  elsewhere,  and  yet  they  finally  consented  to  dispose  of  their 
cherished  possessions.  On  the  11th  of  October,  1736,  the  chiefs  of  the  Six, 
Nations  met  in  Philadelphia,  and,  reviving  all  past  treaties  of  friendship,  ex- 
ecuted a  deed  conveying  to  John,  Thomas  and  Richard  Penn  and  their  heirs, 
"all  the  said  river  Susquehanna,  with  the  lands  lying  on  both  sides  thereof,  to 
extend  eastward  as  far  as  the  head  of  the  branches  or  springs  which  run  into 
the  said  Susquehanna,  and  all  the  land  lying  on  the  west  side  of  the  said  river 
to  the  setting  sun."  The  indefiniteness  of  this  language  was  destined  to  re- 
sult in  serious  trouble.  Advantage  of  the  ambiguity  of  treaties  made  with 
the  Indians  was  taken  by  unscrupulous  white  men,  and  thus  gradually  the 
red  man  saw  himself  deprived  of  all  he  held  dear;  and  yet  it  is  true  that  no 
serious  complaints  were  made  by  him  until  about  1742,  and  were  then  con- 
fined to  unlawful  settlements  on  lands  in  Tulpehocken,  on  the  Juniata,  Augh- 
wick,  Path  Valley  and  on  Licking  Creek  near  the  Potomac,  which  embraced 
the  Big  and  Little  Coves. 

The  French  were  eager  and  successful,  too,  in  poisoning  the  Indian  mind 
with  a  sense  of  their  gross  wrongs,  and  thus  secured  their  co-operation  against 
the  regular  British  soldiers.  The  animosities  existing  between  the  two  Euro- 
pean governments  were  readily  transferred  to  the  rival  colonies  in  the  new 
world.  Twenty  years  of  cunning  effort  on  the  part  of  the  French  had  re- 
sulted in  winning  the  Indians  to  them-  as  allies,  in  endeavoring  to  establish 
French  supremacy  in  America.  Since  1744,  war  had  existed  between  Eng- 
land and  France,  but  its  effects  had  not  been  felt  in  the  colonies.  The  set- 
tlers of  this  valley,  isolated  as  they  were,  did  not  exhibit  any  fears  of  attack 
till  1748,  when  they  banded  together  for  the  support  of  their  home  and  for- 
eign governments.  Loyalty  to  his  English  majesty  reigned  in  every  heart. 
An  associated  regiment  was  formed  in  the  valley  and  included  among  its  of- 
ficers the  following  from  what  is  now  Franklin  County:  Col.  Benjamin  Cham- 
bers, of  Chambersburg ;  Maj.  William  Maxwell,  of  Peters;  Lieuts.  William 
Smith,  of  Peters;  Andrew  Finley,  of  Lurgan;  John  Potter,  of  Antrim; 
Charles  McGill,  of  Guilford;  John  Winton,  of  Peters;  Ensign  John  Rand- 
alls, of  Antrim.  At  first  some  doubts  existed  as  to  the  legality  and  expediency 
of  these  organizations,  but  these  doubts  were  finally  removed  by  a  letter  from 
the  council  to  the  proprietaries,  dated  July  30,  1748.  "  The  zeal  and  industry, 
the  skill  and  regularity  of  the  officers  have  surprised  every  one,  though  it  has 
been  for  them  a  hard  service.  The  whole  has  been  attended  by  such  expense, 
care  and  fatigue,  as  would  not  have  been  borne  or  undertaken  by  any  who 
were  not  warm  and  sincere  friends  of  the  Government,  and  true  lovers  of  their 
country.  In  short,  we  have  by  this  means,  in  the  opinion  of  most  strangers, 
the  best  militia  in  America;  so  that,  had  the  war  continued,  we  should  have 
been  in  little  pain  about  any  future  enterprises  of  our  enemies.  Whatever 
opinions  lawyers  or  others,  not  fully  acquainted  with  our  unhappy  circum- 
stances, may  entertain  of  it,  it  is,  in  our  opinion,  one  of  the  wisest  and  most 
useful  measures  that  was  ever  undertaken  in  any  country." 

The  lull  was  but  temporary.  In  1753  war  broke  out  in  earnest.  The 
French  established  a  line  of  forts  from  the  lakes  to  the  sources  of  the  Ohio, 
and  thence  along  it  to  the  Mississippi  and  down  it  to  its  mouth.  They  held 
the  bow  of  the  country,  while  the  English  held  the  string  along  the  Atlantic. 
One  of  these  strongholds  was  Fort  Du  Quesne,  at  Pittsburgh.  Against  it,  in 
1755,  marched  the  English  and  provincial  troops  under  command  of  Gen. 
Braddock,     a    skillful    and    experienced    officer    in   ordinary    warfare,    but 



unacquainted  with  the  nature  and  intrigues  of  the  Indian.  Disregarding  the 
wise  suggestions  of  his  subordinates,  he  was  thoroughly  routed  by  the  French 
and  Indians  on  the  Monongahela  July  9,  1755,  and  his  demoralized  and  strag- 
gling army  hurled  back  along  the  line  of  its  advance,  the  merciless  enemy 
hanging  on  flank  and  rear  to  increase  the  consternation  and  destruction. 

The  effect  of  this  retreat  can  be  better  imagined  than  told.  ' '  News  of 
contemplated  attacks  upon  the  settlements  along  the  frontier  from  the  Dela- 
ware to  the  Maryland  and  Virginia  line  came  upon  the  people  in  quick  succes- 
sion, and  some  actual  massacres,  burnings  and  captivities  were  reported  from 
the  south,  west  and  north.  Even  before  Braddock's  defeat,  and  when  that 
General  with  his  army  had  gone  only  thirty  miles  from  Fort  Cumberland,  a 
party  of  100  Indians,  under  the  notorious  Shingas,  came  to  the  Big  Cove  and 
to  the  Conolloways  (creeks  on  the  border  of  Maryland,  in  what  is  now  Fulton 
County)  and  killed  and  took  prisoners  about  thirty  people,  and  drove  the 
remainder  from  their  homes. ' '      [Penn.  Archives,  Vol.  II.  ] 

The  consternation  which  succeeded  the  defeat  was  inexpressible.  The 
retreat  left  the  whole  frontier  uncovered.  The  inhabitants,  unprotected  and 
undisciplined,  were  compelled  to  flee  hastily  or  use  such  means  of  defense  as 
were  at  hand.  Men,  women  and  children  were  ruthlessly  slaughtered  like  dumb, 
animals.  A  reign  of  terror  prevailed  everywhere.  The  occupations  of  civil 
life  were  suspended,  and  all  efforts  to  secure  safety  by  flight  or  resistance  were 
resorted  to.  Gov.  Morris,  moved  by  the  piteous  appeals  from  the  frontier, 
summoned  the  Assembly  to  convene  November  3,  when  he  presented  the  case 
clearly  and  demanded  men  and  a  law  for  calling  out  the  militia.  Petitions 
were  pouring  in  upon  him,  asking  for  men  and  the  munitions  of  war,  and 
beseeching  protection  from  the  destruction  raging  on  every  hand.  The  Assem- 
bly was  tardy.  The  people,  to  impress  its  members  with  the  folly  of  the 
1 '  non-resistance  policy, ' '  actually  sent  some  of  the  dead  and  mangled  victims 
of  savage  cruelty  to  Philadelphia  to  be  exhibited  on  the  streets.  Everywhere 
men  flew  to  arms.  Twenty-five  companies  of  militia,  numbering  about  1,400 
men,  were  raised  and  equipped  for  the  defense  of  the  frontier.  The  second 
battalion,  comprising  700  men  and  stationed  west  of  the  Susquehanna,  was 
commanded  by  Col.  John  Armstrong,  of  Carlisle.  His  subordinates  were 
Capts.  Hance  Hamilton,  John  Potter,  Hugh  Mercer,  George  Armstrong, 
Edward  Ward,  Joseph  Armstrong  and  Robert  Callender.  Of  these,  Joseph 
Armstrong  was  an  early  settler  of  Hamilton  Township,  this  county.  The  fol- 
lowing is  the  roster  of  his  private  soldiers,  the  names  of  the  subordinate 
officers  not  being  known: 

John  Armstrong. 
Thomas  Armstrong. 
James  Barnet. 
John  Barnet. 
Joshua  Barnet. 
Thomas  Barnet,  Sr. 
Thomas  Barnet,  Jr. 
Samuel  Brown. 
John  Boyd. 
Alexander  Caldwell. 
Robert  Caldwell. 
James  Dinney. 
William  Dinney. 
Robert  Dixson. 
William  Dixson. 

James  Eaton. 
John  Eaton. 
Joshua  Eaton. 
James  Elder. 
George  Gallery. 
Robert  Groin. 
James  Guthrie. 
John  Hindman. 
Abram  Irwin. 
Christopher  Irwin. 
John  Jones. 
James  McCamant,  Sr. 
James  McCamant,  Jr. 
Charles  McCamant. 
James  McCamish. 

John  McCamish. 
William  McCamish. 
Robert  McConnell. 
John  McCord. 
Jonathan  McKearney. 
John  Machan. 
James  Mitchell. 
Joshua  Mitchell. 
William  Mitchell. 
Jon.  Moore. 
James  Norrice. 
John  Norrice. 
James  Patterson. 
Joshua  Patterson. 
William  Rankin. 


Jon.  Rippey.  Matthew  Shields,  Sr.  "William  Swan. 

Barnet  Robertson.  Matthew  Shields,  Jr.  Charles  Stuart. 

Francis  Scott.  Robert  Shilds,  Sr.  Daniel  Stuart. 

Patrick  Scott.  Robert  Shilds,  Jr.  Devard  Williams. 

William  Scott.  Jon.  Swan.  Jon.  Wilson. 

David  Shields.  Joshua  Swan. 

The  intense  feeling  of  the  time  is  shown  by  the  following  letters,  which 
speak  for  themselves: 

Falling  Springs,  Sabbath  morning,  Nov.  2,  1755. 
To  the  inhabitants  of  the  lower  part  of  the  county  of  Cumberland: 
Gentlemen — 

If  you  intend  to  go  to  the  assistance  of  your  neighbors,  you  need  wait  no  longer  for 
the  certainty  of  the  news.  The  Great  Cove  is  destroyed.  James  Campbell  left  his  com- 
pany last  night  and  went  to  the  fort  at  Mr.  Steel's  meeting  house,  and  there  saw  some  of 
the  inhabitants  of  the  Great  Cove  who  gave  this  account,  that  as  they  came  over  the  Hill 
they  saw  their  houses  in  flames.  The  messenger  says  that  there  are  but  one  hundred,  and 
that  they  are  divided  into  two  parts;  the  one  part  to  go  against  the  Cove  and  the  other 
against  the  Conollaways,  and  that  there  are  two  French  among  them.  They  are  Dela- 
wares  and  Shawnese.  The  part  that  came  against  the  Cove  are  under  the  command  of 
Shingas,  the  Delaware  King.  The  people  of  the  Cove  that  came  off  saw  several  men  lying 
dead;  they  heard  the  murder  shout  and  the  firing  of  guns,  and  saw  the  Indians  going  into 
their  houses  that  they  had  come  out  of  before  they  left  sight  of  the  Cove.  I  have  sent 
express  to  Marsh  creek  at  the  same  time  I  send  this;  so  I  expect  there  will  be  a  good  com- 
pany there  this  day,  and  as  there  are  but  one  hundred  of  the  enemy,  I  think  it  is  in  our 
power,  if  God  permit,  to  put  them  to  flight,  if  you  turn  out  well  from  your  parts.  I 
understand  that  the  West  settlement  is  designed  to  go  if  they  can  get  any  assistance  to 
repel  them. 

All  in  haste,  from 

Tour  humble  servant, 
Benjamin  Chambers. 

Shippensburg,  2d  November,  1755. 
To  Hon.  Edward  Shippen,  Esq.,  at  Lancaster: 
Dear  and  Honored  Sir: 

We  are  in  great  confusion  here  at  present — We  have  received  express  last  night  that 
the  Indians  and  French  are  in  a  large  body  in  the  Cove,  a  little  way  from  William  Max- 
well, Esq. ;  and  that  they  immediately  intend  to  fall  down  upon  this  county.  We,  for  these 
two  days  past,  have  been  working  at  our  Fort  here,  and  believe  shall  work  this  day  (Sun- 
day). This  town  is  full  of  people,  they  being  all  moving  in  with  their  families — five  or 
six  families  in  a  house.  We  are  in  great  want  of  arms  and  ammunition;  but  with  what 
we  have  we  are  determined  to  give  the  enemy  as  warm  a  reception  as  we  can.  Some  of 
our  people  had  been  taken  prisoners  by  this  party,  and  have  made  their  escape  from  them, 
and  came  in  to  us  this  morning. 

As  our  Fort  goes  on  here  with  great  vigor,  and  expect  it  to  be  finished  in  fifteen  days, 
in  which  we  intend  to  place  all  the  women  and  children;  it  would  be  greatly  encouraging, 
could  we  have  reason  to  expect  assistance  from  Philadelphia  by  private  donation  of 
Swivels,  a  few  great  guns,  small  arms  and  ammunition,  we  would  send  our  own  wagons 
for  them;  and  we  do  not  doubt  that  upon  proper  application  but  something  of  this  kind 
will  be  done  for  us  from  Philadelphia. 

We  have  one  hundred  men  working  at  Fort  Morris  with  heart  and  hand  every  day. 

Dear  Sir,  yours,  &c, 

James  Burd. 

Conococheague,.  Nov  6,  1755. 
May  it  please  your  Honor: 

I  have  sent  enclosed  two  qualifications,  one  of  which  is  Patrick  Burns',  the  bearer, 
and  a  tomahawk  which  was  found  sticking  in  the  breast  of  one  David  McClellan. 

The  people  of  Path  Valley  are  all  gathered  in  a  small  foivt,  and  according  to  the  last 
account,  were  safe.  The  Great  Cove  and  Conolloways  are  all  buried  to  ashes,  and  about 
fifty  persons  killed  or  taken. — Numbers  of  the  inhabitants  of  this  county  have  moved  their 
families,  some  to  York  county,  some  to  Maryland. 

Hance  Hamilton,  Esq.,  is  now  at  John  McDowell's  mill,  with  upwards  of  two  hun- 
dren  men  (from  York  county)  and  two  hundred  from  this  county,  in  all  about  four  hun- 
dred. To-morrow  we  intend  to  go  to  the  Cove  and  Path  Valley,  in  order  to  bring  what 
cattle  and  horses  the  Indians  let  live.  We  are  informed  by  a  Delaware  Indian,  who  lives 
amongst  us,  that  on  the  same  da\_  the  murder  was  committed,  he  saw  four  hundred  In- 
dians in  the  Cove;  and'we  have  some  reason  to  believe  they  are  about  there  yet. 


The  people  of  Shearman's  creek  and  Juniata  have  all  come  away  and  left  their 
horses;  and  there  are  now  about  thirty  miles  of  this  county  laid  waste.  I  am  afraid 
there  will  soon  be  more. 

I  am  your  Honor's  most 

Humble  servant, 

Adam  Hoops. 

P.  S.  I  have  just  received  the  account  of  one  George  McSwane,  who  was  taken  cap- 
tive about  14  days  ago,  and  has  made  his  escape,  and  brought  two  scalps  and  a  toma- 
hawk with  him. 

Shortly  after  the  Indians  had  made  hostile  incursions  into  the  Great  Cove 
and  commenced  their  devastation,  Sheriff  Potter  was  in  Philadelphia,  as  ap- 
pears from  the  following  extract,  under  date  of  November  14,  1755. — [Prov. 
Rec.  N.  289.] 

Mr.  Potter,  the  sheriff  of  Cumberland  being  in  town  was  sent  for,  and  desired  to  give 
an  account  of  the  upper  part  of  that  county  in  which  the  Indians  had  committed  their  late 
ravages;  and  he  said  that  twenty-seven  plantations  were  burnt  and  a  great  quantity  of 
cattle  killed;  that  a  woman  ninety-three  years  of  age  was  found  lying  killed  with  her 
breast  torn  off  and  a  stake  run  through  her  body.  That  of  ninety-three  families  which 
were  settled  in  the  two  Coves  and  the  Conolloways,  forty-seven  were  either  killed  or 
taken,  and  the  rest  deserted. 

The  names  of  those  murdered  and  abducted,  besides  those  already  men- 
tioned, are  given  in  the  Pennsylvania  Gazette  of  November  13,  1755,  and  are 
as  follows: 

Elizabeth  Gallway,  Henry  Gilson,  Robert  Peer,  William  Berryhill  and 
David  McClelland  were  murdered.  The  missing  are  John  Martin's  wife  and 
five  children;  William  Gallway' s  wife  and  two  children,  and  a  young  woman; 
Charles  Stewart's  wife  and  two  children;  David  McClelland' s  wife  and  two 
children.  William  Fleming  and  wife  were  taken  prisoners.  Fleming's  son 
and  one  Hicks  were  killed  and  scalped. 

But  the  times  demanded  more  than  men  and  ammunition.  Families  needed 
to  be  put  into  some  place  of  safety  while  their  natural  protectors  were  gone  to 
overtake  the  cruel  savages,  who  had  burned  houses  and  destroyed  helpless 
women  and  children.  This  necessitated  the  building  of  private  and  public 
forts  at  such  natural  points  as  would  best  accommodate  the  people.  Wisely 
these  were  distributed  along  the  western  line  of  the  valley  to  guard  against  the 
hostile  invasions  from  the  west,  and  notably  from  Path  Valley,  Cove  Gap  and 
the  Little  Cove. 

These  forts  answered  several  purposes:  1.  They  were  places  for  the  con- 
centration of  defenseless  and  helpless  women  and  children  while  their  natural 
protectors  were  absent  from  home.  2.  They  served  as  deposits  for  the  sur- 
plus ammunition  and  other  valuable  stores  needed  in  the  settlements.  3.  They 
served  as  rallying  points,  for  protection  and  defense,  to  the  frightened  inhabi- 

At  a  meeting  of  the  general  committee  of  Cumberland  County,  convened 
by  order  of  John  Potter,  sheriff  of  the  county,  at  the  house  of  Edward  Ship- 
pen,  October  30,  1755,  at  which  eighteen  persons*,  including  Col.  Benjamin 
Chambers,  were  present,  it  was  resolved  to  build  immediately  five  large 
forts,  viz.:  at  Carlisle,  Shippensburg,  Col.  Chambers',  Mr.  Steele's  meeting- 
house and  William  Allison,  Esq.  's,  in  which  the  women  and  children  were  to 
be  deposited,  from  which,  on  any  alarm,  intelligence  was  to  be  sent  to  the  other 
forts.     It  is  thought  to  be  doubtful  whether  this  plan  was  executed  in  full. 

Chambers'  Fort. — This  fort  was  erected  by  Col.  Benjamin  Chambers  and 
located  at  the  confluence  of  the  Falling  Spring  and  the  Conococheague  Creek, 

♦Names:  William  Allison,  John  Irwin,  Adam  Hoops,  James  Burd,  William  Smith,  James  McCormick 
Benjamin  Ohamhers,  Robert  rhambers,  H.  Alexander,  John  Findlay,  John  Potter,  Rev.  Mr.  Bay,  John  Mush- 
ett,  Samuel  Reynolds,  Rev.  John  Blair,  John  Smith,  Alex  Culbertson,  John  Armstrong. 


"where  Chambersburg  now  stands.  Hon.  George  Chambers  said:  "It  was 
erected  in  the  winter  and  spring  of  1756,  being  a  stockade,  including  the 
dwelling  house,  flour  and  saw-mills  of  the  proprietor  (Col.  Chambers) ;  within 
the  fort  he  erected  a  large  stone  building  two  stories  in  height,  the  waters  of 
the  Falling  Spring  running  under  part  of  it;  for  safe  access  to  the  water,  its 
windows  were  small,  and  adapted  to  defense;  the  roof  of  it  was  covered  with 
sheet-lead,  to  protect  it  against  fire  from  the  savages.  In  addition  to 
small  arms,  Col.  Chambers  had  supplied  himself  with  two  four-pound  cannon 
which  wore  mounted  and  used.  Within  the  fort  he  remained  in  safety  with  his 
family  throughout  the  whole  .series  of  Indian  wars.  It  was  also  a  place  of 
shelter  and  security  to  many  of  the  neighboring  families  in  times  of  alarm. 
In  a  letter  dated  Harris'  Ferry,  October  17,  1756,  Jas.  Young  pronounces  it 
"  a  good  Private  Fort,  and  on  an  Exceeding  good  situation  to  be  made  very  De- 
fenceable. "  He  feared  lest  the  fort,  with  its  two  four-pound  cannon,  with  "no- 
body but  a  few  Country  People  to  defend  it, ' '  should  be  captured,  and  they 
used  against  Shippensburg  and  Carlisle.  He  recommended  the  removal  of  the 
guns,  or  a  proper  force  stationed  for  their  protection.  When  Gov.  Denny 
directed  these  guns  to  be  removed  from  Fort  Chambers,  he  found  his  orders 
disregarded,  as  was  proper  under  the  circumstances, 

Davis'  Fort  was  erected  by  Philip  Davis  in  1756.  It  was  about  nine  miles 
south  of  Fort  Loudoun,  near  the  Maryland  line,  at  the  northern  termination  of 
one  of  the  Kittochtinny  ranges,  known  in  early  times  and  since  as  Davis' 
Knob.  It  was  sixteen  and  one-half  miles  from  Chambers'  Fort,  and  eight 
from  McDowell' s  mill. 

McDowell's  Mill. — This  fort  was  known  by  several  names,  as  "Fort  at  Mc- 
Dowell's Mill,"  "  McDowell's  Mill,"  or  "  McDowell's."  It  was  named  in  hon- 
or of  its  founder,  John  McDowell,  who  settled  at  and  around  the  present  site 
of  Bridgeport,  shortly  after  the  Chambers  settlement  was  made  at  Falling 
Spring.  He  erected  a  mill  of  logs,  and  some  thirty  yards  from  it  a  rude  two 
story  log  house  with  a  liberal  supply  of  port  holes.  The  mill  and  fort  sites 
are  now  owned  by  Mr.  Jacob  Wister. 

This  fort,  which  occupied  such  a  conspicuous  place  in  the  early  history 
of  the  province  for  the  period  of  only  about  two  or  three  years,  was  built  as 
early  as  1754:  for  Col.  John  Armstrong,  then  stationed  at  Carlisle,  in  a  "plan 
for  the  defence  of  the  Frontier  of  Cumberland  County  from  Philip  Davies'  to 
Shippensburg,"  issued  in  1754,  "  ordered  that  one  company  cover  from  Philip 
Davies'  to  Thomas  Waddel's;  And  as  John  McDowell's  mill  is  at  the  most  im- 
portant Pass,  most  exposed  to  danger,  has  a  fort  already  made  about  it,  and  there 
provisions  may  be  most  easily  had — for  these  Reasons  let  the  Chief  Quarters  be 
there;  let  five  men  be  Constantly  at  Philip  Davies',  William  Marshall's  and 
Thomas  Waddle's,  which  Shall  be  relieved  every  day  by  the  patrolling  guards; 
let  Ten  men  be  sent  early  every  morning  from  the  Chief  Quarters  to  Thomas 
Waddle's,  and  Ten  return  from  thence  back  in  the  evening.  A  likewise  Ten 
men  Sent  from  the  Chief  Quarters  to  the  other  extremity  daily,  to  go  by  Will- 
iam Marshall's  to  Philip  Davies',  and  return  the  same  way  in  the  afternoon. 
By  this  Plan  the  Whole  Bounds  will  be  patrolled  every  Day;  a  Watch  will  be 
constantly  kept  at  four  most  important  Places,  and  there  will  be  every  night 
forty-five  men  at  ye  Chief  Quarters  ready  for  any  Exigence. "  The  impor- 
tance of  the  place  is  further  seen  in  the  fact  that,  when  Gen.  Braddock,  in  the 
spring  of  1755,  was  passing  on  his  way  for  the  reduction  of  Fort  DuQuesne, 
he  urged  Gov.  Morris  to  hurry  up  the  army  supplies  along  the  public  road 
that  passed  near  McDowell' s  mill.  On  the  3d  of  July,  1755,  the  Governor 
announces  his  compliance  with  the  request  and  his  purpose  to  ' '  form  the  mag- 


azine  at  or  near  McDowell' s  mill,  and  put  some  Stuccados  around  it  to  protect 
the  Magazine  and  the  people  that  will  have  the  Care  of  it. "  In  response,  Gen. 
Braddock  indicated  his  "Approbation  of  the  Deposits  being  made  at  McDow- 
ell's Mill."  In  November  of  this  year  (1755),  as  we  learn  from  a  letter  by 
Adam  Hoops,  commissary  to  Gov.  Morris,  "Hance  Hamilton,  Esq.,  was  at 
John  McDowell's  Mill  with  about  400  men,"  to  be  used  in  gathering  up  the 
cattle  and  horses  not  destroyed  by  the  Indians  in  Path  Valley. 

In  consequence  of  the  cutting  of  a  new  road  to  the  Ohio,  about  two  miles 
north,  and  in  view  of  the  indefensibility  of  McDowell's,  it  was  determined  to 
chancre  the  location  of  the  fort;  hence  its  successor. 

Fort  Loudoun. — In  the  autumn  of  1756,  Col.  John  Armstrong  began  the 
construction  of  this  place  of  defense.  Some  difficulty  was  experienced  in  se- 
curing a  suitable  site.  At  last  one  was  chosen  near  to  Parnell's  Knob,  where 
one  Patton  lived,  '  'near  the  new  road, ' '  making  the  '  'distance  from  Shippens- 
burg  to  Fort  Lyttleton  two  miles  shorter  than  by  McDowell' s. "  In  a  letter 
to  Gov.  Denny,  dated  at  McDowell's,  November  19,  1756,  Col.  Armstrong 
says:  "I'm  makeing  the  best  preparation  in  my  power  to  forward  this  Fort 
(Loudon),  as  well  as  to  prepare  by  barracks,  etc. ,  all  the  others  for  the  ap- 
proaching winter.  *  *  To-day  we  begin  to  Digg  a  Cellar  in  the  New  Fort,  the 
Loggs  and  Roof  of  a  new  House  having  there  been  erected  by  Patton  before  the 
Indians  burn'  d  his  Old  One.  We  shall  apprise  this  House,  and  then  take  the 
benefit  of  it,  either  for  Officers'  Barracks  or  a  Store-House ;  by  which  Means  the 
Provisions  may  the  sooner  be  mov'd  from  this  place,  which  at  present  divides 
our  strength."  December  22,  1756,  A.  Stephens  says:  "The  public  stores 
are  safely  removed  from  McDowell' s  mill  to  Fort  Loudoun — the  barracks  for  the 
soldiers  are  built,  and  some  proficiency  made  in  the  Stockado,  the  finishing  of 
which  will  doubtless  be  retarded  by  the  in  clemency  of  the  weather. ' '  Capt. 
Thompson,  in  a  letter  dated  at  Loudoun,  April  7,  1758,  mentions  the  arrival 
of  forty  Cherokee  Indians  at  the  fort,  and  that  more  were  daily  expected.  He 
desires  Gov.  Denny' s  immediate  directions  as  to  how  they  were  to  be  treated 
and  supplied,  as  they  had  come  without  arms  or  clothes;  they  had  come  for 
service  in  the  colonies. 

Gen.  Forbes,  while  on  his  expedition  to  Fort  Du  Quesne  to  expel  the 
French  and  their  Indian  allies  from  the  frontiers,  addressed  a  letter  from  Lou- 
doun (the  town  being  distant  a  mile  from  the  fort)  to  Gov.  Denny,  urging  the 
hearty  co  operation  of  the  authorities  and  people  to  secure  the  desired  success. 
September  9,  1758,  he  wrote:  "Everything  is  ready,  for  the  army  is  advanc- 
ing; but  that  I  cannot  do,  unless  I  have  a  sufficient  quantity  of  provisions  in 
the  magazines  at  Raystown. "  His  march  was  resumed  soon  afterward,  and 
continued  till  he  reached  Fort  Du  Quesne,  which  the  enemy  evacuated  Novem- 
ber 24,  1758.  In  October  of  the  same  year,  Forbes  recommended  to  the  gov- 
ernor the  necessity  of  distributing  1,200  men  among  the  different  forts,  100  of 
whom  were  to  be  stationed  at  Fort  Loudoun. 

Col.  Bouquet  having  assumed  command  of  the  regular  and  provincial 
troops,  left  Carlisle  (whither  Gov.  Penn  had  accompanied  him)  on  his  expedi- 
tion westward  early  in  August.  "On  August  13  their  small  army  got  to  Fort 
Loudoun;  but  notwithstanding  all  the  precautions  taken  to  prevent  desertions, 
the  Pennsylvania  troops  were  now  reduced  to  700  men.  Further  ad- 
ditions were  therefore  requested,  and  furnished  by  the  governor.  While 
here  he  received  an  account  from  Presque  Isle,  by  Capt.  Bradstreet,  of  peace 
being  made  with  the  Delawares  and  Shawnese;  but  Col.  Bouquet,  not  believing 
they  were  sincere,  proceeded  forward  from  Fort  Loudoun  to  Fort  Pitt,  where 
he  arrived  on  September  17." — [Bouquet's  Hist.  Account.] 


The  name  Pomfret  Castle  was  first  suggested,  but  was  dropped  and  that 
of  Loudoun  (spelled  Loudon  at  present)  in  honor  of  the  Earl  of  Loudoun, 
lately  arrived  as  commander-in-chief  of  His  Majesty's  forces,  was  adopted. 
It  embraced  over  an  acre  of  ground.  The  foundations  were  of  stone,  the  su- 
perstructure of  logs,  bastions  being  placed  in  each  corner.  No  vestiges  of  it 
remain  at  present.  The  site  of  the  fort  is  owned  by  Mr.  J.  H.  Horner  of  the 
village  of  Loudon. 

McCord's  was  a  private  fort,  erected  probably  in  1755  or  1756,  along  the 
base  of  Kittochtinny  Mountains,  north  of  Parnell's  Knob,  and  intended,  doubt- 
less, for  temporary  occupation  during  the  early  Indian  wars.  It  is  believed 
to  have  been  not  many  miles  from  Fort  Loudoun,  but  its  precise  location  can 
not  be  definitely  fixed.  It  was  attacked  and  burned  by  the  Indians  in  April, 
1756,  and  many  captives  taken  and  carried  off.  This  circumstance  greatly 
impaired  confidence  in  private  forts,  and  led  to  the  early  erection  of  those  of 
greater  security. 

Steele's  Meeting-house. — Judge  Chambers,  in  a  note  published  in  the  Ap- 
pendix to  Pennsylvania  Archives,  says :  ' '  The  first  fort  of  which  I  have  infor- 
mation, in  the  Conococheague  Settlement,  which  comprised  nearly  the  whole 
of  the  County  of  Franklin,  was  at  the  Rev.  John  Steele's  meeting  house, 
which  was  surrounded  by  a  rude  Stockade  Port  in  1755.  It  was  erected  shortly 
after  Braddock'  s  defeat,  we  suppose,  as  it  was  referred  to  in  the  Indian  Inva- 
sion in  November,  1755.*  It  was  situated  where  what  is  called  The  Presby- 
terian White  Church,  south  of  Fort  Loudoun  about  five  miles,  and  east  of 
Mercersburg  three  miles..  It  was  a  place  of  notoriety  during  the  Indian  Wars." 
Upon  a  visit  of  the  Indians  to  this  settlement,  in  November,  1755,"  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Steele,  with  others,  to  the  number  of  about  100,  went  in  quest  of  them, 
but  with  ho  success. "  In  a  letter  from  Peters  Township  to  Gov.  Morris,  dated 
April  11,  1756,  Mr.  Steele  says:  "  As  I  can  neither  have  the  men,  arms  nor 
blankets,  I  am  obliged  to  apply  to  your  Honor  for  them ;  the  necessity  of  the  cir- 
cumstances has  obliged  me  to  muster  before  two  magistrates  the  one-half 
of  my  company  whom  I  enlisted,  and  am  obliged  to  order  guns.  I  pray  that 
with  all  possible  expedition,  54  fire  arms  and  as  many  blankets,  and  a  quan- 
tity of  flints,  may  be  sent  to  me:  for  since  McCord's  Fort  has  been  taken,  and 
the  men  defeated  and  pursued,  our  county  is  in  the  utmost  confusion,  great 
numbers  have  left  the  county,  and  many  are  preparing  to  follow.  May  it 
please  your  honor  to  allow  me  an  ensign,  for  I  find  a  sergeant's  pay  will  not 
prevail  with  men  to  enlist  in  whom  much  confidence  is  reposed." — [Penn. 
Arch.,  Vol.  II,  p.  623.] 

Waddle's  is  sometimes  referred  to  in  the  old  records.  It  must  have  been  a 
private  fort  built  about  the  same  time  with  the  others,  probably  near  what  is 
now  called  Waddle's  (sometimes  Eckert's)  graveyard. 

Allison's  was  also  a  private  fort  near  Greencastle,  and  served  its  purpose. 

Maxwell's. — Where  this  was  located  the  writer  has  not  been  able  to 
ascertain.  It  was  evidently  a  private  fort  or  block-house  in  the  general  line  of 
defense  against  the  incursions  of  Indians  from  the  west. 

Elliott's  stood  in  Path  Valley,  about  a  mile  north  of  Fannettsburg,  at  the 
place  now  known  as  Springtown.  It  was  erected  in  1754  or  1755.  At  this 
place  are  half  a  dozen  limestone  springs,  one  of  which  was  enclosed  by  the 
fort.  At  the  time  the  barn  of  James  and  Samuel  Walker,  one  mile  south  of 
Fannettsburg,  was  burned  by  the  Indians,  viz. :  On  the  night  of  March  22, 
1763,  the  neighbors  collected  together  and  scouts  were  sent  by  a  by-path  to 

♦"November  ye  25, 1755.  The  Reverand  John. Steele  at  Conegochig:  2  quarter  casks  of  powder;  2  cwt.  of 
Lead." — [Government  Account.] 




give  alarm  at  the  fort,  so  that  it  must  have  been  still  occupied  by  British 

Baker's  is  supposed  to  have  been  at  or  near  the  village  of  Dry  Run. 

The  foregoing  is  by  no  means  an  enumeration  of  all  the  forts  of  a  private 
character  in  Franklin  County.  The  great  danger,  however,  was  to  be  appre- 
hended from  the  west,  and  hence  the  wisdom  of  locating  a  line  of  these 
defenses  from  Parnell's  to  Casey's  Knobs,  and  patrolling  them  regularly. 
From  Path  Valley  and  through  Cove  Gap  the  greatest  danger  was  to  be 

The  massacres  mentioned  in  the  following  pages  are  found  in  various 
records,  which  can  not  here  be  specified.  It  will  be  seen  that  they  occurred 
more  frequently  and  with  greater  malignity  shortly  after  the  defeat  of  Brad- 
dock'  s  army. 

In  September,  1754,  Joseph  Campble  was  killed,  near  Parnell's  Knob,  by 
an  Indian  of  the  Six  Nations,  named  Israel. 

In  February,  1756,  two  lads  were  taken  at  Widow  Cox's,  near  Parnell's 
Knob,  also  a  man  named  John  Craig.     They  afterward  escaped. 

February  29,  1756,  two  boys  were  fired  at  by  the  Indians  in  the  Little 
Cove.  One  was  killed  but  the  other  alarmed  the  fort,  and  the  Indians  were 
pursued  and  driven  away  after  a  loss  of  four  soldiers. 

On  the  same  day,  a  man  named  Alexander  discovered  a  party  of  Indians 
near  Thomas  Barr's  place,  in  Peters  Township.  The  alarm  was  given,  and 
an  engagement  ensued,  in  which  several  citizens  were  killed,  one  being  Barr's 

April  5,  1756,  McCord's  Fort  was  burned  and  many  inhabitants  killed  and 
captured  by  the  Indians.  Immediately  upon  receipt  of  the  news,  Capt. 
Alexander  Culbertson,  with  a  company  of  fifty  men,  set  out  in  pursuit,  and 
overtook  them  at  Sidling  Hill,  where  a  serious  contest  ensued,  in  which  Capt, 
Culbertson  was  slain.  So  many  were  wounded,  that  a  surgeon,  living  in 
Carlisle,  was  sent  for,  and  even  then  much  inconvenience  was  experienced. 
Following  is  a  list  of  killed  and  wounded: 


Alexander  Culbertson,     Francis  Scott. 

captain.  William  Boyd. 

John  Reynolds,  ensign,     Jacob  Payntor. 

Capt.  Chambers'  Co.     Jacob  Jones. 
William  Kerr. 
James  Blair. 
John  Layson. 
William  Denny. 

Robert  Kerr. 
William  Chambers. 
Daniel  McCoy. 
James  Robertson,  tailor. 

James  Robertson,  weaver. 

James  Peace. 

John  Blair. 

Henry  Jones. 

John  McCarty. 

John  Kelly. 

James  Lowder. 

William  Hunter. 
Matthias  Ganshorn. 
William  Swailes. 


Abraham  Jones.  Benjamin  Blyth. 

Francis  Campbell.  John  McDonald. 

William  Reynolds.  Isaac  Miller. 

John  Barnet.  Ensign  Jamieson. 

Shortly  after,  Capt.  Jacobs  (Indian  chief),  with  a  band  of  forty  savages, 
made  an  expedition  into  the  Coves,  burning  and  scalping.  Hugh  McSwine 
was  taken  prisoner,  and  afterward  escaped  on  the  leader's  horse.  This  he 
took  to  Col.  Washington,  who  gave  him  a  commission  as  lieutenant. 

William  Mitchel,  living  in  Conococheague,  was  shot  and  killed  by  a  band 
of  Indians,  while  at  work  in  the  harvest  field. 



On  the  26th  of  May,  1756,  John  Wasson,  a  farmer  living  in  Peters  Town- 
ship, was  horribly  mangled  and  scalped  by  a  small  party  of  Indians.  His 
house  was  burned  and  his  wife  taken  captive. 

July  26,  1756,  Joseph  Martin  was  killed,  and  John  and  James  McCollough 
captured  in  the  Conococheague  settlement. 

August  27,  1756,  William  Morrison  was  captured  and  his  house  burned. 

August  28,  Betty  Ramsey,  her  son  and  the  cropper  were  killed  and  daugh- 
ter taken  prisoner. 

November,  1756,  in  the  upper  part  of  the  county,  near  Conococheague,  a 
party  of  savages  barbarously  mangled  a  number  of  the  inhabitants,  and  took 
many  women  and  children  captives.     Following  is  a  list  of  killed  and  missing : 


James  McDonald.  John  Woods,  with  his  wife  John  Culbertson. 

William  McDonald.  and  mother- in  law.  Elizabeth,    wife    of    John 

Bartholomew  McCafferty.  Samuel  Perry.  Archer. 

Anthony  McQuoid.  Hugh  Kerrel. 


James  Corkem.  John  Archer's  four  chil-     Samuel  Neely. 

William  Cornwall.  dren.  James  McCoid. 

March  29,  1757,  the  Indians  made  a  breach  at  Rocky  Springs,  where  one 
woman  was  killed  and  eleven  taken  prisoners. 

April  2,  1757,  William  McKinley  and  son  were  killed.  He  had  left  Cham- 
bers' Fort  to  visit  his  farm  on  the  creek  below  Chambersburg,  but  was  dis- 
covered and  scalped  by  the  Indians. 

April  7,  1757,  three  families,  two  named  Campbell  and  Patterson,  were  cut 
off  at  Conococheague,  and  barbarously  treated. 

April  23,  1757,  John  Martin  and  William  Blair  were  killed  at  Conocochea- 
gue, and  Patrick  McClelland  wounded  by  savages. 

May  13,  1757,  William  Walker  and  an  unknown  man  killed  at  Conodo- 

June  24,  1757,  Alexander  Miller  killed,  and  his  two  daughters  captured 
at  Conococheague. 

July  2,  1757,  a  man  named  Springson  killed  near  Logan's  mill. 

July  8,  two  boys  taken  prisoners  at  Cross's  Fort,  Conococheague. 

July  27,  man  named  McKisson  wounded,  and  son  captured  at  South  Moun- 

August  17,  1757,  William  Manson  and  son  killed  at  Cross's  Fort,  Conoco- 

September  26,  1757,  Robert  Rush,  John  McCracken  killed,  and  five  others 
captured  near  Chambersburg. 

May  23,  1758,  Joseph  Galady  killed,  and  his  wife  and  child  captured  at 

November  9,  1757,  John  Woods,  his  wife  and  mother-in-law,  and  the  wife 
of  John  Archer,  were  killed,  four  children  taken  captives,  and  nine  men  killed 
near  McDowell's  mill. 

April  5,  1758,  one  man  killed  and  ten  taken  near  Black's  Gap,  South 

April  13,  1758,  one  killed  and  nine  taken  near  Archibald's,  South  Mountain. 

For  a  long  time  after  this  no  record  of  any  massacres  has  been  found;  but 
doubtless  many  were  committed,  and  many  outrages  perpetrated,  of  which 
nothing  is  known. 


We  are  indebted  to  Capt.  J.  H.  Walker,  a  descendant  of  James  Walker, 
for  the  following  well  authenticated  and  detailed  account  of  his  captivity  and 
escape  from  the  Indians. 

"About  the  middle  of  August,  1762,  James  Walker,  who  lived  on  the 
farm  where  John  D.  Walker  now  resides,  near  Fannettsburg,  was  on  his  way 
home  from  the  fort  at  Loudon,  and  when  near  Richmond,  on  the  old  Braddock 
road,  was  fired  at  by  a  party  of  Indians.  His  horse  was  killed  under  him, 
and  in  falling  the  horse  fell  on  him  in  such  a  way  that  before  he  could  extricate 
himself  the  Indians  captured  him.  They  then  took  the  saddle  off  his  horse, 
and  fastening  it  on  his  back  compelled  him  to  carry  it,  and  started  over  the 
mountain  westward.  The  first  night  they  stopped  near  Fort  Littleton,  and  to 
make  their  prisoner  secure,  they  tied  his  hands  and  an  Indian  slept  on  each 
side  of  him.  The  next  morning,  discovering  some  horses  grazing  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  the  fort,  they  made  several  attempts  to  capture  them,  but  without 
success.  After  repeated  failures  they  determined  that  their  prisoner  should 
make  a  trial  of  it,  and  lest  he  might  wander  off  too  far,  or  attempt  his  escape, 
they  made  a  rope  or  line  of  hickory  bark,  and  fastened  to  his  leg,  the  Indians 
holding  one  end  of  the  line,  but  the  horses  were  shy,  he  met  with  no  better 
success,  and  they  were  compelled  to  give  it  up,  being  fearful  that  they  might 
be  discovered  from  the  fort.  After  remaining  nearly  the  whole  day  and 
watching  the  operations  at  the  fort,  they  again  started  westward.  For  several 
days  they  traveled  by  easy  stages,  crossing  on  their  way  the  South  or  Kays- 
town  branch  of  the  Juniata  Eiver.  At  length,  as  they  seemed  to  approach  the 
Indian  settlement,  the  party  divided  one  evening,  and  left  their  prisoner  in 
charge  of  two  of  their  company  for  the  night.  Taking  the  precaution  to  tie 
him  safely  as  before,  they  lay  down,  one  on  each  side  of  him,  and  soon  were  in 
a  sound  sleep.  The  apparently  sound  sleep  of  their  prisoner,  however,  was 
not  real,  as  he  had  fully  determined  that  now,  if  ever,  was  his  opportunity  to 
try  to  make  his  escape.  He  had  a  knife  secreted  about  his  person,  which  for- 
tunately his  captors  had  failed  to  discover.  After  long  and  patient  effort,  he 
succeeded  in  getting  one  of  his  hands  loosed.  He  then  worked  his  knife  out 
of  its  hiding  place,  and  cut  the  cords  with  which  he  was  fastened.  During 
this  operation  one  of  the  Indians  started  as  if  about  to  rouse  up,  but  their 
prisoner  affected  such  soundness  of  sleep  that  his  suspicions  were  allayed,  and 
he  soon  went  to  sleep  again. 

' '  But  this  being  too  critical  a  position  in  which  to  remain  very  long,  Mr. 
Walker,  as  soon  as  he  thought  it  safe  to  do  so,  raised  cautiously  to  his  feet,  but 
in  doing  so  the  same  wily  savage  again  awoke,  and  this  time  realizing  the 
situation,  grasped  his  tomahawk,  and  was  about  to  spring  to  his  feet,  and 
while  in  the  act  of  doing  so  Mr.  Walker  seized  him  by  the  hair,  and  quick  as 
thought  plunged  his  knife  into  the  throat  of  his  antagonist,  who  fell  mortally 
wounded  at  his  feet.  The  other  Indian,  being  awakened  by  the  scuffle,  and 
the  death  knell  of  his  companion,  and  supposing  doubtless  that  they  had  been 
pursued  by  a  party  of  whites,  hastily  fled,  leaving  Mr.  Walker  master  of  the 
situation.  He  knew  too  well  the  importance  of  having  as  great  a  space 
between  himself  and  the  scene  of  his  encounter  as  practicable  before  daylight, 
and  made  all  possible  speed  in  the  homeward  direction.  When  daylight  came 
he  sought  a  secure  hiding  place,  and  remained  there  all  day.  His  journey 
eastward  was  attended  with  many  difficulties,  and  much  suffering,  as  he  trav- 
eled mostly  by  night  to  avoid  recapture,  and  the  country  being  a  dense  wilder- 
ness, he  frequently  became  bewildered,  and  sometimes  traveled  in  a  wrong 
direction.  Besides  subsisting  chiefly  on  roots,  berries,  etc.,  his  flesh  was  torn 
with  briars,  and  badly  bruised  when  crossing  the  mountains,   and  forcing  his 


way  through  the  thickets.  At  length,  after  many  weary  days  and  nights,  he 
found  his  way  back  to  the  fort  at  Littleton,  where  he  received  the  medical 
attention  that  his  situation  demanded.  He  was  greatly  weakened  by  the 
exposure  and  suffering,  and  the  condition  of  his  sores  was  so  horrible,  the 
worms  having  already  got  into  them,  that  he  was  compelled  to  remain  there 
for  some  time  before  he  could  be  removed  to  his  home." 

In  1764,  however,  on  July  26,  three  miles  northwest  of  Greencastle,  was 
perpetrated  what  Parkman,  the  great  historian  of  colonial  times,  pronounces 
"an  outrage  unmatched  in  fiend-like  atrocity  through  all  the  annals  of  the  war. " 
This  was  the  massacre  of  Enoch  Brown,  a  kind-hearted  exemplary  Christian 
schoolmaster,  and  ten  pupils — eight  boys  and  two  girls.  Ruth  Hart  and  Ruth 
Hale  were  the  names  of  the  girls.  Among  the  boys  were  Eben  Taylor,  George 
Dunstan  and  Archie  McCullough.  All  were  knocked  down  and  scalped  by  the 
merciless  savages.  Mourning  and  desolation  came  to  many  homes  in  the  val- 
ley, for  each  of  the  slaughtered  innocents  belonged  to  a  different  family.  The 
last  named  boy  indeed  survived  the  effects  of  the  scalping  knife,  but  in  a  some- 
what demented  condition. 

The  teacher  offered  his  life  and  scalp  in  a  spirit  of  self-sacrificing  devotion, 
if  the  savages  would  only  spare  the  lives  of  the  little  ones  under  his  charge 
and  care.  But  no !  the  tender  mercies  of  the  heathen  are  cruel,  and  so  a  per- 
fect holocaust  was  made  to  the  Moloch  of  war  by  the  relentless  fiends  in  hu- 
man form.  The  school -house  was  located  on  the  farm  now  owned  by  Mr. 
Henry  Diehl,  and  formerly  owned  by  Mr.  Christian  Koser.  It  stood  in  a 
cleared  field  at  the  head  of  a  deep  ravine,  surrounded  by  dense  forests.  Down 
this  ravine  the  savages  fled  a  mile  or  two  until  they  struck  Conococheague  Creek, 
along  the  bed  of  which,  to  conceal  their  tracks,  they  traveled  to  the  mouth  of 
Path  Valley  up  which  and  across  the  mountains  they  made  good  their  escape 
to  their  village  near  the  Ohio.  The  bodies  were  given,  at  the  time,  a  burial 
in  a  common  grave — a  rude  box  containing  the  forms  of  the  teacher  and  his  as- 
sociate victims. 

August  4,  1843,  or  seventy  nine  years  after  the  slaughter,  a  number  of  the 
principal  citizens  of  Greencastle  made  excavations  to  verify  the  traditional  ac- 
count of  the  place  and  manner  of  burial.  Some  remains  of  the  rough  coffin 
were  found  at  quite  a  depth  from  the  surface,  and  then  the  skull  and  other  re- 
mains of  a  grown  person,  alongside  of  which  were  remains  of  several  children. 
Metal  buttons,  part  of  a  tobacco  box,  teeth,  etc. ,  were  picked  up  as  relics  by 
those  present,  among  whom  were  some  of  our  citizens  still  living  with  us  in  a 
green  old  age,  viz. :  Dr.  Wm.  Grubb,*  Dr.  J.  K.  Davison,  George  W.  Ziegler, 
Esq. ,  and  Gen.  David  Detrich. 

The  question  of  erecting  a  monument  to  the  memory  of  these  unfortunates 
was  agitated  at  different  times,  but  never  reached  a  tangible  solution  till  1885, 
when,  as  the  result  of  a  very  spirited  canvass  of  schools,  Sunday-schools, 
churches,  and  private  individuals,  as  well  as  by  excursions  and  other  legitimate 
agencies,  about  $1,400  was  raised  for  the  purpose.  Twenty  acres  of  land  was 
purchased,  and  the  monument  was  finally  unveiled  August  4,  1885,  in  the  pres- 
ence of  5,000  people. 

The  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  Col.  B.  F.  Winger,  chief  marshal. 
Mounting  the  base  of  the  monument  the  Rev.  Cort  made  a  few  preliminary  re- 
marks, and  then  four  little  girls  and  nine  boys  pulled  the  cords,  the  mantle  of 
red,  white  and  blue  fell,  and  the  monument  stood  forth  a  thing  of  beauty  and 
strength,  the  delight  of  all  beholders.  It  is  indeed  a  massive  affair.  On  the 
top  of  four  feet  of  solid  masonry  underneath  the  ground  are  nearly  four  feet  of 

*  Since  deceased. 


dressed  limestone  of  immense  proportions  from  Hawbecker's  Williamson 
quarry.  On  the  top  of  this  limestone  foundation,  which  is  five  feet  square,  is 
placed  the  granite  base  of  the  monument,  four  feet  square  and  seventeen  inch- 
es high,  and  weighing  4,600  pounds.  Next  comes  the  polished  die  or  sub- 
base,  three  feet  square  and  two  feet  high,  on  the  four  sides  of  which  are  en- 
graved the  inscriptions.  On  the  top  of  this  stands  the  shaft  of  the  monument, 
two  feet  square  at  the  base,  ten  feet  high  and  tapering  gracefully  to  a  pyrami- 
dal apex.  The  shaft  weighs  4, 100  pounds.  Inclosing  the  monument  is  a 
very  substantial  iron  fence,  fifteen  feet  square.  The  following  are  the  in- 
scriptions : 

On  the  east  side: 

Sacred  to  the  Memory  of  School-master  Enoch 
Brown  and  Eleven  Scholars,  viz.  :  Ruth  Hart,  Ruth 
Hale,  Eben  Taylor,  George  Dunstan,  Archie  Mc- 
Cullough,  and  Six  Others  (Names  Unknown),  who 
were  Massacred  and  Scalped  by  Indians  on  this 
Spot,  July  26,  1764,  During  the  Pontiac  War. 

On  the  north  side: 

Erected  by  Direction  of  the  Franklin  County 
Centennial  Convention  of  April  22,  1884,  in  the 
Name  of  the  Teachers  and  Scholars  of  All  the 
Schools  in  the  County,  Including  Common  Schools, 
Select  Schools  and  Sunday  Schools.  For  a  Full 
List  of  Contributors  see  Abchives  of  Franklin 
County  Historical  Society  or  Recorder's  Office. 

West  side  inscription,  next  to  grave: 

The  Remains  of  Enoch  Brown  and  Ten  Scholars 
(Archie  McCullough  Survived  the  Scalping)  Lie 
Buried  in  a  Common  Grave,  South  62£  Degrees, 
West  14|  Rods  from  this  Monument.  They  Fell 
as  Pioneer  Martyrs  in  the  Cause  of  Education 
and  Christian  Civilization. 

On  the  south  side: 

The  ground  is  holy  where  they  fell. 

And  where  their  mingled  ashes  lie, 
Ye  Christian  people,  mark  it  well 

With  granite  columns  strong  and  high; 
And  cherish  well  forevermore 

The  storied  wealth  of  early  years, 
The  sacred  legacies  of  yore, 

The  toils  and  trials  of  pioneers. 

The  small  monument  was  unveiled  at  the  grave  by  Rev.  Cort  after  a  few 
preliminary  remarks.  It  is  a  very  chaste  and  pretty  structure,  composed,  like 
the  larger  monument,  of  Concord  granite.  It  is  about  seven  feet  high  and 
two  feet  square  at  the  base.  On  the  side  facing  the  grave  is  this  inscription: 
"  The  grave  of  Schoolmaster  Enoch  Brown  and  Ten  Scholars,  massacred  by 
the  Indians  July  26,  1764."  Around  it  is  also  a  solid  iron  fence  ten  feet  square. 

George  W.  Ziegler,  Esq.,  was  chosen  president  for  the  day,  and  made  a 
short  address,  heartily  approving  the  cause  which  had  brought  the  people  to- 
gether and  commending  the  monument  committee  for  its  faithful  and  energet- 
ic labors.  Rev.  J.  D.  Hunter  then  offered  a  very  appropriate  prayer.  The 
Reformed  Church  choir,  under  the  lead  of  Prof.  Collins,  assisted  by  a  few  am- 
ateurs, sang  "  America, "  "  My  Country,  'tis  of  Thee, "  and  afterward  "  The 
Infant  Martyrs,"  a  hymn  composed  by  Dr.  Henry  Harbaugh  on  the  martyred 
babes  of  Bethlehem,  who  were  slain  by  King  Herod.  The  organization  was 
completed  by  the  election  of  the  vice-presidents  and  secretaries,  viz. : 


Vice-presidents :  Rev.  J.  Spangler  Kief er,  Hagerstown,  Md. ;  Gen.  David 
Detrich,  Dr.  James  K.  Davidson,  Capt.  Jacob  Diehl,  Antrim;  Jacob  Hoke, 
Judge  Kimmel,  Rev.  Herbert,  Chambersburg ;  Jacob  B.  Brumbaugh.,  Peters; 
Simon  Lecron,  D.  C.  Shank,  George  J.  Balsley,  D.  O.  Nicodemus,  Washing- 
ton; Joseph  Winger,  Montgomery;  Dr.  Frick,  Quincy;  Rev.  Knappenberger, 
John  Hoch,  Mercersburg;  Rev.  Banner,  Waynesboro;  Rev.  Riddle,  Fairfax, 
Va. ;  Andrew  K.  Kissecker,  Tiffin,  Ohio.  Secretaries:  W.  G.  Davison,  W. 
C.  Kreps,  Greencastle;  Bruce  Laudebaugh,  G.  W.  Atherton,  Mercersburg; 
William  A.  Ried,  Antrim;  A.  N.  Pomeroy,  Chambersburg. 

Rev.  Cyrus  Cort,  chairman  of  the  monument  committee,  then  made  the 
presentation  speech,  which  was  well  received. 

After  a  sumptuous  dinner,  Rev.  J.  W.  Knappenberger,  of  Mercersburg,  of- 
fered a  short  but  appropriate  prayer.  Peter  A.  Witmer,  of  Hagerstown,  Md., 
made  an  address  heartily  approving  the  work.  He  was  followed  by  Rev.  F.  M. 
Woods,  of  Martinsburg,  W.  Va.  John  M.  Cooper,  of  Harrisburg,  read  a  very 
fine  poem  appropriate  to  the  occasion.  Dr.  W.  H.  Egle,  of  Harrisburg,  de- 
livered the  historical  address  of  the  occasion  on  "  Pontiac  and  Bouquet. "  He 
complimented,  in  eloquent  terms,  Rev.  Cyrus  Cort*  for  the  intense  zeal  he  had 
manifested  in  the  erection  of  this,  the  people' s  monument — a  tribute  to  the  ed- 
ucational martyrs  of  the  county.  The  benediction  was  pronounced  by  Rev. 
John  R.  Agnew. 

One  of  the  last  massacres  committed  by  the  Indians  in  Franklin  County, 
probably  about  the  time  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  was  that  of  the  Renfrew 
sisters  (Sarah  and  Jane),  on  what  is  now  the  farm  of  A.  J.  Fahnestock,  near 
Waynesboro.  The  girls,  it  is  said,  were  washing  clothes  on  the  bank  of  the 
Little  Antietam,  when  two  Indians  came  upon  them,  and  having  stricken  them 
down  and  taken  their  scalps,  went  to  the  little  cabin  standing  on  the  hill  and 
killed  an  infant,  dashing  its  brains  out  against  a  tree.  They  then  betook 
themselves  in  flight  to  the  mountains,  westward,  but  were  pursued  by  two  ex- 
perienced hunters  living  in  the  neighborhood.  The  savages  were  finally  over- 
taken in  an  open  forest,  in  the  Big  Cove,  engaged  in  eating  wild  plums.  Ac- 
cording to  previous  plans,  the  wary  hunters  approached  sufficiently  close  to  see 
the  seeds  of  the  plums  drop,  one  by  one.  Raising  their  trusty  guns,  they 
fired,  each  bringing  his  victim  to  the  ground.  Scalping  the  savages  and  re- 
covering the  scalps  of  the  girls,  they  hastily  retraced  their  steps  and  reached 
the  Renfrew  home  in  time  to  deposit  all  four  scalps  by  the  coffin  ready  to  be 
buried.  The  dust  of  the  Renfrews  now  rests  in  an  humble  grave  in  what  is 
known  as  the  Burns  grave-yard,  on  the  Fahnestock  place,  and  is  marked  by  a 
simple  slab  of  rough  sandstone. 

In  1765  a  difficulty  occurred  between  the  military  authorities  at  Fort 
Loudoun,  under  command  of  Lieut.  Charles  Grant,  and  certain  citizens  in 
Peters  Township,  under  the  leadership  of  James  Smith.  The  whole  affair 
grew  out  of  the  fact  that  certain  Indian  traders  from  Philadelphia  were  in  the 
habit  of  smuggling  lead,  tomahawks,  scalping  knives,  etc. ,  through  the  lines 
and  disposing  of  the  same  to  the  ruthless  savages.  With  a  band  of  men, 
blacked  and  painted,  Smith,  highly  incensed  at  these  damnable  acts,  ambushed 
and  waylaid  a  company  of  traders,  killing  their  ponies,  capturing  certain  sup- 
plies and  burning  others.  The  traders  repaired  to  the  fort,  and  secured  the 
services  of  a  squad  of  Highland  soldiers,  under  command  of  Sergt.  Leonard 
McGlashan,  to  arrest  the  robbers,  as  the  citizens  were  called.  A  number  of  in- 
nocent men  were  apprehended  and  thrown  into  the  guard-house  at  the  fort. 

♦The  writer  is  indebted  for  tbe  facts  contained  in  this  account  of  the  Enoch  Brown  massacre  to  Rev.  Cort's 
excellent  little  volume,  "  Enoch  Brown  Memorial." 


Smith  raised  300  riflemen  and  marched  to  the  fort,  encamping  on  a  high  hill  in 
sight  of  the  works.  "We  were  not  long  there,"  says  Smith,  "  until  we  had 
more  than  double  as  many  of  the  British  troops  prisoners  in  our  camp,  as  they 
had  of  our  people  in  the  guard-house.  Capt.  Grant,  a  Highland  officer 
who  then  commanded  Fort  Loudoun,  then  sent  a  flag  of  truce  to  our  camp, 
where  we  settled  a  cartel  and  gave  them  above  two  for  one,  which  enabled  us 
to  redeem  all  our  men  from  the  guard-house  without  further  difficulty. ' ' 

Grant  retained  a  number  of  rifle  guns  which  his  men  had  taken  from  the 
citizens,  refusing  to  deliver  them  until  he  had  explicit  orders  from  his  superior, 
Gen.  Gage.  "As  he  was  riding  out  one  day, ' '  continues  Smith,  ' ' we  took 
him  prisoner,  and  detained  him  until  he  delivered  up  the  arms;  we  also  de- 
stroyed a  large  quantity  of  gunpowder  that  the  traders  had  stored  up,  lest  it 
might  be  conveyed  privately  to  the  Indians.  The  king' s  troops  and  our  party 
had  now  got  entirely  out  of  the  channel  of  the  civil  law,  and  many  unjustifiable 
things  were  done  by  both  parties.  This  convinced  me,  more  than  ever  I  had 
been  before,  of  the  absolute  necessity  of  the  civil  law  in  order  to  govern  man- 
kind. " 

This  conflict  between  the  civil  and  military  authorities,  the  outgrowth  of 
Indian  difficulties,  involved  the  magistrates  of  the  township,  the  governor  of 
the  State  and  the  commander-in-chief  of  the  British  forces  in  America.  It  was 
finally  settled,  but  not  without  much  difficulty  and  ill-feeling. 



Its  Causes— Loyalty  to  the  Mother  Country— Early  Military— Ros- 
teu  and  Roll  of  Franklin  Men— From  Colonies  to  States— Heuoes 
from  Franklin  County— One  of  the  First  American  Cannons,  etc. 

THE  colonists  had  hardly  recovered  from  the  cruelties  and  sufferings  of 
the  French  and  Indian  war  and  the  ensuing  raids  of  the  savages  upon 
the  scattered  and  defenseless  settlers,  when  dark  clouds  began  to  gather  in 
the  distance,  that  were  portentous  of  a  coming  storm  of  seven  long  years  of 
cruel  and  bitter  war  between  the  feeble  colonies  and  the  mother  country. 

The  century  and  a  half  preceding  the  breaking  out  of  the  Revolutionary 
war  had  been  a  long  and  severe  school  for  the  colonists  and  their  ancestors  to 
prepare  them  for  the  coming  ordeal.  Most  of  the  immigrants  were  fugitives 
from  cruel  religious  persecutions,  and  outlaws  from  their  native  lands.  Those 
who  escaped  death  emerged  from  dismal  dungeons  to  skulk  in  caves  and  out- 
of-the-way  places,  and  to  hide,  by  strange  disguises,  from  the  inappeasable 
wrath  of  man,  guilty  of  no  crime  save  that  of  a  determination  to  be  free  "to 
think,  act  and  serve  their  Divine  Master  in  accordance  with  the  dictates  of 
their  own  consciences.  This  was  a  trying  school  in  which  to  rear  a  people — - 
it  was  the  ordeal  of  fire,  the  baptism  of  blood;  but  it  tended  to  mold  charac- 
ters of  iron,  to  instill  heroic  blood,  to  plant  the  seed  of  liberty  in  the  hearts  of 
the  people  thus  relentlessly  pursued,  and  raise  up  heroes  who  feared  nothing 
but  their  God.  These  poor,  suffering  victims  had  heard  of  the  New  World; 
and,  in  the  dark  perspective,  it  was  to  them  the  guiding  star  of  promise,  bid- 
ding them  come. 


They  gladly  fled  from  their  native  country  and  landed  upon  the  shores 
of  this  continent — the  land  of  the  ignorant  and  treacherous  savages.  They 
were  in  the  direst  extremities  of  poverty,  but  rich  in  hope  and  deeply  imbued 
with  the  first  lessons  in  the  love  of  freedom.  Their  awful  persecutions, 
instead  of  driving  them  away  from  their  religion  and  its  practices,  only  made 
them  the  more  determined  in  their  convictions  and  more  fearless  in  proclaiming 
their  faith. 

Nothing  that  has  occurred  in  this  world  has  had  so  powerful  an  influence  upon 
mankind  as  the  war  for  independence.  All  men  realize  that  it  made  this  a  great, 
free  and  independent  people.  But  this  was  only  a  part  of  what  that  righteous 
war  effected.  It  gave  liberty  to  mankind.  It  was  the  turning  point  in  man' s 
destiny  upon  earth.  It  was  the  enduring  and  ever-growing  triumph  in  the 
struggle  between  right  and  wrong.  It  lifted  up  the  human  race,  and,  as  an 
instance  of  how  strong  and  wide -reaching  its  effects  were,  it  need  only  be 
noticed  that  its  good  results  were,  and  have  been,  as  strong  in  Great  Britain 
as  they  have  been  anywhere  else,  and  the  blessings  of  freedom  she  so  strove  to 
crush  have  penetrated  her  entire  realms,  and,  like  the  gentle  dews  from  heaven, 
have  blessed  all  alike.  Since  the  earliest  traditions  the  earth  has  been  chiefly 
the  theater  of  bloody  wars — wars  of  tribes ;  wars  of  nations ;  civil  wars ;  wars 
for  pelf,  for  power,  for  the  ambition  of  rulers,  and  religious  wars  and  crusades 
for  sentiment.  What  a  stream  of  blood  it  was!  What  a  world  of  wo  this 
raging  stream  bore  upon  its  bosom !  Rulers,  besotted  and  beastly,  made  war ; 
men  were  simply  food-powder-victims  driven  to  the  bloody  shambles;  until  the 
American  Revolution,  no  war  had.  been  successfully  waged  for  the  rights  of 
the  people — for  liberty  of  the  souls  and  bodies  of  men. 

In  1765  the  people  of  Pennsylvania  began  to  enter  their  first  protest 
against  the  oppressive  action  of  the  mother  country.  At  first  these  could  not 
be  called  mutterings — they  were  merely  the  mild  expressions  of  a  loyal  people 
against  the  manifold  acts  of  injustice,  with  no  thought  of  any  one  going  fur- 
ther than  words  of  the  most  respectful  and  loyal  dissent.  Their  words  fell  up- 
on dull  ears;  they  were  not  heeded,  and,  even  if  noticed  at  all,  they  were  only 
answered  with  silent  contempt.  In  the  course  of  time  a  public  sympathy 
sprang  up  for  the  people  of  Boston.  The  outrages  grew  in  numbers  and  severity, 
and  in  the  course  of  the  next  decade  men  became  alarmed,  and  then  public  ex- 
pression and  public  action  began  to  take  place. 

July  12,  1774,  the  people  of  Cumberland  County  met  at  Carlisle.  John 
Montgomery  presided  over  the  meeting.  The  state  of  the  country  was  briefly, 
very  briefly,  it  seems,  discussed,  and  steps  were  promptly  taken  that  showed  the 
temper  of  the  men  of  those  times.  They  unanimously  passed  resolutions  con- 
demning Parliament  for  closing  the  port  of  Boston;  recommending  a  General 
Congress  of  the  colonies;  the  abandonment  of  the  use  of  British  merchandise, 
and  finally  for  the  appointing  of  deputies  to  concert  measures  for  the  meeting 
of  the  General  Congress.  As  emphatic  as  were  the  people  of  this  meeting, 
there  was  no  sentiment  of  revolt  or  war  upon  the  mother  country.  Even  af- 
ter the  war  had  actually  commenced  and  the  battle  of  Lexington  had  been  fought, 
the  loyalty  of  the  people  to  their  government  is  manifested  by  the  action  of 
the  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania,  in  November,  1775,  appointing  delegates  to 
represent  the  province  in  Congress,  and  expressly  instructing  them  ' '  that  they, 
in  behalf  of  this  colony,  dissent  from,  and  utterly  reject  any  proposition,  should 
such  be  made,  that  may  cause  or  lead  to  a  separation  from  our  mother  country, 
or  a  change  of  the  form  of  this  government."  This  was  in  November,  but  the 
battle  of  Lexington  occurred  in  the  preceding  April. 

In  Vol.  II,  page  516,  "  American  Archives"  of  date  May  6,  1775,  seventeen 




•days  after  the  battle  of  Lexington,  occurs  the  following:  "Yesterday  the 
county  committee  of  Cumberland  County,  from  nineteen  townships,  met  on  the 
short  notice  they  had.  About  3,000  have  already  associated.  The  arms  re- 
turned are  about  1,500.  The  committee  have  voted  500  men,  besides  com- 
missioned officers,  to  be  taken  into  pay,  armed  and  disciplined,  to  march  on  the 
first  emergency ;  to  be  paid  and  supported  as  long  as  necessary,  by  a  tax  on  all 
estates  real  and  personal. "  The  next  day  they  again  met  and  unanimously 
voted  they  "were  ready  to  raise  1,500  or  2,000  men,"  should  they  be  needed, 
and  also  were  ready  and  willing  to  put  a  debt  of  £27,000  per  annum  on  the 
county.  A  number  of  companies  from  Cumberland  County  were  soon  ready, 
and  marched  to  join  Washington's  army  at  the  siege  of  Boston.  One  of  these 
companies,  it  is  known,  was  from  what  is  now  Franklin  County.  This  was 
Capt.  James  Chambers'  company.  He  was  soon  promoted  colonel,  and  after- 
ward became  a  brigadier-general;  he  and  his  company  continued  in  the  service 
during  nearly  all  the  seven  years'  war.  Gen.  James  Chambers  was  the  eldest 
son  of  Col.  Benjamin  Chambers,  the  founder  of  Chambersburg.  His  company 
joined  Pennsylvania's  first  rifle  regiment,  under  Col.  William  Thompson,  of 
Cumberland  County.  This  was  the  first  regiment  south  of  the  Hudson  that 
marched  to  the  relief  of  Boston,  and  the  historian  says  ' '  their  arrival  attracted 
much  attention;  they  were  stout  and  hardy  yeomanry,  the  flower  of  Pennsyl- 
vania's frontiersmen  and  remarkable  for  the  accuracy  of  their  aim11 — an  im- 
portant desideratum  at  that  time.  This  regiment  had  been  enlisted  under  the 
resolution  of,  Congress,  July  14,  1775,  authorizing  the  raising  of  six  companies 
of  expert  riflemen  in  Pennsylvania,  ten  in  Maryland,  and  two  in  Virginia. 
Each  company  was  to  contain  68  privates,  1  captain,  3  lieutenants,  4  sergeants, 
1  corporal  and  1  drummer.  They  rendezvoused  at  Reading,  where  the  regi- 
ment was  organized  by  the  election  of  William  Thompson,  of  Carlisle,  colonel; 
Edward  Hand,  of  Lancaster,  lieutenant-colonel;  and  Robert  Magaw,  of  Car- 
lisle, major. 


Captain — James  Chambers. 

First  lieutenant — James  Grier. 

Second  lieutenant — Nathan  McConnell. 

Third  lieutenant — Thomas  Buchanan. 

Sergeants — David  Hay,  Arthur  Andrews,  Alex.  Crawford. 

David  Boyd. 
John  Brandon. 
Johnson  Brooks. 
James  Black. 
Thomas  Beatty. 
David  Biddle. 
Michael  Benker. 
Archibald  Brown. 
Black  Brown. 
John  Brown. 
William  Barnett. 
Timothy  Campbell. 
William  Campbell. 
Benjamin  Carson. 
William  Chestney. 
John  Dermont. 
Joseph  Eaton. 
Joljn  Everly. 
Abijah  Fairchild. 
James  Furmoil. 
John  Fidd. 
William  Gildersleeve. 


Richard  Henny. 
Peter  Hogan. 
Geo.  Houseman. 
John  Hutchinson. 
Thomas  Hutchinson. 
Charles  Irwin. 
Francis  Jamieson. 
Robert  Joblier. 
Andrew  Johnston. 
George  Justice. 
Andrew  Keith. 
Lewis  Kettling. 
Michael  Kelly. 
Thomas  Kelly. 
Silas  Leonard. 
David  Lukens. 
Thomas  Lochry. 
Patrick  Logan. 
Nicholas  Lowrie. 
John  Lynch. 
John  McCosh. 
James  McEleve. 

John  McDonald. 
Michael  McGibson. 
Cornelius  McGiggin. 
James  McHaffey. 
John  McMurtrie. 
Patrick  McGaw. 
Thomas  Mason. 
Patrick  Neale. 
William  Parker. 
David  Riddle, 
Thomas  Rogers. 
Nicholas  Sawyer. 
Joseph  Scott. 
Jacob  Shute. 
Moses  Skinner. 
Timothy  Styles. 
Patrick  Sullivan. 
James  Sweeny. 
James  Symns. 
Thomas  Vaughn. 


This  was  not  only  the  first  company  of  infantry  that  went  to  the  war  from 
what  is  now  Franklin,  but  it  was  the  first  from  this  valley.  The  account  of 
the  patriotic  Chambers  family,  in  the  Indian  wars  and  in  the  war  of  the  Revo- 
lutidn,  is  very  nearly  as  complete  an  account  of  the  doings  of  the  people  of  the 
county  as  can  now  be  learned.  Col.  Benjamin  Chambers  had  been  the  most 
conspicuous  figure  in  southern  Pennsylvania  in  the  first  Indian  wars  and  raids 
in  the  valley.  When  the  war  for  independence  broke  out,  he  was  then 
too  old  to  go  to  the  battle-field,  but  his  three  sons,  all  of  whom  became  emi- 
nent in  the  ranks  of  the  colonial  armies,  were  the  first  to  heed  the  call  of  duty 
and  rally  the  people  around  the  flag  of  liberty.  These  were  James,  Will- 
iams and  Benjamin.  James,  as  related  above,  by  rapid  promotion  for  gallantry, 
was  soon  made  brigadier-general.  Williams  and  Benjamin  were  each  pro- 
moted to  captain,  and  all  served  during  nearly  the  entire  war. 

A  full  account  of  the  Chambers  family  may  be  found  in  the  biography 
given  elsewhere,  but  a  brief  resume  is  here  given  of  the  services  in  the  field  of 
Gen.  Chambers,  as  it  is,  in  a  large  measure,  now  the  best  account  we  can 
obtain  of  the  part  taken  by  the  people  in  the  war. 

August  26,  1775,  400  men  drawn  from  Cumberland  County  companies  were 
placed  under  the  command  of  Capt.  James  Chambers,  and  sent  to  Prospect  and 
Ploughed  Hill,  near  Boston,  to  protect  a  force  of  nearly  2,000  men,  who  were 
erecting  a  redoubt  near  the  latter  hill.  Here  they  performed  some  hard  and 
efficient  service.  In  March,  1776,  he  was  promoted  lieutenant-colonel  vice 
Col.  Hand,  appointed  colonel  in  the  place  of  Col.  Thompson,  who  had  been 
made  a  brigadier-general.  Col.  Chambers  was  ordered  to  Long  Island,  was 
in  the  battle  of  Flat  Bush  August.  22,  1776,  and  also  in  the  fight  at  King' s 
Bridge.  In  his  report  of  the  operations  at  Flat  Bush,  among  other  things,  he 
says:  "Capt.  John  Steele  acted  with  great  bravery. "  In  August,  1776,  the 
Pennsylvania  troops  were  selected  as  a  reserve  to  cover  the  retreat  of  our  army 
from  Long  Island.  That  body  was  composed  mostly  of  troops  from  Cumberland 
and  what  is  now  Franklin  County.  September  26,  1776,  Lieut.  Col.  Chambers 
was  made  colonel  of  his  regiment,  Col.  Hand  having  been  promoted.  In  June, 
1777,  his  command  was  in  New  Jersey,  and  was  among  the  first  to  enter  New 
Brunswick,  driving  the  enemy  before  it.  September  11,  1777,  his  command 
was  opposed  to  the  Hessians,  under  Gen,  Knyphausen,  at  Chadd's  ford 
and  Brandywine,  where  Col.  Chambers  was  wounded  in  the  side,  Lieut.  Holli- 
day  was  killed,  and  Capts.  Grier  and  Craig  were  wounded.  With  his  command 
he  was  also  in  the  battle  of  Germantown  October  4,  1777,  and  in  the  fight  at 
Monmouth  June  28,  1778.  He  led  the  attack  of  Bergen  Point  July  20,  1780, 
and  the  command  was  highly  complimented  by  Gen.  Wayne,  for  gallantry  in 
this  charge.  He,  with  his  command,  was  at  White  Plains,  West  Point,  and  in 
many  other  minor  battles  up  to  the  time  of  his  resignation  in  1781.  After  his 
retirement  he  was  three  different  times  appointed  to  the  command  of  a  battalion 
in  his  native  county.  In  1794  he  was  appointed  to  command  the  Third  Brig- 
ade of  Pennsylvania  troops,  called  out  to  quell  the  whisky  insurrection.  In 
1798  he  was  again  appointed  to  a  similar  command  in  anticipation  of  a  war 
with  France. 

The  substance  of  an  article  from  the  pen  of  Hon.  John  B.  Linn,  deputy 
secretary  of  the  commonwealth,  that  appeared  in  the  Philadelphia  Weekly 
Times  of  April  14,  1878,  is  given  below,  confined  as  much  as  possible  to 
those  parts  that  refer  to  this  action  of  the  Franklin  County  men:  "The  His- 
torical Society  of  Pennsylvania  has  in  its  temporary  possession  a  very  inter- 
esting relic  of  the  revolution.  It  is  the  standard  of  the  First  Pennsylvania 
Rifle  Battalion.      *     *     *     This  regiment  was  raised  on  the  reception  of  the 


news  of  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill,  and  entered  the  trenches  in  front  of  Boston, 
August  8,  1775.  It  was  in  the  skirmishes  in  front  of  Boston,  and  before 
the  British  evacuated  that  city  it  was  ordered  to  New  York  to  repel  their  land- 
ing  there.  *  *  *  The  term  of  the  battalion  expired  June  30,  1776,  but 
officers  and  men  in  large  numbers  re-enlisted  for  three  years,  or  during  the 
war.  *  *  *  It  was  at  Long  Island,  White  Plains,  Trenton  and  Princeton 
under  command  of  Col.  Hand,  and  under  the  command  of  Col.  Chambers,  at 
Brandywine,  Germantown,  Monmouth,  and  in  every  other  battle  and  skirmish 
of  the  main  army  until  Col.  Chambers'  resignation  in  1781. 

Col.  Chambers  was  succeeded  by  Col.  Daniel  Broadhead,  May  26,  1781.  The 
regiment,  after  this  long  service  under  Gen.  Wayne,  joined  Gen.  Lafayette  at 
Raccoon  Ford  on  the  Rappahannock,  June  10;  fought  at  Green  Springs,  July 
6;  opened  the  second  parallel  at  Yorktown.  Gen.  Steuben,  in  his  orders  dated 
October  21,  says  of  this  movement  that  he  considered  it  the  most  important 
part  of  the  siege.  The  regiment  then  went  south  with  Gen.  Wayne  and  fought 
in  the  last  battle  of  the  war  at  Sharon,  Ga.,  May  24,  1782;  entered  Savannah  in 
triumph  July  11,  and  Charleston  December  14,  1782;  went  into  camp  on  James 
Island,  S.  C,  May  11,  1783,  and  when  the  news  of  the  cessation  of  hostilities 
reached  there,  they  embarked  for  Philadelphia.  In  its  services  it  traversed 
every  one  of  the  original  thirteen  States  of  the  Union;  for  while  in  Boston 
Capt.  Parr  was  ordered  with  a  battalion  to  Portsmouth,  N.  H. ,  to  defend  that 
point."  In  December,  1775,  the  Second  Pennsylvania  Regiment  was  formed. 
It  was  at  first  under  the  command  of  Col.  John  Bull,  afterward  under  Col. 
John  Philip  De  Haas. 

Under  a  call  from  Congress  for  four  more  battalions,  in  January,  1776, 
Col.  Irvine's  Sixth  Regiment  was  formed.  It  was  composed  of  eight  com- 
panies; and  of  these,  three  companies  were  mostly  from  Franklin  County 
territory,  to- wit:  Company  3,  Capt.  Abraham  Smith.  There  is  some  dispute 
as  to  whether  Capt.  Smith's  company  was  from  what  is  now  Cumberland 
County,  or  from  this  county.  The  truth  probably  is,  it  was  made  up  of  men 
from  both  of  them.  The  others  were  Company  4,  Capt.  William  Rippey,  and 
Company  8,  Capt.  Jeremiah  Talbott. 

It  is  now  believed  that  Capt.  Smith  was  from  Lurgan  Township,  just  north 
of  the  Franklin  County  line.  There  evidently  were  two  Capt.  Abraham  Smiths 
from  this  and  Cumberland  County.  One  was  a  civilian;  but  which  was 
which,  the  confusion  in  the  records  does  not  always  make  plain.  One  was  of 
Lurgan  and  the  other  of  Antrim  Township.      This  fact  is  now  evident. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  the  officers  and  men: 


Captain — Abraham  Smith,  commissioned  January  9,  1776. 

First  lieutenant — Robert  White. 

Second  lieutenants — John  Alexander,  Andrew  Irvine. 

Ensigns — Samuel  Montgomery,  Samuel  Kennedy. 

Sergeants— John  Beatty,  Samuel  Hamilton,  Hugh  Foster,  William  Scott,  William 

Corporals— William  Burke,  George  Standley,  John  Moore,  William  Campbell.  Seth 
Richey,  William  McCormick,  William  Drennon;  William  Cochran,  fifer;  John  Fannon,. 


David  Armor.  Josiah  Cochran.  William  Downey. 

John  Brown.  Robert  Craighead.  Hugh  Drennon. 

Patrick  Brown.  Anthony  Creevy.  Daniel  Divinney. 

John  Blakeley.  William  Cochran.  Pat.  Fleming. 

John  Brannon.  James  Dunlap.  William  Gwin. 

Philip  Boyle.  Thomas  Drennon.  Alex.  Gordon, 



Robt.  Gregg. 
Thomas  Higgins. 
James  Holhday. 
Thomas  Holmes. 
John  Hendricks. 
Benj.  Ishmail. 
Robert  Jarrett. 
Thomas  Johnson. 
Samuel  Love. 
Geo.  Lucas. 
Nicholas  Little. 
James  Lowrey. 
Daniel  McKusick. 
John  McCollam. 
William  McCormick. 
Michael  McGarea. 
Bryan  McLaughlin. 
John  McFetridge. 

Michael  McMullin. 
James  McKissock. 
Adam  McBreas. 
John  McDowell. 
Samuel  McBrea. 
Robert  Mcllno. 
Alex.  McKenny. 
John  McKingham. 
John  Montgomery. 
Alex.  Moore. 
Robert  Miller. 
Hugh  Milligan. 
Moses  Powell. 
Nathan  Points. 
John  Rannell. 
Seth  Richey. 
Patrick  Rogers. 
John  Rannell,  Jr. 

Peter  Runey. 
Alex.  Reid. 
Borthal  Roharty. 
Thomas  Smith. 
Patrick  Silvers. 
Thomas  Scott. 
George  Simpson. 
Robert  Swinie. 
John  Stoops. 
Ad.  Sheaver. 
William  Stitt. 
Peter  Sheran. 
Charles  Tipper. 
John  Todd. 
Mich.  White. 
James  White. 
John  Wilson. 
John  Young. 


Captain— William  Rippey. 

First  lieutenants — William  Alexander,  Alexander  Parker. 
Second  lieutenant — John  Brooks. 
Ensign — William  Lusk. 

Sergeants — John  Hughes,  Robert  Watt,  John  McClelland,  William  Anderson. 
Corporals — William  Gibbs,   Jeremiah  McKibben,   James  McCulloh,  George  Gordon, 
Nath  Stevenson;  William  Richards,  fifer;  Daniel  Peterson,  drummer. 

Jacob  Anderson. 
Robert  Barckley. 
Bernerd  Burns- 
Robert  Caskey. 
Henry  Cartright. 
Robert  Cortney. 
Jacob  Christyardinger. 
Benjamin  Cochran. 
Hugh  Call. 
John  Collins. 
William  Dougherty. 
John  Davison. 
Joseph  Devine. 
Anthony  Dawson. 
Thomas  Dycke. 
James  Fiherty. 
Hugh  Forsyth. 
Hugh  Ferguson. 
Thomas  Falls. 
William  George. 
Henry  Girden. 
Thomas  Gell. 
Jacob  Glouse. 
Nathan  Hemphill. 
Robert  Haslet. 
John  Hendry. 
William  Henderson. 
James  Hervey. 


Cumberland  Hamilton. 
Neal  Hardon. 
George  Hewitt. 
Robert  Irvine. 
Jacob  Justice. 
John  Johnston. 
Christopher  Kechler. 
Francis  Kain. 
John  Kelly. 
William  Lowry. 
Daniel  Lavery. 
David  Linsey. 
James  Lynch. 
John  Madden. 
Josiah  McCall. 
John  McMicheal. 
James  McComb. 
William  Mclntyre. 
John  Moore. 
James  Mullin. 
Thomas  McCall. 
Philip  Melon. 
Alexander  McNichols. 
James  McCoy. 
James  McCon. 
David  McClain. 
John  McDonell. 
Daniel  McClain. 

John  McGaw. 
Charles  Malone. 
George  McFerson. 
William  Nicholson. 
John  Ortman. 
John  O'Neal. 
Thomas  Pratt. 
Thomas  Parsons. 
Aaron  Patterson. 
Charles  Rasbrough. 
John  Rasbrough. 
John  Rogers. 
Thomas  Reed. 
Robert  Robeson. 
Basil  Regan. 
John  Stoner. 
Henry  Scott. 
Alexander  Stephenson. 
Nathan  Stephenson. 
James  Smiley. 
William  Thompson. 
John  Tribele. 
'  Jacob  Trash. 
John  Van  Kirk. 
William  Winn. 
John  Wright. 
Peter  Young. 


Captain — Jeremiah  Talbott. 
First  lieutenant — John  McDonald. 
Second  lieutenant — Alexander  Brown. 
Ensign — William  Graham. 

Sergeants — John  McCollam,  John  Wilson,  James  Cupples,  Samuel  Mitchell. 
Corporals — William  Campbell,  Robert  Hunter,  John  Chain,  John  Reniston  and  John 
Milton,  drummer;  John  Killin,  fifer. 



Robert  Asten. 
John  Bradley. 
William  Black. 
John  Church. 
George  Coghren. 
Francis  Clark. 
Robert  Carnahan. 
Charles  Conna. 
John  Campbell. 
Joseph  Chambers. 
John  Dinning. 
William  Evans. 
John  Faulkner. 
Hugh  Fairess. 
James  Gardner. 
Daniel  Gibson. 
William  Heaslett. 
John  Heatherington. 


Duke  Handlon. 
John  Higgens. 
Kern  Kelley. 
Stephen  Lyon. 
Jacob  Lewis. 
Hugh  Lilley 
John  Marten. 
Robert  Mollon. 
Benj.  Morrison. 
James  McFarlan. 
Charles  McRoun. 
Archibald  McDonald. 
Matthew  McConnell. 
Thomas  McCreary. 
Charles  McMullen. 
Thomas  Mitchell. 
Charles  Marry. 
Patrick  Marry. 

Able  Morgan. 
Archibald  Nickel. 
Andrew  Pinkerton. 
Samuel  Power. 
John  Pollock. 
James  Quarre. 
William  Shaw. 
Mike  Sesalo. 
John  Shoemaker. 
James  Sloan. 
John  Thompson. 
Hugh  Thompson. 
William  White. 
John  White. 
John  Welch. 
Robert  Watson. 
Isaac  Wiley. 

In  April,  1777,  Capt.  Talbott's  company  had  been  so  reduced  by  hard  serv- 
ice that  it  was  recruited  up  to  the  required  number.  The  following  are  the 
recruits  that  were  then  added: 

John  McKinley. 
Charles  Kelly. 
John  Johnson. 
William  Antrican. 
Michael  Brown. 
John  Milton. 
Henry  Vaughan. 
James  Ralls. 
Patrick  Doyle. 
William  McDonald. 
Michael  Danfee. 
John  Kellenough. 
Patrick  Murrey. 
Conrad  Carcass. 
William  Gibbs. 
Thomas  Whitely. 
Hugh  Thompson. 
William  Foster. 
Phelix  O'Neal. 
John  Crowl. 

John  Fullerton. 
Pat  Boyle. 
Thomas  Sherry. 
John  Cavenaugh. 
Robert  Burns. 
Andrew  McGahey. 
William  McCalley. 
Isaac  Shockey. 
Christopher  Row. 
Francis  O'Harrah. 
Thomas  Dunn. 
Daniel  McCartey. 
Barney  McGilligen. 
Thomas  Aston. 
John  Smith  (tanner). 
Patrick  McKinley. 
John  Robinson. 
John  Feaghander. 
William  Campbell. 
Patrick  McCullum. 

John  McCullum. 
John  Foster. 
John  Ferguson. 
Michael  Black. 
John  Wilson. 
Robert  Hunter. 
John  Brown. 
Gilbert  Berryhill. 
Hugh  Casserty. 
Charles  Conner. 
George  Corohan. 
Edward  Hart. 
John  Shoemaker. 
James  Garlant. 
James  Loe. 
Jacob  Weaver. 
Patrick  Guinn. 
Joseph  West. 
Peter  Smith. 
John  Smith. 
Michael  Sitsler. 

In  addition  to  the  companies  enumerated  above,  it  is  an  established  fact 
that  there  were  the  companies  of  Capts.  James  McConnell,  William  Huston, 
Robert  Culbertson  and  Conrad  Schneider — four  full  companies — that  were 
from  what  is  now  Franklin  County.  These  were  recruited  and  all  prepared  to 
go  to  the  front,  but  as  they  were  among  the  last  men  enlisted,  it  is  not  posi- 
tively known,  nor  are  there  any  records  by  which  the  fact  can  be  exactly  stated, 
that  they  were  ordered  from  the  county  and  were  in  the  field.  Possibly  they 
did  not  really  join  the  Colonial  Army,  and  this  may  account  for  the  absence  of 
them  on  the  army  rolls. 

In  the  early  part  of  1777,  the  first  battalion  of  Cumberland  County  mili- 
tia was  formed;  commanded  by  Col.  James  Dunlap.  The  lieutenant- colo- 
nel was  Robert  Culbertson,  of  Franklin  County.  In  this  battalion  were  three 
companies  that  were  from  what  is  now  Franklin  County — the  companies  of 
Capts.  Noah  Abraham,  of  Path  Valley;  Patrick  Jack,  of  Hamilton,  and 
Charles  Maclay,  of  Lurgan.  The  roster  of  Capt.  Abraham's  company  was  as 
follows : 

Captain — Noah  Abraham. 

First  lieutenant — Archibald  Elliott. 



Second  lieutenant— Samuel  Walker. 

Sergeants — James  McConnaughy,  Joseph  Noble,  Robert  McConnell,  Thomas  Clark. 

John  Garven. 
George  Farmer. 
Samuel  Elder. 
William  Elliott. 
Francis  Elliott. 
Abram  Elder. 
George  Dixson. 
Alex.  Douglas  (weaver). 
Henry  Delmer. 
Patrick  Dougherty. 
Andrew  Douglas,  Sr. 
Samuel  Campbell. 
James  Carmady. 
Hugh  McCurdy. 
Robert  Alexander. 
Alexander  McConnell. 
James  Alexander. 
Charles  Gibson. 
James  Harvey. 
James  Howe. 
Andrew  Hemphill. 


James  Mitchell. 
David  Armstrong. 
John  Mclellan,  Jr. 
John  Adams. 
Samuel  Mears. 
William  Adams. 
James  Mackey. 
James  Allen. 
Robert  McGuire. 
John  Brown. 
Henry  McGee. 
James  Boggs. 
John  Mackey. 
Nathaniel  Bryan. 
John  Montgomery. 
Allen  Brown. 
James  Nealy. 
Alex.  Hopper. 
Adam  Humberg. 
John  Johnson. 
Joseph  Kilgore. 
Alex.  Long. 
John  McLellan. 

William  Buchanan. 
David  Neal. 
John  Bell. 
James  Park. 
Daniel  Colbert. 
Henry  Varner. 
William  Cortz. 
William  Wright. 
John  Canady. 
Robert  Walker. 
Samuel  Watson. 
William  Woodrow. 
Alexander  Mear. 
Samuel  McCauley. 
Samuel  Woodrow. 
James  McLellan. 
Patrick  Davidson. 
Wm.  McLellan. 
Wm.  Mclbbins. 
John  Means. 
Nathan  McColley. 
James  Montgomery. 
Alex.  Meor. 

William  Harvey. 
Henderson  Harvey. 

In  Col.  John  Davis'  Second  Battalion,  was  Capt.  Charles  Leeper's  com- 
pany, of  Lurgan  Township.  Capt.  James  McConnell,  of  Letterkenny,  with 
his  company,  was  in  the  Fourth  Battalion. 

The  Sixth  Battalion  was  mostly  officered  by  Franklin  County  men,  as  fol- 
lows: Colonel,  Samuel  Culbertson;  lieutenant-colonel,  John  Work;  major,  James 
McCammont  (McCalmont) ;  adjutant,  John  Wilson;  quartermaster,  Samuel 
Finley ;  surgeon,  Richard  Brownson.  The  officers  in  Company  No.  2,  of  this 
battalion  were  the  following:  Captain,  Patrick  Jack;  first-lieutenant  William 
Reynolds ;  second  lieutenant,  James  McLene ;  ensign,  Francis  Gardner.  This 
company  was  recruited  from  Hamilton  Township. 

Company  3  in  this  battalion,  was  from  Letterkenny  Township,  and  the  fol- 
lowing officers:  Captain,  Samuel  Patt on;  first  lieutenant,  John  Eaton;  second 
lieutenant,  David  Shields ;  ensign,  William  Ramsey.  A  company  from  Peters 
Township,  No.  4,  had  the  following:  Captain,  James  Patton;  first  lieutenant, 
Thomas  McDowell;  second  lieutenant,  John  Welsh;  ensign,  John  Dickey. 
Company  No.  5:  Captain,  Joseph  Culbertson;  first  lieutenant,  John  Barr;  sec- 
ond lieutenant,  William  Cessna;  ensign,  Hugh  Allison.  This  company  was  from 
Lurgan  Township.  Company  6  as  follows:  Captain,  William  Huston;  first 
lieutenant,  William  Elliott;  second  lieutenant,  James  McFarland;  ensign, Robert 
Kyle.  It  is  said  this  company  was  recruited  from  Montgomery,  Peters  and 
Hamilton  Townships.  To  this  company  Rev.  Dr.  John  King  delivered  a  pa- 
triotic-address as  they  were  about  starting  for  the  field.* 

Company  7  the  following:  Captain,  Robert  McCoy;  first  lieutenant,  James 
Irwin;  second  lieutenant,  Samuel  Dunwoody;  ensign,  Walter  McKinney — 
from  Peters  Township.  Company  No.  8  as  follows:  Captain,  John  McCon- 
nell; first  lieutenant,  Joseph  Stevenson;  "second  lieutenant,  Geo.  Stevenson; 
ensign,  James  Caldwell,  from  Letterkenny  Township. 

In  the  Eighth  Battal- 

*-'The  case  is  plain;  life  must  be  hazarded  or  all  is  gone.  You  must  go  and  fight,  or  send  your  humble 
submission,  and  bow  as  a  beast  to  its  burden,  or  as  an  ox  to  the  slaughter.  The  king  of  Great  Britain  has  de- 
clared us  rebels,  a  capital  crime;  submission  therefore  consents  to  the  rope  or  the  ax.  Liberty  is  doubtless  gone; 
none  could  imagine  a  tyrant  king  should  be  more  favorable  to  conquered  rebels,  than  he  was  to  loyal,  humble, 
petitioning  subjects.  No!  No!  If  ever  a  people  lay  in  chains  we  must,  if  our  enemies  carry  their  point  against 
us,  and  oblige  us  to  unconditional  submission.  This  is  not  all.  Our  Tory  neighbors  will  be  our  proud  and  tor- 
menting enemies." 


ion,  colonel,  Abraham  Smith,  of  Franklin  County.  There  were  four  other 
field  officers  from  this  county,  named:  Lieutenant-colonel,  James  Johnston; 
major,  John  Johnston;  adjutant,  Thomas  Johnston;  and  quartermaster,  Ter- 
rance  Campbell. 

Four  companies  in  the  Eighth  Battalion  were  Franklin  County  men  as  fol- 
lows: Company  No.  1.  of  Waynesboro — Captain,  Samuel  Royer;  first  lieu- 
tenant, Jacob  Foreman;  second  lieutenant,  John  Riddlesberger;  ensign, 
Peter  Shaver.  Company  2,  Lurgan  Township — Captain,  John  Jack;  first 
lieutenant,  James  Brotherton;  second  lieutenent,  Daniel  McLene;  ensign, 
James  Drummond.  Company  3,  from  Antrim  Township — Captain,  James 
Poe;  first  lieutenant,  Joseph  Patterson;  second  lieutenant,  Jacob  Stotler; 
ensign,  James  Dickson.  Company  8,  Lurgan  Township — Captain,  John 
Rea;  first  lieutenant,  Albert  Torrence;  second  lieutenant,  Alexander  Thom- 
son; ensign,  Hugh  Wiley.  This  is  all  the  record  now  accessible  concerning 
these  companies. 

In  1779  a  company  recruited  from  Path  Valley  was  mustered  into  the 
service,  and  sent  west  to  quell  an  Indian  disturbance.  This  was  Capt.  Noah 
Abraham's  company — First-lieutenant,  Nathaniel  Stevenson;  second  lieuten- 
ant, Adam  Harman;  sergeants,  Joseph  Ferguson,  Campbell  Lefever,  James 
Hamilton,  John  Roatch;  privates,  Daniel  Colbert,  Neal  Dougherty,  Frederick 
Dougherty,  Patrick  Dougherty,  Thomas  Knox,  Daniel  Lavrey,  William  Love, 
Redmond  McDonough,  Mathias  Maers,  John  Maghan,  John  Millison,  James 
Megraw,  Isaac  Miner,  James  Russell,  John  Robinson,  James  Ray  and 
WTilliam  Walker. 

At  the  same  time  another  company  went  from  Letterkenny  Township:  Cap- 
tain, Samuel  Patton;  first  lieutenant,  Ezekiel  Sample;  sergeants,  John  Kin- 
caid,  William  Spear;  privates,  John  Bran,  Thomas  Crotley,  Richard  Cooper, 
George  Hunter,  Samuel  Howard,  John  Hart,  AVilliam  Lowry,  George  Lamb, 
John  Lytle,  Henry  Marshal,  John  Mathias  (weaver),  Lorans  McReady,  John 
Parker,  William  Patterson,  Abram  Rosenberry,  William  Sharp,  John  Welsh, 
Henry  Williamson. 

It  is  supposed  the  above  enumeration  includes  all  of  the  separate  organiza- 
tions that  went  to  the  war  from  what  is  now  Franklin  County.  Just  how  many 
men  did  go  cannot  now  be  accurately  told.  That  there  were  many  who  joined 
commands  from  other  counties  in  small  squads  and  singly,  cannot  be  doubted; 
but  on  the  rolls  their  identity  is  lost,  and  it  is  greatly  to  be  regretted  their 
names  cannot  be  properly  placed  on  the  roll  of  the  immortals. 

There  were  men  who  enacted  a  conspicuous  part  in  the  Revolution  outside 
of  the  line  of  military  duty.  For  instance,  in  the  Provincial  Conference,  1776, 
the  Province  of  Pennsylvania  sent  a  full  delegation,  which  met  in  Carpenter's 
Hall,  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia.  The  delegates  from  Franklin  were  McLene, 
Allison,  Maclay,  Calhoun  and  Creigh. 

Here  and  there,  through  all  the  annals  of  the  Revolution,  is  to  be  found  a 
hero,  who  was  a  native  of  what  is  now  Franklin  County.  Of  these  Col.  James 
Smith,  a  native  of  Peters  Township,  has  left  an  illustrious  record.  As  early 
as  1755,  while  engaged  in  opening  a  road  from  Fort  Loudoun  to  Bedford,  he 
was  captured  by  the  Indians.  He  was  adopted  in  the  Conewago  tribe  and  re- 
mained with  them  until  1759,  when  he  escaped  to  Montreal,  and  reached  his 
home  in  1760.  In  1763  he  was  actively  engaged  against  the  Indians,  as 
captain  of  a  company  of  rangers.  He  then  became  an  ensign  in  the  English 
provincial  army.  In  1764  he  served  under  Gen.  John  Armstrong,  and  was  a 
lieutenant  in  Bouquet's  expedition  against  the  savages.  In  1765  he  was  the 
leader  of  a  band  of  settlers,  who  attacked  the  Indians,  drove  them  off  and  burned 


the  goods  of  some  Indian  traders,  because  they  were  selling,  to  the  savages, 
powder  and  lead.  Some  of  Col.  Smith's  neighbors,  who  had  nothing  to  do 
with  this  burning,  were  arrested  by  British  officers  and  locked  up  in  Fort 
Loudoun.  Smith  and  his  sturdy  and  fearless  gang  went  to  the  resciie  of  their 
neighbors,  captured  the  fort,  released  their  friends  and  took  more  English  sol- 
diers prisoners  than  Smith' s  command  numbered.  Afterward  more  of  Smith' s 
neighbors  were  arrested  for  the  burning  of  the  Indian  traders'  goods,  and  this 
time  confined  in  Fort  Bedford.  Again,  Smith  rallied  his  neighbors,  assaulted 
the  fort,  captured  the  garrison  and  liberated  the  prisoners.  Some  time  after, 
Smith  was  arrested  for  this.  In  making  the  arrest  a  struggle  ensued  and 
Smith's  companion  was  killed.  He  was  then  charged  with  the  killing  and 
thrown  in  prison.  A  body  of  600  of  his  neighbors  gathered  and  marched 
to  Carlisle  and  demanded  his  release.  He  made  an  address  to  his  friends, 
refused  to  be  released,  and  counseled  them  to  peacefully  go  home.  He  was 
kept  in  prison  four  months,  tried  and  acquitted.  At  once  he  was  elected 
commissioner  of  Bedford  County.  He  then  removed  to  Westmoreland, 
and  there  was  elected  to  the  same  office.  In  1774,  he  was  again  a  captain  of 
rangers  in  the  field,  serving  against  the  Indians.  In  1776,  he,  in  command  of 
a  company  of  rangers  serving  in  the  Revolutionary  war,  and  with  thirty- six  men, 
defeated  200  Hessians,  taking  the  most  of  them  prisoners.  Then  for  two  years 
he  was  in  civil  offices.  In  1777  Gen.  Washington  offered  him  a  major's  commis- 
sion, but  not  liking  the  colonel  of  the  regiment,  he  declined  to  accept,  it.  He 
asked  and  was  given  permission  to  raise  a  battalion  of  rifle  rangers  to  serve 
against  the  British  in  New  Jersey.  His  major  was  James  McCammont,  a 
Franklin  County  man.  When  Col.  Smith  was  disabled  by  disease,  McCammont 
became  commanding  colonel.  Col.  James  McCalmont  (originally  spelled 
McCammont),  was  born  in  Letterkenny  Township,  in  1739 — a  typical  fron- 
tiersman, wonderfully  made  for  the  troublous  time  i  i  which  he  was  born.  He 
was  a  brave  man  and  an  ardent  patriot.  His  services  to  his  country,  in  the  Revo- 
lution, were  invaluable.  When  the  British  occupied  Philadelphia  he  was  com- 
manding a  troop  of  rangers,  and  assigned  to  the  duty  of  preventing  the  Tories 
of  the  interior  from  furnishing  the  enemy  with  supplies.  While  on  this 
duty  he  captured  a  lot  of  Hessians  in  New  Jersey;  he  not  only  made  prisoners 
of  them,  but  induced  them  to  become  settlers  near  Strasburg,  where  may  be 
found  their  descendants  to  this  day.  He  served  as  major  in  the  Sixth  Battalion 
of  the  Cumberland  County  troops  under  command  of  Col.  Samuel  Culbert- 
son,  another  native  of  Franklin  County,  and  an  eminent  Revolutionary  soldier 
and  patriot.  After  the  war  he  was  for  many  succeeding  terms  elected  to  the 
House  of  Representatives;  in  1789,  appointed  judge,  which  position  he  held 
until  his  death,  July  19,  1809. 

Capt.  Samuel  Brady,  already  celebrated  before  the  Revolution  as  an  In- 
dian scout,  was,  of  course,  the  first  to  respond  to  his  country's  call  to  fight 
for  liberty.  He  was  under  command  of  Col.  Hand,  at  Princeton,  and 
at  the  massacre  of  Paoli  he  barely  escaped.  He  was  promoted  for  bravery 
after  the  battle  of  Monmouth,  and  then  was  ordered  to  Fort  Pitt  (Pittsburg), 
to  join  Gen.  Broadhead,  with  whom  he  soon  became  a  great  favorite,  and  was 
almost  constantly  employed  as  a  scout.  His  father  and  brother  had  been  mas- 
sacred in  1778-79  by  the  Indians,  and  he  never  failed  to  wreak  vengeance  upon 
the  savages  at  every  opportunity.  His  name  was  a  terror  to  the  Indians. 
He  died  in  West  Liberty,  Va. ,  in  1800. 

Col.  Joseph  Armstrong  was  one  of  the  early  settlers  in  Hamilton  Town- 
ship. He  was  a  brave  and  fearless  Indian  fighter,  commanding  a  company  of 
rangers  in  1755.     After  much  service  in  the  Indian  wars,  in  1776  he  raised  a 




battalion  (the  Fifth  Cumberland  Company),  and  marched  to  the  defense  of 
Philadelphia.  Among  his  captains  were  John  Andrew,  Samuel  Patton,  John 
McConnell,  William  Thompson  (became  brigadier-general),  Charles  Maclay, 
James  McKee,  John  Martin,  John  Rea  (afterward  brigadier-general),  John 
Murphy,  George  Mathews  and  John  Boggs.  This  command  had  been  chiefly 
recruited  from  Lurgan,  Letterkenny  and  Hamilton  Townships.  They  were 
noted  for  their  activity,  bravery  and  alertness  in  punishing  the  country's  ene- 
mies, as  well  as  their  rigid  faith  in  Presbyterianism.  It  is  said  that  a  majority 
of  them  had  been  members  of  the  old  Rocky  Spring  Church.  Capt.  Charles 
Maclay'  s  company,  which  numbered  100,  was  raised  in  Lurgan  Township,  andi 
every  man  said  to  be  six  feet  in  height.  This  company  suffered  severely  in  the? 
surprise  of  Gen.  Lacy' s  command  at  Crooked  Billet,  Bucks  County,  May  4, 
1778.  Capt.  Maclay  and  about  half  his  company  were  killed.  "Gen.  Lacy, 
in  his  report,  says:  "  The  wounded  were  treated  in  a  manner  the  most  brutal 
savages  could  not  equal ;  even  while  living,  some  were  thrown  into  buckwheat, 
straw,  the  straw  set  on  fire  and  burned. ' ' 

In  addition  to  these  great  Revolutionary  heroes,  there  were  noted:  Rev- 
John  Steele  and  Dr.  Robert  Johnston,  his  son,  John  Johnston,  and  many  others. 


There  are  conflicting  accounts,  in  different  histories,  on  the  subject  of  the* 
making  of  the  first  cannon  in  this  country.  We  are  indebted  for  this  account  of 
the  making  of,  if  not  the  first  certainly  very  close  to  being,  the  first  wrought  iron 
cannon  in  the  world,  to  Mr.  J.  C.  Burns,  who  writes  from  "  near  Waynesboro, 
May  3,  1886."  He  gives  the  current  history  of  this  successful  effort  at  making 
a  wrought  iron  cannon,  omitting  such  portions  of  the  generally  published  ac- 
counts, and  making  such  additions  as  his  information  made  necessary  to- 
arriving  at  the  truth  of  the  matter.  'Another  man  in  Cumberland  County,, 
about  the  same  time,  made  two  cannon,  and  one  of  these  two  was  also> 
captured  at  Brandy  wine,  and,  quoting  from  Hazard's  Register,  "is  now  in> 
the  Tower  of  London."  He  then  alludes  to  a  letter  written  by  a  British  sol- 
dier soon  after  the  battle  of  Brandy  wine,  in  which  the  writer  refers  to  "  two 
cannon  of  singular  appearance  and  construction,  captured  ' '  from  the  Amer- 
icans. Evidently  one  of  these  cannon  was  the  one  of  the  two  made  by  the 
Cumberland  County  man,  and  the  other,  the  one  made  by  Mr.  Bourns.  In- 
further  explanation,  it  may  be  stated,  that  John  Bourns  was  the  grandfather- 
of  J.  C.  Burns,  whose  account  of  the  cannon  is  given,  as  taken  from  ' '  McCan- 
ley's  Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County,"  with  Mr.  Burns'  corrections: 

"A  century  ago  near  the  banks  of  the  Antietam,  three  miles  east  of 
Waynesboro,  Penn. ,  stood  a  blacksmith  shop.  Here,  in  1775,  worked  Johns 
Bourns,  at  his  trade  of  sickle  making.  The  war  alarum  rang  over  the  country,, 
and  to  John  Bourns  it  brought  the  tidings  that  he,  too,  must  do  his  share  to» 
free  his  fair  land  from  the  tyrant's  yoke.  He  determined  to  try  his  skill  on  a 
wrought  iron  cannon.  An  extra  pair  of  bellows  was  set  up,  and  his  brother — 
James  Bourns — together  with  some  neighbors,  being  called  -upon  to  give  ali 
necessary  aid  in  keeping  up  a  continuous  hot  fire  for  the  purpose  of  welding, 
the  work  was  begun.  A  core  of  iron  was  first  prepared,  and  bars  of  iron  were 
welded  together  one  by  one  longitudinally  around  this  core.  The 
welding  having  been  accomplished  successfully,  and  the  core  withdrawn, 
the  bore  was  brought  to  as  perfect  a  degree  of  smoothness  and  circularity  as 
was  possible  with  the  tools  accessible.  It  is  likely  this  was  one  of  the  first 
successful  attempts  ever  made  to  manufacture  a  wrought  iron  cannon. 

"This  small  cannon  was  taken  to  the  army,  and  doubtless  gave  no  uncertain 


voice  in  freedom's  favor.  On  the  11th  of  September,  1777,  the  battle  of 
Brandywine  was  fought,  and  this  cannon  was  captured  and  taken  to 

' '  John  Bourns  was  drafted  into  the  army  previously  to  the  battle  of  Brandy- 
wine,  was  in  the  battle  himself,  and  no  doubt  regretted  the  loss  of  his  pet 
when  he  learned  that  it  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  On  account 
of  his  superior  skill  as  a  smith,  he  was  detached  from  active  service  and  de- 
tailed to  repair  gunlocks  and  make  bayonets  for  the  use  of  the  army. 

"John  Bourns  was  the  father  of  the  late  Gen.  James  Burns,  of  Waynes- 
boro, and  he  and  William  Burns — his  brother — frequently  related  the  story, 
heretofore  given,  to  different  persons.  Readers  will  notice  the  change  in  the 
orthography  of  the  names  of  the  father  and  son." 



Eleven  Years  of  Peace — Causes  of  the  Whisky  Insurrection— Its  Pros- 
ecution and  Its  Subversion— Sympathy  of  the  Militia,  etc. 

FOR  eleven  long  years  after  the  close  of  the  Revolution,  or  until  1794,  the 
country  was  at  peace,  save  a  few  unimportant  Indian  troubles,  and  as 
there  was  no  one  else  to  fight  convenient  to  hand,  some  of  the  people  of  Fay- 
ette, Allegheny,  Westmoreland  and  Washington  Counties,  of  this  State,  con- 
cluded to  get  up  an  insurrection.  Open  rebellion  was,  therefore,  proclaimed 
against  the  Government  because  of  the  excise  tax  on  whisky.  It  was  not  the 
amount  of  tax  on  the  whisky,  but  the  principle  and  the  Government' s  selection 
of  that  favored  product  of  the  land  that  fired  the  warlike  souls  of  these  good 
people.  It  was  not  any  especial  love  of  the  ' '  craythur  "  as  an  article  of  regu- 
lar diet  that  caused  these  threatenings  of  internal  war,  but  the  fact  that  at  that 
time  pack-horses  were  the  only  mode  of  transportation,  and  the  raw  products 
of  the  farms  could  not  be  carried  to  the  distant  markets,  except  when  reduced 
by  distillation  into  whisky,  the  people  felt  that  the  excise  tax  was  a  blow  at 
their  industry  that  free  men  should  not  in  any  way  tolerate.  Hence,  near- 
ly every  farmer  had  his  still — often  this  was  put  up  before  he  was  able  to 
erect  his  barn.  Whisky  was  made  everywhere,  and,  in  a  moderate  degree, 
used  in  nearly  every  family.  The  evidence  of  the  public  sense  on  this  subject 
of  the  use  of  intoxicants  is  furnished  in  a  church  trial.  A  preacher  was  tried 
for  drunkenness;  the  proof  was  strong  and  clear;  but  the  sessions  let  him  off 
with  a  gentle  reprimand,  and  returned  him  to  his  desk.  The  next  year  the 
same  man  was  put  upon  trial  for  whistling  on  Sunday — conduct  "unbecoming 
a  minister,  and  showing  a  vacuity  of  mind. ' '  The  sessions  convicted,  deposed 
him,  and  sent  him  from  his  church  in  disgrace.  The  wits  of  the  day  said  he 
might  ' '  whistle  for  his  back  pay. ' ' 

The  spirit  of  insurrection  was  not  wholly  confined  to  the  western  part  of 
the  State — there  were  many  warm  sympathizers  east  of  the  mountains.  Gen. 
James  Chambers,  in  a  letter  to  A.  J.  Dallas,  from  Loudon  Forge,  September 
22,  1794,  says:  "  On  the  16th  inst.  I  arrived  in  Chambersburg,  and  to  my  great 
astonishment  I  found  the  Rabble  had  raised  what  they  Called  a  Liberty  pole. 


Some  of  the  most  active  of  the  inhabitants  were  at  that  time  absent,  and,  upon 
the  whole,  perhaps  it  was  best,  as  matters  has  Since  taken  a  violent  change. 
When  I  came  here  I  found  the  magistrates  had  opposed  the  sitting  of  the  pole 
up,  to  the  utmost  of  their  power,  but  was  not  supported  by  the  majority  of  the 
Cittyzens.  They  wished  to  have  the  Royators  Subject  to  the  Law,  and  (Mr. 
Justice  John  Riddle,  John  Scott  and  Christian  Oyster)  the  magistrates  of  this 
place,  informed  of  their  zealous  wish  to  have  them  brought  to  justice,  I  ad- 
vised them  to  call  a  meeting  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  on  the  next  morn- 
ing, and  we  would  have  the  matter  opened  to  them  and  Show  the  necessity  of 
Soporting  Government,  Contrassed  with  the  destruction  of  one  of  the  best  gov- 
ernments in  the  world. ' ' 

The  meeting  was  duly  convened  in  the  "  Coorthouse, "  and  John  Riddle 
made  a  * '  very  animating  address  "  to  the  people.  Resolutions  were  drawn 
pledging  them  to  support  the  justices  in  their  efforts  to  bring  the  "  Royaters 
to  Tryal."  Gen.  Chambers  then  further  writes  to  the  governor:  "I  am  now 
happy  to  have  in  my  power  to  request  you,  Sir,  to  inform  his  Excellency,  the 
Governour,  that  these  exertions  has  worked  the  desired  change.  The  magis- 
trates has  sent  for  the  men,  the  very  same  that  erected  the  pole,  and  I  had  the 
pleasure  of  seeing  them,  on  Saturday  Evening,  Cut  it  down;  and  with  the 
same  wagon  that  brought  it  into  town  they  were  oblidgeed  to  draw  the  remains 
of  it  out  of  town  again.  The  Circumstance  was  mortifying,  and  they  behaved 
very  well.  They  seem  very  penetent,  and  no  person  offered  them  any  insult. 
It  has  worked  such  a  change,  I  believe  we  will  be  able  Shortly  to  Send  our 
Quota  to  Carlisle. "  This  letter  shows  the  temper  of  the  people  very  plainly. 
It  was  only  the  great  influence  and  firm  stand  by  such  men  as  Gen.  Cham- 
bers that  prevented  the  spirit  of  insurrection  from  becoming  general  all  over 
the  State.  The  people  were  very  loth  to  respond  to  President  Washington's 
call  for  troops  to  quell  the  turbulent  elements  of  society.  Secretary  Dallas, 
September  10,  1794,  says:  "According to  the  information  I  have  from  several 
parts  of  the  country,  it  appears  that  the  militia  are  unwilling  to  march  to  quell 
the  insurrection.  They  say  that  they  are  ready  to  march  against  a  foreign 
enemy,  but  not  against  the  citizens  of  their  own  State. ' ' 

August  7,  1794,  President  Washington  called  for  12,950  troops,  from  Vir- 
ginia, Maryland,  New  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania.  The  New  Jersey  and  Penn- 
sylvania troops  assembled  at  Carlisle.  Gov.  Mifflin,  of  Pennsylvania,  and 
Gov.  Richard  Howell,  of  New  Jersey,  commanded  the  respective  troops  of 
their  State.  The  quota  of  this  State  was  5, 196  men.  The  quota  of  Frank- 
lin County  was  281  men.  It  was  difficult  to  fill  these  quotas,  but  this 
county  recruited  its  number  and  sent  them  to  Carlisle.  There  they  were 
met  by  President  Washington,*  and  the  army  reviewed  by  him.  The  Penn- 
sylvania troops  were  in  one  division,  under  command  of  Maj.  -Gen.  William 
Irvine.  It  was  divided  into  three  brigades:  the  first  commanded  by  Gen. 
Thomas  Proctor,  the  second  by  Brig. -Gen.  Francis  Murray,  the  third  by  Brig.  - 
Gen.  James  Chambers.  In  Chambers'  brigade  were  the  men  from  Franklin 
County.  The  troops  passed  through  this  county,  by  way  of  Strasburg,  and 
crossed  the  mountains,  passed  through  Fort  Lyttleton,  and  reached  Pittsburgh 
in  November.  This  display  of  force  by  the  Government  ended  the  cruel  war, 
and  in  ten  days  after  their  arrival  in  Pittsburgh,  they  started  on  their  return 
home.  They  came  by  way  of  Greensburg,  Ligonier.  Bedford,  Sideling  Hill, 
Fort  Lyttleton,  Strasburg  and  Shippensburg,  to  Carlisle,  where  they  were 
disbanded.      Their  entire  term  of  service  was  about  one  month. 

*In  his  route  to  the  western  part  of  the  State,  Washington  tarried  over  night,  some  say  over  Sunday,  in 
Chambersburg,  October  11, 1794,  stopping  with  William  Morrow  in  a  stone  hotel  on  South  Main  Street.  Pass- 
ing through  Greencastle  he  was  the  guest  of  Dr.  Robert  Johnston. 




Date  or  Erection — Petitions  in  Favor  of  and  in  Opposition  to  the 
Project — Fight  Over  the  County  Seat— The  First  Cottrt-Hotjse  ani> 
First  Jail— Early  County  Officers— Estimate  of  Population— First 
General  Election— Officials,  etc. 

THE  act  of  the  Assembly  creating  Franklin  County,  was  passed  Septem- 
ber 9,  1784.  The  county  of  Cumberland,  the  sixth  formed  in  the  prov- 
ince of  Pennsylvania,  was  erected  in  1750.  It  embraced  '  all  and  singu- 
lar the  lands  lying  within  the  said  Province  to  the  westward  of  Susquehanna, 
and  northward  and  westward  of  the  county  of  York"  (organized  the  year  pre- 
vious). It  was  '  'bounded  northward  and  westward  with  the  line  of  the  Prov- 
ince." From  this  vast  area  and  ample  limits  were  subsequently  constructed 
Bedford  in  1771 ;  a  portion  of  Northumberland  in  1772;  Westmoreland' from 
Bedford  in  1773;  Washington  in  1781,  and  Fayette  in  1783  from  Westmore- 
land. Originally  comprising  two-thirds  of  the  area  of  Pennsylvania,  the 
county  of  Cumberland  is  well  deserving  the  name  "  Old  Mother  Cumberland. ' y 
We  first  hear  of  efforts  for  the  formation  of  the  county  of  Franklin  during 
the  closing  years  of  the  struggle  for  independence  in  petitions  therefor  in  1780; 
but  remonstrances  were  poured  in  upon  the  Assembly  to  postpone  the  subject 
until  the  Revolutionary  war  was  over.  No  sooner  was  the  prospect  of  peace 
heightened  than  renewed  efforts  were  made  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  western 
parts  of  the  county  of  Cumberland  for  a  division,  representing  "the  incon- 
veniences and  hardships  which  they  suffer  by  the  large  extent  of  the  said  coun- 
^j.  *  *  *  *  the  great  distance  at  which  the  said  petitioners  dwell  from 
the  town  of  Carlisle,  where  the  courts  of  justice  and  the  public  offices  of  the 
same  county  are  held  and  kept."  On  the  25th  of  March,  1782,  the  petitions 
therefor  were  ordered  by  the  Oeneral  Assembly  to  be  referred  to  Moses  Mac- 
lean, Mr.  Agnew  and  Mr.  Maclay,  with  directions  to  bring  in  a  bill.  A  bill 
was  subsequently  reported  and  passed  second  reading,  but  the  inhabitants  of 
"  New  Town  "  Township  petitioning  to  have  Shippensburg  included  in  the  new 
county,  while  the  inhabitants  of  Lurgan  Township  remonstrated  forcibly  against 
a  division — the  whole  subject  was  dropped  until  the  following  Assembly.  The 
next  Assembly  were  not  favorable  to  the  new  county  project,  and  the  matter 
was  referred  by  them  to  their  successors.  The  new  Assembly  had  scarcely  or- 
ganized when  a  petition  was  received  from  John  Clark  for  the  appointment  of 
register  for  the  probate  of  wills  for  the  new  county  to  be  erected  out  of  Cum- 
berland. This  was  Col.  John  Clark,  of  the  town  of  York,  a  brave  officer  of 
the  Revolution.  His  application  was  premature.  Numerous  petitions  for  the 
division  of  the  county  of  Cumberland  poured  in  upon  the,  legislative  body, 
with  not  a  few  remonstrances  against  the  same.  The  latter  were  chiefly  from 
Shippensburg  and  Lurgan  Township,  a  portion  of  whose  inhabitants  preferred, 
since  the  former  place  was  not  considered  eligible  for  the  county  seat,  to  re- 
main with  the  old  county.  On  the  16th  of  March,  1784,  the  committee  to 
whom  the  petitions  and  remonstrances  were  referred  reported  the  following: 


Resolved,  That  a  new  county  be  granted  and  laid  out,  to  be'gin  on  the  York  County 
line  on  the  South  Mountain;  thence  by  a  square  line  to  be  run  from  the  said  beginning  to 
the  North  or  Blue  Ridge,  leaving  Shippensburg  to  the  east  of  said  line;  thence  from  the 
summit  of  the  said  North  Mountain  by  the  ridges  dividing  the  waters  of  Shearman's  Val- 
ley from  the  waters  of  the  Path  Valley,  to  the  Gap,  near  the  heads  of  the  said  Path  Val- 
ley joining  Bedford  County;  thence  by  the  Bedford  County  line  to  the  Maryland  line; 
thence  by  said  line  to  the  line  of  York  County;  thence  by  said  county  line  to  the  place  of 
beginning;  to  be  called county;  and  that  the  said  new  county  town  shall  be  estab- 
lished by  law,  at  the  well-known  place  called  Chambers  Town,  and  not  elsewhere;  and 
that  a  committee  be  appointed  to  bring  in  a  bill  accordingly. 

On  the  18th  of  March  the  resolution  was  read  the  second  time,  and  Messrs. 
Rush,  Coleman  and  McPherson  were  appointed  a  committee  to  bring  in  a  bill. 
As  yet  it  will  be  seen  no  name  was  mentioned  in  connection  with  the  new 
county  project.  The  committee  appointed  were  Jacob  Rush,  of  Philadelphia, 
subsequently  president  judge  of  the  courts  of  that  city;  Robert  Coleman,  of 
Lancaster,  the  great  iron  master,  and  the  head  of  that  family  so  intimately 
connected  with  the  iron  trade  of  Pennsylvania,  and  Col.  Robert  McPherson,  of 
York  County,  a  brave  soldier  of  the  Revolution,  and  the  grandfather  of  Hon. 
Edward  McPherson,  of  Gettysburg;  a  remarkable  committee — gentlemen  of 
culture,  and  eminent  in  public  affairs.  To  them  must  the  credit  be  given  of 
naming  the  county  Franklin  for  that  patriot,  sage  and  philosopher,  whose  rep- 
utation was  even  then  world-wide.  It  was  a  deserving  honor,  and  the  first  in 
successive  ones  which,  next  to  the  immortal  Washington,  has  given  name  to  more 
towns  and  counties  than  any  other  in  the  American  Union. 

On  the  25th  of  March  the  bill  was  reported  and  read  the  first  time.  Four 
days  after,  it  was  read  the  second  time  and  ordered  to  be  printed.  Then  fol- 
lowed a  flood  of  petitions,  for  and  against  not  only  the  division  of  the  county, 
but  the  location  of  the  county  seat.  For  the  latter,  Greencastle  and  Ship- 
pensburg were  anxious  to  be  selected,  although  the  latter  was  unwilling  to  be 
included  within  the  limits  of  the  new  county  unless  it  was  thus  honored. 
Greencastle  contended  that  it  was  equally  as  central  as  Chambers'  Town,  and 
much  better  situated  with  reference  to  the  back  counties  and  to  Maryland. 

On  the  25th  of  August,  the  Assembly  took  up  the  bill  and  debated  it  at 
length,  which  was  continued  on  the  30th.  On  the  6th  of  September  a  clause 
was  adopted  to  the  effect  "that  the  inhabitants  of  the  new  county  of  Franklin 
should  have  their  full  proportion  or  share  of  what  moneys  were  raised  for  Cum- 
berland County  uses,  after  all  just  demands  against  said  county  of  Cumberland, 
before  passing  this  act,  are  paid. ' ' 

On  the  9th  of  September,  1784,  the  bill  "was  enacted,  and  signed  by  the 
speaker,"  and  thus  was  erected  the  county  of  Franklin  with  Chambers'  Town 
as  the  seat  of  justice,  ' '  and  not  elsewhere. ' ' 

The  active  parties  in  petitioning  the  Assembly  for  the  new  county  and  to  fix 
the  northern  boundary  line  at  Big  Spring  (now  Newville),  so  as  to  include  all  of 
Hopewell  Township  in  the  county  to  be  formed,  were  John  Rannells,  John  John- 
son, James  McCammont,  John  Scott,  Dr.  George  Clingin,  Samuel  Royer,  Pat 
Campbell,  Patrick  Vance,  Nat  McDowell,  Richard  Brownson,  George  Math- 
ews, Oliver  Brown,  James  Campbell,  Thomas  Campbell,  John  Colhoun,  John 
Holliday,  John  Crawford,  Josiah  Crawford,  Edward  Crawford,  John  Boggs, 
Jeremiah  Talbot,  William  Rannells,  Joseph  Armstrong,  James  Brotherton, 
Benjamin  Chambers,  Benjamin  Chambers,  Jr.,  Joseph  Chambers,  James 
Chambers,  AVilliam  Chambers  and  others. 

During  the  progress  of  the  struggle  to  strike  off  the  new  county,  some  of 
the  people  of  Lurgan  Township  opposed  the  measure  in  toto  "  because  the  mi- 
litia battalion,  and  the  religious  societies  to  which  they  belonged, would  be  divid- 
ed and   thrown    into  different  counties,  and  the  social  intercourse  requisite 


in  these  respects  would  be  greatly  obstructed, ' '  not  to  mention  the  burdens  that 
would  come  of  having  to  erect  a  new  court-house,  etc.  They  therefore 
prayed  to  be  left  quietly  in  Cumberland  County.  The  people  of  Greencastle 
wanted  their  town  to  be  the  county  seat,  but  Chambers'  Town  prevailed,  and 
soon  all  was  well,  and  the  new  county  was  thus  started  upon  her  long  career 
of  prosperity  and  glory. 

The  act  of  the  Assembly,  organizing  the  county,  appointed  James  Maxwell, 
James  McCammont,  Josiah  Crawford,  David  Stoner  and  John  Johnston  trus- 
tees, to  procure  ground  for  county  buildings.  The  act  also  provided  for  the 
county  commissioners  to  pay  over  to  the  trustees  $3, 200,  to  be  expended  in 
erecting  a  court  house  and  jail. 

September  28,  1774,  Col.  Benjamin  Chambers,  by  deed,  for  the  nominal 
consideration  of  $26.66§,  conveyed  to  the  county  the  parcel  of  ground  on 
which  the  court-house  stands,  "  to  be  used  as  a  site  for  a  court  -house  and  pub- 
lic buildings  and  no  other, ' '  and  in  the  same  deed  conveyed  to  the  county  the 
lot  on  the  north  side  of  East  Market  Street,  opposite  the  "  Washington  House," 
for  a  jail. 

The  trustees  contracted  with  Capt.  Benjamin  Chambers  to  build  the  court- 
house, and  with  David  and  Joshua  Riddle  to  build  the  jail.  The  cost  of  the 
court  house,  which  was  not  entirely  finished  until  1794,  was  $4, 100.  The 
work  on  the  jail  progressed  even  more  slowly,  it  not  being  completed  until  1797. 

The  old  court-house  was  of  brick,  two  stories  high,  and  about  fifty  feet 
square.  It  stood  immediately  west  of  the  present  building,  its  eastern  wall  being- 
about  four  or  five  feet  distant  from  the  western  end  of  the  present  court  house, 
and  it  was  occupied  by  the  courts  and  public  offices  whilst  the  new  building 
was  being  erected.  It  was  then  torn  down  and  the  portico  and  steps  of  the 
present  building  were  put  up  on  a  part  of  its  site.  It  was  well  and  substan- 
tially built,  presented  a  rather  pleasing  appearance,  and  was  fully  sufficient 
for  those  early  times.  The  main  front  faced  Market  Street,  and  there  was  a 
heavy  cornice  all  around  the  building.  There  were  a  cupola  and  bell  on  the 
building.  The  spire  was  surmounted  by  an  iron  rod  with  a  large  copper  ball 
on  it' next  the  top  of  the  spire;  then  above  that  a  rooster,  and  above  the  latter  a 
smaller  ball.  The  main  entrance  was  on  the  southern  front,  but  it  was  not 
used  for  many  years.  A  door  in  the  western  end,  near  the  southern  corner,  was 
the  usual  place  of  entrance.  Opposite  this  last  door  was  another  door  in  the 
eastern  end,  opening  into  the  yard.  The  court  hall  occupied  all  the  lower 
floor.  Along  its  southern  side  was  a  tier  of  seats  for  spectators,  some  three 
or  four  in  number,  rising  high  up  on  the  wall.  These  were  put  in  after  the 
building  was  completed,  and  they  crossed  over  and  closed  up  the  main  door  in 
the  south  side  of  the  room.  Between  these  seats  and  the  bar  (which  occupied 
nearly  one  half  of  the  floor)  there  was  a  space  of  about  ten  feet  in  width,  paved 
with  red  brick.  The  bar  was  raised  some  two  or  three  feet  above  this  pave- 
ment, and  the  judge' s  seat,  which  was  on  the  north  side  of  the  room,  was 
some  two  or  three  steps  above  the  bar.  The  traverse  jury  box  was  on  the  east 
side  of  the  bar,  and  the  grand  jury  box  on  the  west  side,  adjoining  the  stairs 
leading  to  the  second  story,  in  which  there  was  a  grand  jury  room  and  two 
traverse  jury  rooms.  The  floor  of  the  court-room  was  paved  with  brick.  It 
was  warmed  by  two  ten-plate  stoves,  into  which  full  length  cordwood  could  be 
put.  In  one  corner  stood  an  old  hydrant,  the  solitary  visible  memorial  of  the 
old  water- works. 

The  old  court-house  was  torn  down  in  1842,  and  a  new  one  erected  at  a  cost 
of  $45,545.  The  contractors  were  Philip  Miterhouse,  carpenter,  and  Silas 
Havy,    mason.     This  building  was  totally  destroyed  by  the  rebels  in  1864, 


and  the  next  year  the  work  on  the  new  and  present  elegant  building  was  com- 
menced.    It  was  completed  at  a  cost  of  $52,683.25. 

The  old  jail  was  of  stone,  two  stories  high,  about  40x60  feet  in  size,  and 
stood  on  the  northeast  corner  of  Second  and  Market  Streets,  where  Judge 
Rowe'  s  residence  now  stands.  It  was  often  crowded  with  poor  debtors  in  those 
early  days,  men  who  were  so  unfortunate  as  to  be  in  debt  and  had  neither  goods 
nor  money  with  which  to  pay  their  liabilities.  To  honest  men  it  was  a  fearful 
place;  but  rogues  laughed  at  its  nail -studded  doors,  iron  bars,  and  thick  but 
poorly -constructed  walls.  Between  the  date  of  the  formation  of  the  county, 
in  1784,  and  the  completion  of  the  old  stone  jail,  in  1798,  persons  charged 
with  the  commission  of  grave  offenses  were  kept  in  the  jail  at  .Carlisle.  The 
county  accounts  for  those  years  contained  many  items  for  the  expenses  of  tak- 
ing prisoners  to  Carlisle,  keeping  them  there  and  bringing  them  here  for  trial. 
Persons  charged  with  offenses  of  a  minor  grade  were  kept  in  a  temporary  prison, 
and  there  are  also  numerous  charges  for  "  repairs ' '  to  that  prison — for  ' '  iron 
for  bars, ' '  for  ' '  leg  bolts,  manacles,  etc. ' '  and  for  the  pay  of  those  who  acted 
as  "  guards ' '  at  the  prison.  Tradition  says  that  this  prison  was  an  old  log  house 
on  the  lot  now  the  property  of  Levi  D.  Hummelsine,  on  the  west  side  of  South 
Main  Street.  That  it  was  some  such  insecure  place  is  evidenced  by  the  ex- 
penditures made  upon  it  above  referred  to,  and  also  from  the  fact  that,  in  1785, 
the  commissioners  of  the  county  paid  Samuel  McClelland  £2  5s.  6d.  for  "un- 
derpinning the  prison."  Thei'e  were  no  brick  buildings  here  in  1785,  and  only 
three  stone  ones,  viz. :  Chambers'  Fort,  John  Jack's  tavern  and  Nicholas  Sni- 
der' s  blacksmith  shop.  All  the  rest  were  of  logs,  small  and  inconvenient,  and 
it  must  have  been  one  of  the  worst  of  these  that  was  used  as  a  prison,  as  only 
such  a  one  could  have  needed  "  underpinning, ' '  and  require  bars,  leg  bolts, 
manacles  and  guards  to  keep  its  inmates  safely.  The  first  jailor  was  Owen 
Aston,  who  lived  in  a  small  house  east  of  the  prison.  In  1818  the  New  jail 
was  erected  to  supply  a  long-felt  want.      This  is  the  present  jail  building. 

County  Officers. — From  1784  to  1809  Edwa/d  Crawford  was,  by  appoint- 
ment, prothonotary,  register,  recorder  and  clerk  of  the  court.  He  had  erected 
a  building  for  an  office  on  East  Market  Street — the  site  now  occupied  by  the 
law  office  of  Kennedy  &  Stewart.  The  old  county  offices  were  not  completed 
until  October,  1806.  This  building  stood  about  twenty  feet  east  of  the  old 
court-house,  facing  Market  Street;  cost,  $2,500.  It  was  of  brick,  two  stories, 
40x25  feet.  The  prothonotary ' s  and  clerk's  offices  were  in  the  west  end,  the 
register's  and  recorder's  in  the  east  end,  a  division  hall  in  the  center.  In  the 
rear  of  each  office  was  a  narrow  vault  for  the  records.  On  the  second  story 
were  the  offices  of  the  county  commissioners,  county  treasurer,  deputy  sur- 
veyor, etc.  This  building  was  torn  down  when  the  new  court-house  was  com- 
menced, in  1842. 

The  act  erecting  the  county  provided  that  the  court  of  common  pleas  and 
quarter  sessions  should  be  held  four  times  a  year,  and  that  the  quarter  sessions 
should  sit  ' '  three  days  each  term,  and  no  more. ' '  Edward  Crawford  was  in 
Philadelphia  when  the  act  was  passed  creating  the  county,  and  was  the  same 
day  appointed  and  sworn  in  as  prothonotary,  etc. 

The  following  papers  are  the  first  of  their  kind  found  in  the  records  of 
Franklin  County  after  its  erection,  September  9,  1784.  The  books  from  which 
they  were  taken  were  opened  by  the  skilled  and  long-continued  officer  whose 
modest  preface  to  Deed-book  A  was  as  follows:  "Franklin  County  erected  by 
Act  of  Assembly  passed  9th  September,  1784,  and  this  Record  Book  A  begun 
in  pursuance  thi  -eof. 

Edw.    Crawford." 



1.  Date  of  instrument:     April  18,  1782. 

2.  Parties:    Root.  Dixson,  Hamilton  Township,  Cumberland  Co.,  Pa.,    to  William 
Dixson,  his  son,  same  twp. 

3.  Property:    276  acres  and  64  perches,  and  usual  allowances  in  Hamilton  Township. 
4-     Consideration  £15  specie,  as  well  as  natural  love  and  affection. 

5.  Witnesses:    Robert  Boyd  and  John  Dickson. 

6.  Acknowledged  before  Jno.  Rannell3,  Justice  of  Cumberland  Co. 

7.  Recorded  13  day  of  December,  1784. 


1.  Date:    April  20,  1784. 

2.  Parties:    Jacob  Ziegler  Carpenter,  of    Guilford  Township,  Cumberland  Co.,  to 
Jabob  Schmiesser  and  Peter  Menges,  of  York  County. 

3.  Property:    Lot  246  and  buildings  tbereon,  in  town  of  Chambersburg. 

4.  Consideration:    £17,  7s.  lOu. 

5      Witnesses-  3  Philip  Ziegler, 

o.     \Y  ltnesses.  -j  George  Philip  Ziegier. 

6.     Recorded  Oct.  11,  1784. 


%Xt   the    Hame    Of    (&a&,    ^mzU.—l   Hanse  Michael    Millar  of  Antrim 
Township    County  of    Franklin  and  State  of    Pennsylvania  being  weak  in  body   but 
•of  sound  Memory  (  God)  do  make  and  Publish  this  my  last  Will  and  Testa- 
ment in  Manner  following  that  is  to  say,  all  my  Just  Debt  &   Funeral  Expenses,   be 
paid  by  my  Executors  hereafter  mentioned.     First  I  give-  and  Bequeath  unto  my  Be- 
loved Wife  Elizabeth  the  sum  of  two  hundred  Pounds  of  good  and  lawfull  money  of 
Pennsylvania  specie  all  my  household  Furniture  one  Bay  Mare  and  two  Cows  which  she 
shall  Choose.     In  case  my  wife  Elizabeth  should  marry  the  above  sum'  of  Two  hundred 
pounds  to  be  Equally  Divided  among  my  sons  and  daughters. .  Secondly  I  give  and  Be- 
queath to  my  son  Daniel  that  Plantation  he  lives  on  lying  and  Being  in  Frederick  County 
Maryland  Two  hundred  and  thirteen  acres  to  him  his  Heirs  and  assigns  forever,  he  paying 
the  sum  of  four  Hundred  Pounds  good  and  lawfull  money  of  Pennsylvania  specie  in  five 
years  after  my  Decease  to  my  executors.     Thirdly  I  give  and  Bequeath  unto  my  daugh- 
ter Rebecca  Rence  Two  hundred  Pounds  good  and  lawful  money  of  Pennsylvania  specie 
to  be  paid  in  one  year  after  my  Decease.  Fourthly  I  give  and  Bequeath  unto  my  Daughter 
Hannah  Cigar  the  one-half  of  the  Plantation  she  now  lives  on  it  being  upon  New  Creek 
•which  emptys  into  the  North  Branch  of  Potomack  in  Virginia  under  the  Allygany  Moun- 
tains in  Hampshire  County.     Fifthly  I  give  and  Bequeath  unto  Christian  Baker  The  sum 
of  forty  Pounds  in  one  year  after  my  Decease,  and  also  one  Hundred  and  Sixty  Pounds 
•specie .  which  Peter  Baker  stands  due  to  me  at  this  time.     Sixthly  I  give  and  Bequeath 
unto  my  Daughter  Maryann  Stoner  the  sum  of  two  Hundred  and  Ten   pounds  lawful 
money  of   Pennsylvania  specie  in  one  year  after  my  Decease.     Seventhly  I  give  and 
Bequeath  unto  my  Daughter  Susanna  Stover  the  sum  of  two  Hundred  and  Ten  Pounds 
good  and  lawfull  money  of  Pennsylvania  specie  to  be  paid  in  one  year  after  my  decease. 
Eighthly  I  give  and  Bequeath  unto  my  son  John  the  Farm  and  Plantation  it  being  in 
Antrim  Township  Franklin  County,  which  I  now  live  on.      Also   a  Negro  Boy  named 
'Charles  one  sorrell  mare  and  Colt  and   all  my  farming  utensils.     Ninthly  I  give  and 
Bequeath  unto  my  son  Michael  the  one-half  of  the  Plantation  that  John  Cigar  lives  on 
to  him  and  his  heirs  and  assigns,  to  be  divided  equally  between  my  Daughter  Hannah 
Cigar  and  my  son  Michael  at  the  Discretion  of  my  executors.     All  my  movable  stock 
that    is    not    Bequeathed  I  give  unto  my  son  John,   also  any  sum  or  sums  of  Money 
that  should  remain  as  over-plush  after  the  Discharging  of    the  Bequeathments    to  be 
equally  divided  amongst  my  sons  and  Daughters.      My  son  John  and  my  son  in  law 
Abraham  Stofier  to  be  my  whole  and  sole  executors  of  my  last  Will  and  Testament,  in 
Witness  whereof  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  seal  this  twenty-eighth  Day  of  Sep- 
tember, one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty-four  1784. 

Signed  Sealed  in  the  Presence  of  his 

Elias  Davison  Hans  Michael  x  Millar 


Henry  Pawling  Elizabeth  x  Millar 


Edward  Crawford  was  also  commissioned  justice  of  the  county,  Septem- 
ber 3  5,  1784.  Six  days  after  the  county  was  formed,  the  first  county  court 
convened,  the  justices  being  Humphrey  Fullerton  and  Thomas   Johnston,  for 

4^l£e<^~-  ov^ 


Antrim  Township,  and  James  Finley,  of  Letterkenny  Township — all  of  them 
formerly  justices  of  Cumberland  County.  There  were  no  jurors  summoned  to 
this  first  court,  no  causes  for  trial,  and  the  strong  inference  is,  no  lawyers  were 
present,  except  John  Clark,  of  the  York  bar,  who  appeared  to  plead  guilty  to 
the  crime  of  matrimony,  and  by  the  court  was  married  to  Miss  Bittinger, 
daughter  of  Nicholas  Bittinger,  of  Mont  Alto  Furnace.  He  appeared  in 
court,  and  upon  his  own  request  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  the  first  attorney 
so  admitted  in  the  county. 

The  second  session  of  the  county  court  convened  Thursday,  December  2, 
1784,  in  the  second  story  of  John  Jack's  stone  tavern,  which  stood  where 
Miller's  drugstore  now  is.  This  building  was  burnt  in  1864.  The  judges  pres- 
ent were  William  McDowell,  of  Peters;  Humphrey  Fullerton,  of  Antrim;  James 
Finley,  of  Letterkenny.  Crawford  was  clerk.  Talbot  was  sheriff.  The  grand 
jurors  were  James  Poe,  Henry  Pawling,  William  Allison,  William  McDowell, 
Robert  Wilkins,  John  McConnell,  John  McCarney,  John  Bay,  John  Jack,  Jr., 
John  Dickson,  D.  McClintock,  Joseph  Chambers  and  Joseph  Long. 

The  courts  were  held  up  stairs,  and  tradition  says  the  crowd  was  so  great 
as  to  strain  the  joists  of  the  floor,  causing  great  alarm  to  the  court  and  bar, 
and  others  in  the  house.  That  the  courts  were  held  in  John  Jack's  house  for 
several  years,  while  the  court-house  was  being  built,  and  up  until  1789,  inclu- 
sive, is  conclusively  shown  by  the  following  extracts  from  the  county  expendi- 
tures, found  in  the  annual  accounts  of  the  commissioners  for  the  years  named, 

1785 — By  an  order  to  John  Jack  for  the  use  of  his  house  to 

hold  courts  in, etc £12  7s.  6d. 

1789 — By  a  draw  given  to  Margaret  Jack  (John's  widow),  for 

the  use  of  house  to  hold  courts  in £9 

1790 — Order  to  Mrs.  Jack  for  fire  wood  and  candles  for  the 

court £4  4s.  5d. 

A  change  was  then  made,  for  in — 
1790 — An  order  was  issued  to  Walter  Beatty  for  preparing  a 

place  for  court £15  6s. 

This  place  was  no  doubt  some  temporary  selection.  Walter  Beatty  was  the 
sub -contractor,  under  Benjamin  Chambers,  for  the  building  of  the  court-house. 
The  court-house  and  the  old  stone  jail  were  then  being  built.  The  latter  must 
have  been  gotten  under  roof  at  least  in  1791,  for  that  year  the  commissioners 
paid  Walter  Beatty  "for  preparing  for  the  court  to  sit  in  the  prison,  £15  19s." 
In  1793  the  commissioners,  by  order  of  the  court,  paid  to  Walter  Beatty,  £10 
10s.  ' '  for  detaining  his  hands  from  work  on  the  court-house. ' '  The  judges 
took  possession  and  occupied  the  court-house  for  county  purposes  before  it 
was  finished,  and  ordered  Mr.  Beatty  to  be  paid  for  the  lost  time  of  his  hands, 
as  aforesaid. 

County  courts,  as  thus  constituted,  continued  to  administer  justice  until  the 
adoption  of  the  constitution  of  1790.  That  instrument  went  into  force,  for 
most  purposes,  on  the  2d  of  September,  1790,  but  the  third  section  of  the 
schedule  to  it  extended  the  commissions  of  the  justices  of  the  peace  and  judges 
then  in  office  until  the  first  day  of  September,  1791. 


The  following  list  gives  the  names  of  the  justices  of  the  peace  who  were 
judges  of  the  county  courts  for  this  county,  from  the  9th  of  September,  1784, 
to  the  2d  of  September,  1791,  with  the  townships  they  were  appointed  from 
and  the  dates  of  their  respective  commissions,  which  ran  for  seven  years: 



William  McDowell , , Peters November  13,  1778. 

.April  18,  1782. 
.April  18,  1782. 
.March  1,  1783. 

Humphrey  Fullerton Antrim. 

Thomas  Johnston Antrim 

James  Finley Letterkenny  , 

Edward  Crawford,  Jr Chambersburg September  11,  1784. 

James  Chambers Peters September  17,  1784, 

George  Matthews Hamilton February  4,  1785. 

John  Rannels.   Guilford.. March  1.  1785. 

Noah  Abraham Fannett October  31,  1785. 

John  McClay Lurgan November  2,  1785. 

Richard  Bard Peters March  15,  1786. 

Samuel  Royer Washington March  27,  1786. 

John  Scott Chambersburg. 

John  Boggs Chambersburg 

James  Maxwell* Montgomery  .  . 

John  Barring Southampton  . . 

John  Andrew Guilford 

John  Martin Chambersburg. 

James  Maxwell Montgomery. 

August  4,  1786. 
August  4,  1786. 
August  26,  1786. 
November  1,  1786. 
April  16,  1787. 
December  8,  1787. 
September  17,  1788. 
William  Henderson .Greencastle September  25,  1788 

James  M'Calmont Letterkenny. 

Christian  Oyster Chambersburg. 

Thomas  Johnston Antrim 

.September  23,  1789. 
.July  16,  1790. 
.September  29,  1790. 

The  population  in  the  new  county  can  only  be  arrived  at  approximately.  In 
1786  the  records  show  there  were  taxables  in  the  county  2,291,  divided  among 
the  townships  as  follows: 




























Letterkenny , ■ 














From  this  can  be  estimated  the  total  population  at  about  13,000  at  the  time 
the  county  was  formed.     By  the  census  of  1790,  the  first  taken  of  the  county, 
the  population  was  .15,655;  in  1800,   19,638;  1810,   23,173;    1820,    31,892; 
1830,    35,037;  1840,    37,793;   1850,    37,956;    1860,   42,121;    1870,    45,365; 
1880,  49,855. 

The  first  general  election  in  the  county  was  held  October  12,  1784,  in 
Chambersburg,  that  being  the  only  polling  place  in  the  county.  The  county 
was  entitled  to  elect  one  member  of  the  Supreme  Executive  Council,  and  three 
representatives  in  the  Legislature.  James  McLene  was  elected  councilor,  to- 
serve  three  years;  James  Johnston,  Abraham  Smith  and  James  McCalmont 
were  elected  representatives;  Jeremiah  Talbot,  sheriff;  John  Rea,  coroner; 
James  Poe,  John  Work,  John  Beard,  county  commissioners.  As  some  index 
of  the  number  of  votes  the  new  county  was  able  to  poll,  it  may  be  stated  that 
the  vote  on  county  commissioners  was  as  follows :  James  Poe,  822 ;  John 
"Work,  421;  John  Beard,  339. 

By  act  of  the  Assembly,  September  13,  1785,  the  county  was  divided  into 

♦Commissioned  president  of  the  courts. 



two  election  districts:  the  first  district,  composed  of  the  townships  of  Antrim, 
Peters,  Guilford,  Lurgan,  Hamilton,  Letterkenny,   Franklin  (Chambersburg), 
Washington,  Southampton  and  Montgomery,   to  vote  at  the  court-house,  in 
Chambersburg;  the  second  district  was  Fannett  Township,  to  vote  at  the  house 
of  Widow  Elliott. 

In  1787  the  county  was  divided  into  four  election  districts:  the  First  to  be 
composed  of  the  townships  of  Guilford,  Franklin,  Hamilton,  Letterkenny, 
Lurgan  and  Southampton,  to  vote  at  the  court-house,  in  Chambersburg;  the 
Second  District,  Fannett  Township,  to  vote  at  Widow  Elliott's;  the  Third  Dis- 
trict, composed  of  Antrim  and  Washington  Townships,  to  vote  at  the  house  of 
George  Clark,  in  Greencastle;  the  Fourth  District,  Peters  and  Montgomery 
Townships,  to  vote  at  James  Crawford's,  in  Mercersburg. 

The  first  tax  collected  in  the  county  was  for  the  year  1785,  and  by  town- 
ships  is  as  follows: 



State  Tax. 

County  Tax. 


Samuel   McCullock. . 

Nathaniel  Paul 

Peter  Fry 

£365    5s. 
69    1 
179    4 
223    6 
207    7 
320  11 
298    0 
312    6 
272  10 
262  16 








£57    Is.     4d, 


11  19     11 


30  19     10 


36    8       2 


William  Dickson. . . . 

»  George  Stinger 

Gavin  Morrow 

Thomas  Kennedy. . . . 

Frederick  Foreman. . 


35    7       8 
54  18       9 


50  16       4 

Montgomery 7T^ . 

51    7       4 


44  10       0 


44  15       2 

£2,510  11 


£418    4       6 

Being,  for  State  purposes. 
For  county  purposes 

.$6,694  91 
.    1,115  27 


1784-1809— Edward  Crawford,  Jr.         1854-57- 

1809-21— John  Findlay.  1857-60- 

1821-24— John  Shryock.  1860-63- 

1824-30— John  Hershberger.  1863-66- 

1830-36— John  Flanagan.  1866-69- 

1836-39^Joseph  Minnich.  1869-72- 

1839-45— Mathias  Nead.  1872-79- 

1845-48— Thomas  P.  Bard.  1879-82- 

1848-51— James  Wright..  1882-85- 

1851-54— Isaac  H.  McCauley.  1885 

-Abraham  K.  Wier. 
-Hiram  C.  Keyser. 
-Abram  C.  Kaufman. 
-K.  S.  Taylor. 
-William  H.  McDowell. 
-George  W.  Welch. 
-John  A.  Hyssong. 
-John  M.  McDowell, 
-James  Sweney. 
-M.  E.  Brown. 


1784-1809— Edward  Crawford. 
1809-18— John  Findlay. 

1818-21^Peter  Spyker  Dechert. 
1821-24— Joseph  Culbertson. 


1824-30— John  Findlay,  Jr. 




1830-36— Paul  I.  Hetich. 
1836-39— Joseph  Pritts. 
1839-42— Henry  Ruby. 
1842-45— John  W.  Reges. 
1845-48 — James  Watson. 
1848-51 — Benjamin  Mentzer. 
1851-54— David  Oaks. 
1854-57— George  H.  Merklein. 

1857-60— George  W.  Toms. 
1860-63— Edward  C.  Boyd. 
1863-69— Henry  Strickler. 
1869-72— Hiram  T.  Snyder. 
1872-79— Adolphus  A.  Skinner. 
1879-82— John  S.  Sollenberger. 
1882-85— C.  H.  Fulweiler. 
1885       —Frederick  T.  Snyder. 


1784-1809— Edward  Crawford. 
1809-21— John  Findlay. 

1821-24— John  Shryock. 


1824-30— John  Hershberger. 


1830-36— Richard  Morrow. 
1836-39 — Joseph  Morrow. 
1839-45— John  Wood. 
1845-48— John  M.  Fisher. 
1848-51— Josiah  W.  Fletcher. 
1851-57 — Henry  S.  Stoner. 
1857-60— B.  Y.  Hamsher. 


1860-66— William  G.  Mitchell. 
1866-69— Thaddeus  M.  Mahon. 
1869-72— Bernard  A.  Cormany. 
1872-75— Lewis  W.  Detrich.  ' 
1875-79— W.  Rush  Gillan. 
1879-85— Van  T.  Haulman. 
1885       —J.  A.  Benedict. 


1784-87— Jeremiah  Talbot. 

1835-38 — James  Burns. 

1787-90 — John  Johnston. 

1838-41— George  Hoffman. 

1790-93— Henry  Work. 

1841-44— William  Gilmore. 

1793-96— Robert  Shannon. 

1844-47— Adam  McKinnie. 

1796-99— George  Hetich. 

1847-50— John  W.  Taylor. 

1799-1802— John  Hetich. 

1850-53— Thomas  J.  Earley. 

1802-05— John  Brotherton. 

1853-56— William  Skinner. 

1805-08— Jacob  Snider. 

1856-59— Jacob  S.  Brown. 

1808-11— Jacob  Merkle. 

1859-62— William  McGrath. 

1811-14— William  Alexander. 

1862-65— Samuel  Brandt. 

1814-17 — Thomas  Alexander. 

1865-68— John  Doebler. 

1817-20— Jeremiah  Snider. 

1868-71— J.  W.  Fletcher. 

1820-23— John  McClay. 

1871-75— S.  F.  Greenawalt. 

1823— David  Washabaugh.* 

1875-78— John  Sweney. 

1823-26— Archibald  Fleming. 

1878-81— Michael  Gable. 

1826-29— Joseph  Culbertson. 

1881-84— W.  G.  Skinner. 

1829-32— David  Washabaugh. 

1884-87— Luther  B.  Kurtz. 

1832-35— Ennion  Elliott. 

1887       —Jacob  S.  Mowery. 


1784— John  Rea. 

1789— George  Clark. 

1785 — John  Johnston. 

1790— George  Clark. 

1786— Conrad  Snider. 

1793— Matthew  Duncan. 

1787— Conrad  Snyder. 

1796 — Archibald  Rankin. 

1788— George  Clark. 

1801— Archibald  Rankin. 

*.Tune  to  November,  1823. 

t  Years  named  indicate  date  of  appointment. 


1805— James  Campbell.  1829— Allen  K.  Campbell. 

1809— Andrew  Eobeson.  1832— John  Tritle. 

1812— Robert  Liggett.  1835— James  McDowell. 

1815— William  Young.  1838— William  Slyder. 

1817 — Thomas  McKinstry.  1841 — Alexander  Hamilton. 

1820— William  Young.  1844— John  M.  McDowell. 

1824 — David  Washabaugh.  1849 — James  Burns. 
1827 — James  Burns. 

For  a  long  period  coroners  refused  to  qualify,  their  work  being  performed 
by  justices  of  the  peace  in  their  several  townships.  No  records  of  the  cor- 
oners therefore  appear. 

1864— Victor  D.  Miller.  1882— Geo.  S.  Hull. 

1867— Victor  D.  Miller.  1885— Geo.  S.  Hull,  present  incumbent. 
1879-Robt.  W.  Ramsey. 


County  treasurers  were  appointed  by  the  county  commissioners  until  the 
act  of  May  27,  1841,  provided  for  their  election,  in  October  of  that  year,  to 
hold  office  for  two  years  from  the  first  Monday  in  January  after  their  election. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  names  of  those  persons  who  have  been  treas- 
urers of  this  county,  with  their  years  of  service: 
1785-90— Dr.  George  Clingan.  1839-42— Henry  Smith. 

1790-93— Matthew  Wilson.  1842-44— Joseph  Pritts. 

1793-96— John  Ridc.le.  1844-46— George  K.  Harper. 

1796-1806— Pal  rick  •  Campbell.  1846-48— George  Garlin. 

1806-09— Davia  Denny.  1848-50— William  McLellan. 

1809-12— Jacob  Heyser.  1850-52— Lewis  Denig.* 

1812-14— Henry  Reges.  1852-54— Washington  Crooks. 

1814-17— John  Hershbergor.  1854-56— Daniel  K.  Wunderlich. 

1817-20— Jacob  Heyser.  1856-58— J.  Smith  Grier. 

1820-23— William  Heyser.  1858-60— William  D.  McKinstry. 

1823-24— Samuel  G.  Calhoun.  1860-62— John  Stouffer. 

1824-25— Dr.  John  Sloan.  1862-64— George  J.  Balsley. 

1825-27— Hugh  Greenfield.  1864-66— James  G.  Elder. 

1827— William  Hamilton.  1866-68— John  Hassler. 

1827-30— Daniel  Spangler.  1868-70— George  W.  Skinner. 

1830-32— Joseph  Pritts.  1870-72— William  Reber. 

1832— Henry  Smith.  1872-74— Samuel  Knisley. 

1833-36— Jasper  E.  Brady.  1874-76— Hiram  M.  White. 

1836-39— George  Garlin,  Jr. 


1876-79— Elias  K.  Lehman.  1882-85— W.  H.  H.  Mackey. 

1879-82— John  L.  Grier.  1885-88— Jacob  N.  Flinder. 


1785 — James  Poe,  John  Work,  John  Beard. 

1786 — John  Work,  James  Poe,  John  Beard. 

1787 — John  Beard,  James  Poe,  John  Work. 

1788 — Robert  Boyd,  James  McConnell,  William  Allison. 

1789 — James  McConnell,  William  Allison,  Josiah  Crawford. 

1790 — William  Allison,  Josiah  Crawford,  Matthew  Wilson. 

♦Jeremiah  Snider  was^elected  treasurer  in  October,  1849,  but  not  being  able  to  give  the  bond  required  by 
law,  he  resigned  January  7, 1850,  and  the  county  commissioners  that  day  appointed  Lewis  Denig  to  fill  the  va- 


1791 — Matthew  Wilson,  James  Poe,  Daniel  Royer. 

1792 — Matthew  Wilson,  James  Poe,  John  Work. 

1793 — James  Poe,  Daniel  Royer,  James  Chambers. 

1794 — Daniel  Royer,  James  Chambers,  George  Hetich. 

1795 — James  Chambers,  George  Hetich,  Henry  Work. 

1796— George  Hetich,  Henry  Work,  William  Scott. 

1797— Henry  Work,  William  Scott,  William  Allison. 

1798 — William  Scott,  William  Allison,   James  Irvin. 

1799 — William  Allison,  James  Irvin,   John  Holliday. 

1800 — James  Irvin.  John  Holliday,  Nathan  McDowell. 

1801 — John  Holliday,  Robert  McDowell,  David  Maclay. 

1802  —Robert  McDowell,  David  Maclay. 

1803 — Robert  McDowell,  David  Maclay,  William  Rankin. 

1804 — Robert  McDowell,  David  Maclay,  Archibald  Rankin,   Jacob  Heyser. 

1805 — William  McClay,  Archibald  Rankin,  Jacob  Heyser. 

1806 — William  McClay,  Jacob  Heyser,  Patrick  Campbell. 

1807 — Jacob  Heyser,  Patrick  Campbell,  John  Royer. 

1808 — Patrick  Campbell,  James  Smith,  Jacob  Dechert. 

1809 — Jacob  Dechert,  John  Rothbaust,  Robert  Crooks. 

1810-11 — John  Rothbaust,  Robert  Crooks,  William  Alexander. 

1812-13 — David  Rankin,  John  Cox,  Ludwig  Heck. 

1814 — John  Cox,  Ludwig  Heck,  Isaac  Eaton. 

1815 — Ludwig  Heck,  James  McDowell,  John  M.  Maclay. 

1816— James  McDowell,  John  M.  Maclay,   William  Bleakney. 

1817 — John  M.  Maclay,  William  Bleakney,   Philip  Berlin. 

1818 — William  Bleakney,  Philip  Berlin,  William  Rippey,  Jr. 

1819 — Philip  Berlin,  William  Rippey,  Jr.,  David  Besore. 

1820 — William  Rippey,  Jr. ,  David  Besore,  Frederick  Miller. 

1821 — Frederick  Miller,  David  Besore,  Andrew  Thomson. 

1822 — David  Besore,  Frederick  Miller,  Andrew  Thomson. 

1823 — Andrew  Thomson,  James  Walker,  Jacob  Wunderlich. 

1824 — Jacob  Wunderlich,  Philip  Laufman,  David  Fullerton. 

1825 — Jacob  Wunderlich,  Philip  Laufman,  Benjamin  Keyser. 

1826 — Philip  Laufman,  Benjamin  Keyser,  William  Heyser. 

1827 — William  Heyser,  Benjamin  Keyser,  John  Walker. 

1828— William  Heyser,  John  Walker,  Daniel  Shaffer. 

1829 — John  Walker,  Daniel  Shaffer,  John  Radebaugh. 

1830 — Daniel  Shaffer,  John  Radebaugh,  John  Walker. 

1831 — Daniel  Shaffer,  John  Radebaugh,  Jacob  Walter. 

1832 — John  Radebaugh,  Jacob  Walter,  Samuel  Duim. 

1833 — Samuel  Dunn,  Joseph  Culbertson,  John  Cox. 

1834 — Joseph  Culberston,  John  Cox,  Tobias  Funk. 

1835 — John  Cox,  Tobias  Funk,  George  Hoffman. 

1836 — Tobias  Funk,  George  Hoffman,  George  Johnston. 

1837 — George  Hoffman,  John  Johnston,  John  Johnston  (of  George). 

1838 — John  Johnston,  John  Johnston  (of  George),  George  Hoffman. 

1839-40 — John  Johnston  (of  George),  D.  Washabaugh,   Emanuel  Hade. 

1841 — D.  Washabaugh,  Emanuel  Hade,  William  Seibert. 

1842 — Emanuel  Hade,  William  Seibert,  Gai'land  Anderson. 

1843 — William  Seibert,  G.  Anderson,   James  Burns. 

1844 — G.  Anderson,  James  Burns,  Jacob  Oyster. 

1845 — James  Burns,  Jacob  Oyster,  Thomas  Pumroy. 

846 — Jacob  Oyster,  Thomas  Pumroy,  James  Davison. 



1847 — Thomas  Puuiroy,  James  Davison,  George  A.  Madeira. 
1848 — James  Davison,  George  A.  Madeira,  Dewalt  Keefer. 
1849— G.  A.  Madeira,  Dewalt  Keefer,  John  A.  Shank. 
1850— D.  Keefer,  John  A.  Shank,  George  S.  Eyster. 
1851 — John  A.  Shank,  George  S.  Eyster,  James  Lowe. 
1852 — George  S.  Eyster,  James  Lowe,  John  Alexander. 
1853 — James  Lowe,  John  Alexander,  John  Huber. 
1854 — John  Alexander,  John  Huber,  Jos.  Johnston. 
1855 — John  Huber,  Jos.  Johnston,  Robert  Mcllvaney. 
1856 — Jos.  Johnston,  Robert  Mcllvaney,  Samuel  Myers. 
1857 — Robert  McHvaney,  Samuel  Myers,  D.  M.  Leisher. 
1858 — Samuel  Myers,  D.  M.  Leisher,  John  S.  Nimmon. 
1859 — D.  M.  Leisher,  John  S.  Nimmon,  J.  A.  Eyster. 
1860 — J.  S.  Nimmon,  J.  A.  Eyster,  Jacob  S.  Good. 
1861 — J.  A.  Eyster,  Jacob  S.  Good,   James  D.  Scott. 
1862 — Jacob  S.  Good,  James  D.  Scott,  John  Nitterhouse. 
1863 — James  D.  Scott,  John  Nitterhouse,  John  Downey. 
1864 — John  Nitterhouse,  John  Downey,  Henry  Good. 
1865 — John  Downey,  Henry  Good,  John  Armstrong. 
1866 — Henry  Good,  John  Armstrong.  Daniel  Skinner. 
1867 — John  Armstrong,  Daniel  Skinner,  Jonas  C.  Palmer. 
1868— Daniel  Skinner,  J.  C.  Palmer,  William  Shinafield. 
1869— J.  C.  Palmer,  William  Shinafield,  E.  K.  Lehman. 
1870 — William  Shinafield,  E.  K.  Lehman,  J.  B.  Brumbaugh. 
1871— E.  K.  Lehman,  J.  B.  Brumbaugh,  S.  M.  Worley. 
1872— J.  B.  Brumbaugh,  S.  M.  Worley,  R.  J.  Boyd. 
1873— S.  M.  Worley,  R.  J.  Boyd,  Jacob  Kauffman. 
1874— R.  J.  Boyd,  Jacob  Kauffman,  W.  D.  Guthrie. 
1875— Jacob  Kauffman,  W.  D.  Guthrie,  Samuel  Coble. 
1876-79 — Daniel  Gelwix,  James  Patton,  J.  Watson  Craig. 
1879-82 — Wm.  S.  Reed,  John  Kyner,  Frank  Creamer. 
1882-85 — Daniel  Potter,  Henry  Omwake,  Martin  Miller. 
1885-88— Jacob  Middour,  Jacob  S.  Snively,  John  Waidlich. 


1784-88— Unknown. 
1788— Robert  Boyd. 
1789-96— Unknown. 
1796-99--James  Parks. 
1799— William  Scott. 
1800— William  Orbison. 
1801-04— William  Ward,  Jr. 
1804-06— Thomas  G.  McCulloh. 
1806— J.  M.  Russell. 
1807— E.  B.  Mendenhall. 
1808-11 — Henry  Reges. 
1811-15— William  M.  McDowell. 
1815-18— Peter  S.  Deckhert. 
1818-27 — Daniel  Spangler. 
1827 — Hiram  Cox. 
1828-36— John  Colhoun. 
1836-42— Richard  Morrow. 
1842— Henry  Smith. 

1843— James  R.  Kirby. 
1844-46—1.  H.  McCauley. 
1846-50— A.  H.  McCulloh. 
1850-53— John  M.  Fisher. 
1853-56— Thomas  L.  Fletcher. 
1856— Jacob  Sellers. 
1857— William  Gelwicks. 
1858 — Jacob  Sellers. 
1859 — Samuel  Longenecker. 
1860-71 — George  Foreman. 
1871— H.  C.  Koontz. 
1872— H.  C.   Keyser. 
1873-75— H  S.  Shade. 
1875— H  C.  Keyser. 
1876— Thomas  M.  Nelson. 
1876-77— T.  M.  Nelson. 
1880— E.  G.  Etter. 
1886— D.  S.  Hager. 



1785-88— Unknown. 

1788 — James  Johnston,  Benjamin  Chambers,  James  Irwin. 

1789-93— Unknown. 

1793-94 — Benjamin  Chambers,  James  Irwin,  John  Rea. 

1794-98— Unknown. 

1798-1800 — James  Ramsey,  John  Brown. 

1800-01 — John  Brown,  James  Buchanan. 

1802 — James  Buchanan,  Nicholas  Clopper. 

1803 — Nicholas  Clopper,  George  Hetich. 

1804 — George  Hetich,  William  Scott. 

1805 — Nicholas  Clopper,  William  Scott,  Robert  Smith. 

1806 — William  Scott,  Robert  Smith,  Thomas  Brown. 

1807 — Robert  Smith,  Thomas  Brown,  John  Gilmor. 

1808 — Thomas  Brown,  John  Gilmor,  John  Holliday. 

1809 — John  Gilmor,  John  Holliday,  David  Rankin. 

1810 — D.  Fullerton,  David  Maclay,  Henry  Thompson. 

1811 — Henry  Thompson,  David  Fullerton,  D.  Maclay. 

1812 — Henry  Thompson,  Robert  Robison,  Joseph  Scott. 

1813 — Robert  Robison,  Joseph  Scott. 

1814— Patrick  Campbell,  David  Eby,  WTilliam  Scott. 

1815 — David  Eby,  Andrew  Robison,  William  Alexander. 

1816 — William  Alexander,  Sr. ,  Andrew  Robison,  John  Walker. 

1817 — John  Walker,  John  Culbertson. 

1818 — John  Walker,  John  Culbertson,  James  McCoy. 

1819— John  Culbertson,  James  McCoy,  John  Flanagan. 

1820 — James  McCoy,  John  Flanagan,  Thomas  McClelland. 

1821 — John  Flanagan,  George  Hetich. 

1822— Thomas  McClelland,  George  Hetich,  Thomas  Waddell. 

1823 — George  Hetich,  Joseph  Grubb. 

1824 — Thomas  Waddell,  Joseph  Grubb,  William  Gamble. 

1825 — Joseph  Grubb,  William  Gamble,  Thomas  Carson. 

1826 — William  Gamble,  Thomas  Carson,  John  Walker. 

1827 — Thomas  Carson,  John  Walker,  Isaac  Ward. 

1828 — John  WTalker,  Jacob  Negley,  John  Findlay,  Sr. 

1829 — Isaac  Ward,  Jacob  Neglev,  John  McClintock. 

1830— Jacob  Negley,  Archibalds.  McCune. 

1831— Archibald  S.  McCune,  J.  Allison. 

1832 — J.  Allison,  James  Colhoun. 

1833 — Jacob  Heyser,  Joseph  Pumroy. 

1834— Jacob  Heyser,  Joseph  Pumroy,  John  McClintock. 

1835 — Joseph  Pumroy,  John  McClintock,  John  Witherow. 

1836 — John  McClintock,  John  Witherow,  Jacob  Negley. 

1837 — John  Witherow,  Jacob  Negley. 

1838 — Jacob  Negley,  William  Fleming,  David  Lytle. 

1839— William  Fleming,  David  Lytle,  John  Orr. 

1840— David  Lytle,  John  Orr,  J.  B.  Guthrie. 

1841— John  Orr,  J.  B.  Guthrie,  John  Deardorff. 

1842— J.  B.  Guthrie,  John  D.  Work.  John  Deardorff. 

1843— John  Deardorff,  John  D.  Work,  Robert  Wallace. 

1844 — Samuel  Lehman,  Robert  Wallace,  John  Tritle. 

1845— Robert  Wallace,  John  Tritle. 

1846 — John  Tritle,  John  Johnston,  Abram  Stouffer. 

hyBGWJha  •      ■   " 



1847 — John  Johnston,  Abram  Stouffer,  Joseph  Snively. 

1848 — Abraui  Stouffer,  Joseph  Snively,  Thomas  Carson. 

1849— Joseph  Snively,  Thomas  Carson,  B.  A.  Doyle. 

1850 — Thomas  Carson,  B.  A.  Doyle,  George  W.  Zeigler. 

1851 — B.  A.  Doyle,  George  W.  Zeigler,  James  L.  Black. 

1852— G.  W.  Zeigler,  James  L.  Black,  W.  A.  Shields. 

1853 — William  A.  Shields,  William  Armstrong,  David  Spencer. 

1854 — William  Armstrong,  David  Spencer,  W.  S.  Amberson. 

1855 — D.  Spencer,  W.  S.  Amberson,   John  Bowman. 

1856 — W.   S.  Amberson,  John  Bowman,  C.  W.   Burkholder. 

1857— John  Bowman,  C.  W.   Burkholder,  D.  H.  McPherson. 

1858— C.  W.  Burkholder,  D.  H.  McPherson,  William  Fleagle. 

1859— D.  H.  McPherson,  William  Fleagle,  J.  E.  Brewster. 

1860 — William  Fleagle,  Andrew  Davison,  John  Downey. 

1861 — John  Downey,  Andrew  Davison,  George  Jarrett. 

1862 — John  Downey,  George  Jarrett,  D.  K.  Wunderlich. 

1863— George  Jarrett,  D.  K.  Wunderlich. 

1864— D.  K.  Wunderlich,   D.  B.  Martin,  W.  S.  Amberson. 

1865— D.   B.  Martin,  W.  S.  Amberson,  M.  Martin. 

1866— W.  S.  Amberson,  D.  B.  Martin,  Samuel  W.  Nevin. 

1867 — M.  Martin,  Samuel  W.  Nevin,  Samuel  Myers. 

1868-69 — Samuel  W.  Nevin,  Samuel  Myers,  Joseph  Mowers. 

1870 — Samuel  Myers,  Joseph  Mowers,  J.  W.  Winger. 

1871— Joseph  Mowers,   J.  W.  Winger,  John  C.  Tritle. 

1872— J.  W.  Winger,  John  C.  Tritle..  John  A.  Sellers. 

1873 — John  A.  Sellers,  John  Cressler,   Samuel  Taylor. 

1874 — John  A.  Sellers,  John  Cressler,  H.  R.  Harnish. 

1875 — J.  Cressler,  H.  R.  Harnish,  Samuel  Taylor. 

1876— Samuel  Taylor,  W.  H.  Blair,  William  M.  Gillan. 

1876-79— Samuel  Taylor,  W.  H.  Blair,  Wm.  M.  Gillan. 

1879-82— Simon  Lecron,  James  W.  Duffield,  AVilliam  Frye. 

1882-85— Aaron  F.  Snoke,  D.  C.  Clark,  Lemuel  Snively. 

1885-88 — Samuel  S.  Reisher,  John  Pensinger,  George  W.  Johnston. 


The  Act  of  Assembly  for  the  erection  of  the  ' '  House  for  the  employment 
and  support  of  the  poor  ' '  of  the  county  was  approved  by  the  governor,  March/ 
11,  1807.  The  second  section  of  the  act  provided  that  at  the  election  to  be 
held  in  October,  1807,  five  persons  should  be  elected  "to  determine  upon  and; 
fix  the  place  on  which  the  buildings  should  be  erected,"  and  also  that  there 
should  be  elected  ' '  three  persons  to  be  directors  of  the  poor, ' '  one  to  serve 
for  one  year,  one  for  two  years,  and  one  for  three  years,  their  terms  to  be  de- 
termined by  lot. 

William  Allison,  David  Fullerton,  John  Colhoun,  Col.  Joseph  Culbertsoc 
and  John  Maclay,  were  elected  the  commissioners  to  fix  the  site  for  the  poor- 
house,  and  Robert  Liggett,  James  Robinson  and  Ludwig  Heck  were  elected 
directors  of  the  poor. 

The  commissioners  selected  the  farm  of  Thomas  Lindsay  (the  site  of  the 
present  poor-house)  as  the  place  where  the  poor-house  should  be  erected,  and 
in  the  year  1808  the  directors  purchased  it  for  the  stun  of  $8,200.  Tne  farm 
then  contained  165  acres,  and  had  a  stone  farm  house,  barn,  etc.,  upon  it. 
This  house  was  somewhat  enlarged,  and  used  until  the  year  1811,  when  the 
large  stone  building,  now  standing,  was  put  up. 



In  the  years  1853-54,  the  large  brick  house  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  about 
$12,000.     The  farm  now  contains  about  210  acres. 

The  following  lists  contain  the  names  of  the  directors  of  the  poor-house,  its 
stewards,  treasurers,  attorneys,  clerks  and  physicians,  from  the  year  1807  to 
the  present  time,  so  far  as  they  could  be  ascertained: 


1808 — James  Robinson,  Robert  Liggett,  Ludwig  Heck. 
1809 — Robert  Liggett,  Ludwig  Heck,  Henry  Etter. 
1810 — Ludwig  Heck,  Henry  Etter,   Isaac  Eaton. 
1811 — Henry  Etter,  Isaac  Eaton,   Samuel  Radebaugh. 
1812 — Isaac  Eaton,  Samuel  Radebaugh. 
1813 — Samuel  Radebaugh,  Matthew  Lind. 

1814 ,  Matthew  Lind,  John  Vance. 

1815 — Matthew  Lind,  John  Vance,  Philip  Berlin. 

1816 — John  Vance,  Philip  Berlin,  John  Snider. 

1817 — Philip  Berlin,  John  Snider,  John  Rudisil. 

1818 — John  Snider,  John  Rudisil,  Matthew  Patton. 

1819 — John  Rudisil,  Matthew  Patton,  D.  Washabaugh. 

1820— Matthew  Patton,  D.  Washabaugh,  J.  Stouffer. 

1821 — D.  Washabaugh,  J.  Stouffer,  William  McKesson. 

1822— J.  Stouffer,  William  McKesson,  John  Snider. 

1823 — William  McKesson,  John  Snider,  Thomas  Yeates. 

1824 — John  Snider,  Thomas  Yeates,  Jacob  Heck. 

1825 — Thomas  Yeates,  Jacob  Heck,  A.  Thompson. 

1826 — Jacob  Heck,  A.  Thompson,  John  Davison. 

1827 — A.  Thompson,  John  Davison,  Thomas  Yeates. 

1828 — John  Davison,  Thomas  Yeates,  John  Vance. 

1829 — Thomas  Yeates,  John  Vance,  John  Coble. 

1830 — John  Vance,  John  Coble,  Samuel  Dechart. 

1831 — John  Coble,  Samuel  Dechart,  Nicholas  Baker. 

1832 — Samuel  Dechart,  Nicholas  Raker,  James  Davison. 

1833 — Nicholas  Baker,  James  Davison,  John  Radebaugh. 

1834 — James  Davison,  John  Radebaugh,  John  Orr. 

1835 — John  Radebaugh,   John  Orr,  Jacob  Oyster. 

1836 — John  Orr,  Jacob  Oyster,   John  Whitmore. 

1837 — Jacob,  Oyster,  John  Whitmore,  William  Linn. 

3838 — John  Whitmore,  William  Linn,  Samuel  Campbell. 

1839 — William  Linn,  Samuel  Campbell,   Philip  Nitterhouse. 

1840 — Samuel  Campbell,  Philip  Nitterhouse,  James  Davison. 

1841 — Philip  Nitterhouse,  James  Davison,  Matthew  Patton. 

1842 — James  Davison,  Matthew  Patton,   Upton  Washabaugh. 

1843 — Matthew  Patton,  Upton  Washabaugh,  John  Monn,  Jr. 

1844 — Upton  Washabaugh,  John  Monn,  Jr.,  Samuel  Lehman. 

1845 — John  Monn,  Jr.,  Samuel  Lehman,   John  S.  Detwiler. 

1846— Samuel  Lehman,  John  L.  Detwiler,  Daniel  Bonebrake. 

1847 — John    L.  Detwiler,  Daniel  Bonebrake,  Fred.  Boyer. 

1848 — Daniel  Bonebrake,  Fred.  Boyer,  John  Wise. 

1849 — Fred.  Boyer,  John  Wise,  David  Hays. 

1850 — John  Wise,  David  Hays,  S.  Detwiler. 

1851 — David  Hays,  S.  Detwiler,  Jacob  Garver. 

1852 — Samuel  Lehman,  Jacob  Garver,   Martin  Newcomer. 

1853 — Jacob  Garver,  Martin  Newcomer,  D.  O.  Gehr. 



1854 — Martin  Newcomer,  D.  O.  Gehr,  James  Ferguson. 

1855 — D.  O.  Gehr,  James  Ferguson,  Josiah  Besore. 

1856— James  Ferguson,  Josiah  Besore,  Jacob  Weaver. 

1857 — Josiah  Besore,  Jacob  "Weaver,  M.  Gillan. 

1858 — Jacob  Weaver,  M.  Gillan,  Jacob  Strickler. 

1859 — M.  Gillan,  Jacob  Strickler,  David  Spencer. 

1860 — Jacob  Strickler,  David  Spencer,   J.  S.  Latshaw. 

1861 — David  Spencer,  J.  S.  Latshaw,  William  Harris. 

1862 — J.  S.  Latshaw,  William  Harris,  Samuel  Seacrist. 

1863 — William  Harris,  Samuel  Seacrist,  John  Doebler. 

1864 — Samuel  Seacrist,  John  Doebler,  John  H.  Criswell. 

1865 — John  H.  Criswell,  James  H.  Clayton,  Martin  Heintzelman. 

1866 — John  H.  Criswell,  James  H.  Clayton,  Martin  Heintzelman. 

1867 — James  H.  Clayton,  Martin  Heintzelman,  John  Gillan,  Jr. 

1868-69 — Martin  Heintzelman,  John  Gillan,  Jr.,  J.  R.  Smith. 

1870-  John  Gillan,  John  Smith,  Fred.  Long. 

1871— J.  R.  Smith,  Fred.  Long,  Peter  McFerren. 

1872 — Fred.  Long,  Peter  McFerren,   David  Deatrick. 

1873 — Peter  McFerren,  David  Deatrick,  Jacob  Kreider. 

1874 — David  Deatrick,  Jacob  Kreider,  Amos  Stouffer. 

1875 — Jacob  Kreider,  Amos  Stouffer,  William  Bossart. 

1876 — Amos  Stouffer,  William  Bossart,  Henry  Lutz. 

1877— William  Bossart,  Henry  Lutz,  B.  F.  Funk. 

1878— Henry  Lutz,  B.  F.  Funk,  Jacob  Frick. 

1879—  B.  F.  Funk,  Jacob  Frick,  John  Lindsay. 

1880 — Jacob  Frick,  John  Lindsay,  Benjamin  Lehman. 

1881 — John  Lindsay,   Benjamin  Lehman,  H.  B.  Angle. 

1882 — Benjamin  Lehman,  H.  B.  Angle,  John  E.  Maclay. 

1883— H.  B.  Angle,  John  E.  Maclay,  Geo.  W.  Brindle. 

1834— John  E.  Maclay,  Geo.  W.  Brindle,   Charles  A.  Clark. 

1885 — Geo.  W.  Brindle,  Charles  A.  Clark,  John  A.  Witherspoon. 

1886-*Charles  A.  Clark,*  John  A.  Witherspoon,  H.  C.  Funk.f 

1887 — John  A.  Witherspoon,  John  H.  Crisswell,  Levi  D.  C.  Houser. 


1808-14— Daniel  Shrceder. 
1814-21 — Benjamin  Graver. 
1821-27— Richard  Morrow. 
1827-30— Philip  Lauffman. 
1830-33— Andrew  McLellan. 
1833-39— Col.  John  Snider. 
1839— David  Fegley. 
1840-43— WiUiam  J.  Morrow. 
1843-45 — Emanuel  Crosland. 
1845-54 — Samuel  Jeffries. 

1854-56— David  Piper. 
1856-59— William  Shinafield. 
1859 — John  Bowman. 
1860-64 — James  Chariton. 
1864-66— William  McGrath. 
1866-68— John  Ditzlear. 
1868— David  Piper. 
1869-73— Samuel  Brandt. 
1873-84— Joseph  Middouer. 
1884-87— Augustus  H.  Etter. 


1808-14— David  Denney.  1823— John  Sloan. 

1814-21— Unknown.  1824-27— Hugh  Greenfield. 

1821-23— William  Heyser.  1827-30— Daniel  Spangler. 

*Died,  and  vacancy  filled  April  27  until  January,  1886,  by  the  appointment  of  Levi  D.  C.  Houser,  who,  at 
the  November  election,  was  elected  for  a  full  term  of  three  years. 

tDied  and  vacancy  filled  July  17  by  the  appointment  of  John  H.  Crisswell  until  January  1, 1886,  who,  at 
the  November  election,  was  elected  for  two  years,  Mr.  Funk's  unexpired  term. 



1830-32— Joseph  Pritts. 
1832-35— Henry  Smith. 
1835 — Jasper  E.  Brady. 
1836-38— William  Bard. 
1838— Henry  Kuby. 
1839-43— Daniel  Dechert. 
1843-45— William  Flory. 
1845-48— Daniel  S.  Fahnestock 
1848— James  Wright. 


-D.  S.  Fahnestock. 
-J.  Smith  Grier. 
-John  W.  Reed. 
-Charles  Gelwicks. 
-Alex.  Martin. 

1872— Thomas  Metcalfe. 
1873-80— Hugh  B.  Davison. 
1881-87— S.  Miller  Shillito. 



14— Elijah  B.  Mendenhall. 

-F.  Hershberger. 

—Matthew  Lind. 

-D.  C.  Dehart. 

-James  McKay. 

21 — Henry  Reges. 

23 — Daniel  Spangler. 

27 — Richard  Morrow. 

—Hiram  Cox. 

31— William  S.  Davis. 

1831— John  Colhoun. 
1832— James  R.  Kirby. 
1833-35— John  Smith. 
1835-37— John  W.  Reges. 
1837^L0— Richard  Morrow. 
1840-43— Jacob  Heck. 
1843-45— Hugh  B.  Davison. 
1845-48— Charles  W.  Heart. 
1848-50— John  W.  Reges. 




-Lyman  S.  Clarke. 
-J.  Wyeth  Douglass. 
-Snively  Strickler. 
-William  S.  Everett. 
-E.  J.  Bonebrake. 
-John  R.  Orr. 


1808 — Abraham  Senseny. 
1809-14— John  Sloan. 
1815-18— Andrew  McDowell. 
1819-20— George  B.  McKnight. 
1821-23— A.  J.  Dean. 
1824-26— Samuel  D.  Culbertson. 
1827— Peter  Fahnestock. 
1828— N.  B.  Lane. 
1829-30— Andrew  McDowell. 
1831J32 — Jeremiah  Senseny. 
1833— D.  S.  Byrne. 
1834-35— J.  Bayne. 
1836-37— A.  H.  Senseny. 
1838 — John  Lambert. 
1839^1— J.  Evans. 
1842-43— J.  C.  Richards. 
1844— William  H.  Boyle. 
1845-47— John  Lambert. 

1873-76— James  A.  McKnight. 
1876-77— Frank  Mehaffey. 
1878— John  M.  McDowell. 
1879-82— N.  Bruce  Martin. 
1882-85— Loren  A.  Culp. 
1885-87— J.  F.  Linn  Harbaugh. 


1848-49— N.  B.  Lane. 
1850-52— John  King. 
1853 — -John  Lambert. 
1854— A.  H.  Senseny. 
1855— S.  G.  Lane. 
1856-57— A.  H.  Senseny. 
1858— W.  H.  Boyle. 
1859-61— S.  G.  Lane. 
1862-63 — James  Hamilton. 
1864-65— J.  L.  Suesserott. 
1866-67— J.  C.  Richards. 
1868— C.L. Bard,  T.J.  McLanahan. 
1869-72— W.  H.  Boyle. 
1873-75— T.  J.  McLanahan. 
1876-77— Samuel  G.  Lane. 
1878-81— T.  J.  McLanahan. 
1882-85— Charles  F.  Palmer. 
1886-87— John  P.  Seibert. 


1872-78— Augustus  Bickley. 
1879-80— Philip  Hamman. 

1881-87— Augustus  Bickley. 

*Mr.  Davison  died,  and  on  April  5, 1880,  S.  Miller  Shillito  was  elected  to  fill  remainder  of  year. 


Mr.  j?iekley  commenced  holding  religious  service  at  the  poor-house  in 
1836,  and  continued  with  few  interruptions  until  1872,  when  he  was  regular- 
ly elected  chaplain,  witn  d  salary. 


1736 — Zachariah  Butcher,  Lancaster  County. 
1743-1746 — Thomas  Cookson,  Lancaster  County 
1750 — Col.  John  Armstrong,  Cumberland  County. 

1784 — Matthew  Henderson,  of  Cumberland  County,  to 

1784-96 — Matthew  Henderson,  of  Lurgan  Township. 

1796-1804— Daniel  Henderson. 

1804-09— Thomas  Kirby,  Chambersburg. 

1809-13— Thomas  Poe,  Antrim. 

1813-21 — Archibald  Fleming,  Antrim. 

1821-24— William  S.  Davis. 

1824-29 — William  Hamilton,  Peters  or  Montgomery. 

1830-34— William  S.  Davis,  Chambersburg. 

1834-36— Seth  Kline,  Greene. 

1836-37 — William  S.  Davis,  Chambersburg. 

1837-39— Samuel  M.  Armstrong. 

1839-45 — Hugh  Auld,  Chambersburg. 

1845-47 — Augustus  F.  Armstrong,  Chambersburg. 

1847-50— Hugh  Auld,  Chambersburg. 


By  the  act  of   the  9th  of  April,   1850,  county  surveyors  were  directed  to 
be  elected  to  serve  for  the  term  of  three  years  each. 
The  following  persons  have  filled  the  office: 
1850-56— Emanuel  Kuhn,  St.  Thomas. 
1856-62 — John  B.  Kaufman,  Letterkenny. 
1862-71 — Emanuel  Kuhn,  Chambersburg.* 
1871-75 — John  B.  Kaufman,   Letterkenny. 
1875-78— John  W.  Kuhn,  Peters. 
1878-87 — John  B.  Kaufman,   Letterkenny  (present  incumbent). 


Prior  to  the  passage  of  the  act  of  1850,  providing  for  the  election  of  dis- 
trict attorneys,  the  State's  attorney  or  prosecuting  attorneys  were  the 
deputies  of  the  attorney-general  for  the  time  being,  appointed  by  him, 
and  removable  at  his  pleasure.  The  court  records  prior  to  1842  having 
been  burned,  it  is  not  possible  to  make  more  than  a  partial  list  of  the  former 
prosecuting  attornevs,  as  follows: 

1789-90— John  Clark.  1824— Frederick  Smith. 

1790-1802— William  Brown.  1842-45— Wilson  Reilly. 

1802-12— William  Maxwell,  Gettysburgl845-47— William  R.  Rankin. 
1813— William  M.  McDowell.  1847-49— George  W.  Brewer. 

1819— Matthew  St.  Clair  Clarke.  1849-51— Hugh  W.  Reynolds. 


Elected  under  the  act  of  3d  of  May,  1850,  to  serve  three  years,  from  first 
Monday  in  November  after  election. 

♦Resigned  April,  1871,  and  John  B.  Kaufman  was  appointed  for  the  unexpired  term.    Mr.  Kaufman 
was  also  elected  for  the  full  term  in  October,  1871. 


1851-54— James  S.  Ross.  1872-75— Theodore  McGowan. 

18^1-^7-  i  Thomas  B.  Kennedy.  1875-78 — Oliver  C.  Bowers. 

°  (  Lyman  S.  Clarke.  1878-81— Oliver  C.  Bowers. 

1857-60— Lyman  S.  Clarke.  1881-84— Chas.  A.  Suesserott. 

1860-63— George  Eyster.  1884-87— W.  J.  Zacharias. 

1863-72— William  S.  Stenger.  1887       —Hiram  J.  Plough. 


Elected  under  the  act  of  10th  of  April,  1867,  to  serve  for  three  years. 

1867-70 — Addison  Imbrie,  William  Boyd. 

1870-73— W.  H.  H.  Mackey,  Elias  Patton. 

1873-76— John  Gilbert,  A.  H.  Etter. 

1876-79— J.  C.  McCulloh,  Lewis  Lecron. 

1883 — George  S.  Coover,  David  M.   Lowry. 

1886— John  E.  Harvey,  L.  H.  Henkell. 


Selected  under  act  of  May  8,  1854,  to  serve  for  three  years. 
1854-57— James  McDowell,  Hugh         1869-72— Samuel  Gelwix. 
J.  Campbell.  1872-75— Jacob  S.  Smith. 

1857-63— Philip  M.  Shoemaker.  1875-81— S.  H.  Eby. 

1863-66— Andrew  J.  McElwain  1881-87— Harry  A.  Disert. 

1866-69— Philip  M.  Shoemaker. 



Lands  and  Land  Titles— Indian  Trails— Roads— Bridges— Turnpikes— Inns 
or  Taverns — Militia— Muster  Days— Mail  Routes  and  Postoffices— 
Postmasters  —  Railroads  —  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad  —  First 
Sleeping  Car  Ever  Made— Franklin  Railroad— Shenandoah  Valley 
Railroad— Harrisburg  &  Potomac  Railroad— Western  Maryland  Rail- 
road— Baltimore  &  Cumberland  Valley"  Railroad— Mont  Alto  Rail- 
road— Mont  Alto  Iron  Works,  etc. 

WHEN  the  white  man  came  here  he  found  all  the  lands  in  the  possession  of 
the  Indians.  Their  title  was  simply  that  of  tribal  possession.  There  was 
no  individual  ownership,  and  to  this  day  that  race  spurns  the  idea  of  individual 
property  in  land.  When  civilization  put  its  foot  down  to  stay  upon  this  con- 
tinent it  taught  these  children  of  the  forest  the  sad  lesson  to  them,  of  not  only 
individual  title  to  land  but  title  acquired  by  right  of  discovery  and  con- 

By  grant  from  England,  William  Penn  became  the  proprietary  of  the  lands 
that  constitute  the  commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania.  The  spendthrift  king 
was  in  debt  to  the  Penn  estate  something  over  £16,000,  and  it  was  an  easy 
matter  for  him  to  pay  his  debts  by  granting  anything  the  creditor  might  want 
in  the  New  World.  Penn,  by  his  agents  first,  and  then  in  person,  came  on  and 
entered  upon  his  possessions.  He  used  every  means  to  bring  immigrants  here, 
and  was  very  liberal  in  conferring  titles  to  all  who  wished  to  occupy  land. 


After  Perm  had  purchased  of  the  English  Government  what  he  had  supposed 
was  an  indefeasible  title  to  the  land  described  in  his  grant,  and  his  agents 
came  to  occupy  the  same,  he  found  that  his  title  was  disputed  by  tribes  of  In- 
dians— first  the  Five  Nations  and  afterward  the  Six  Nations.  He  met  them  in 
the  spirit  of  the  utmost  fairness,  and  again  purchased  what  he  had  already 
paid  his  king  in  full  for.  And  more  than  once  he  had  to  buy  the  title  to  the 
same  property  from  new  claimant  tribes,  and  in  some  instances,  where  the  same 
tribe  had  sold  and  spent  the  proceeds  of  the  sale,  they  demanded  a  second 
payment.  Even  these  unreasonable  claims  were  attended  to  and  the  second 
payments  cheerfully  made. 

Penn  sold  at  very  cheap  rates  to  immigrants  wanting  to  settle  upon  lands. 
He  was  as  lenient  to  the  absurd  claims  of  some  squatters,  who  here  and  there 
took  possession  and  resisted  his  rights,  as  he  had  been  to  the  ignorant  Indians, 
in  his  sales  generally  reserving  a  small  quit  rent  per  acre,  or  in  case  of  town 
lots,  per  lot,  to  be  paid  to  proprietary  per  annum.  In  this  way  came  all  the 
titles  to  lands  in  Pennsylvania  prior  to  the  Revolution.  When  the  independ- 
ence of  the  colonies  was  established,  the  right  of  eminent  domain  and  the  title 
to  all  lands,  not  transferred  to  individuals,  rested  in  the  General  Government,  a 
satisfactory  compensation  having  been  made  the  proprietaries  in  the  adjust- 
ment of  the  subject. 

The  modern  convenient  plan  of  sectionizing  land  was  then  unknown. 
A  purchaser  would  get  a  grant  for  so  much  land  in  a  certain  locality,  and  then 
locate  it  and  mark  it  out  as  his  judgment  dictated,  his  first  consideration  being 
a  spring  of  water,  and  then  to  curve  and  crook  his  lines  to  get  where  he  sup- 
posed would  be  the  best  land. 


The  setting  sun,  the  mountain  passes,  and  the  topography  of  mountain  and 
valley,  determined  the  course  of  the  Indian  trails — the  only  highways  known 
to  the  savages.  The  "  war-path"  was  a  term  full  of  meaning.  Bloody  and 
senseless  wars  were  the  chief  end  in  life  of  the  most  of  them,  and  the  trails 
from  tribe  to  tribe  usually  meant  "  the  war-path  " — the  thin  trails  worn  in  the 
primeval  rocks  by  the  generations  of  painted  braves  on  their  bloody  missions. 

These  Indian  trails  directed  the  white  man  to  the  heart  of  the  wilderness. 
They  were  the  primitive  roads  pointing  his  course  in  his  slow  voyage  from 
the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific.  The  adventurous  hunters  would  discover  and 
first  follow  up  these  trails,  and  then  tell  the  young  immigrants  of  the  wonders  of 
the  country  they  had  seen.  It  was  a  hunter,  that  had  looked  upon  Falling 
Springs  and  the  surrounding  beautiful  land,  who  told  young  Chambers  about 
it,  and  determined  him  to  come  here.  By  following  the  trail  leading  from 
about  Harrisburg  toward  the  Potomac,  as  directed  by  the  hunter,  the  Cham- 
berses  were  led  to  the  spot  that  will  ever  be  a  monument  to  the  memory  of  that 
illustrious  family. 


In  1736  the  first  road  was  laid  out  in  the  Cumberland  Valley.  It  would  be 
most  probably  termed  in  these  days  a  bridle  road,  that  is,  a  road  over  which 
the  trains  of  pack-horses  could  travel  and  carry,  as  they  did,  the  articles  of 
commerce  of  that  day.  In  the  year  named,  the  court  of  Lancaster  appointed 
Col.  Chambers,  and  five  others,  to  view  roads  and  survey  important  lines.  In 
1735  a  road  had  been  ordered  to  be  made  from  Harris'  Ferry  toward  the  Po- 
tomac River,  and  Col.  Chambers  and  party  surveyed  the  route  and  ' '  blazed  it 
out."  This  first  road,  strange  as  it  seems  now,  met  with  considerable  opposi- 
tion ' '  from  a  number  of  inhabitants  on  the  west  side  of  the  Susquehanna. ' '     It 


was  originally  intended  to  extend  only  from  Harris'  Ferry  to  Letort  Springs, 
(Carlisle. ) 

Military  Road,  1755. — This  road  extended  from  McDowell's  Mill,  near 
Chambersburg,  "over  the  mountains  to  Raystown  (Bedford),  by  the  forks  of 
the  Youghiagheny,  to  intersect  the  Virginia  road  somewhere  on  the  Mononga- 
hela,"  being  supposed  indispensable  for  the  supply  of  Braddock's  troops  on 
the  route  to  Fort  Du  Quesne,  and  after  their  arrival.  One  of  the  commission- 
ers to  lay  out  this  road  was  Adam  Hoops,  of  Antrim.  A  route  was  surveyed 
from  a  gap  in  the  mountain  near  Shippensburg  over  an  old  Indian  trail  to 
Raystown.  The  road  was  from  ten  to  thirty  feet  wide,  according  to  the  work 
necessary  ti  construct  it;  it  was  completed  to  Baystown  in  June.  Braddock's 
defeat  rend  vred  further  work  unnecessary,  and  it  was  stopped. 

In  1768  he  first  public  road  extending  through  this  county  and  into  Fulton 
County  was  ordered  by  the  court  of  quarter  sessions  of  Cumberland  County. 
It  was  an  extension  of  the  old  ''Harris'  Ferry  toward  the  Potomac "  road. 
When  made,  it  ran  through  Peters,  Antrim  and  Washington  Townships,  as  they 
are  now  formed. 

At  the  April  session  of  the  court  of  Cumberland  County,  1761,  a  petition 
of  the  people  of  Peters  Township  was  presented,  asking  for  a  road,  saying  that 
they  have  no  prospect  for  a  standing  market  for  the  produce  of  the  county, 
only  at  Baltimore,  and  having  no  road  leading  from  their  township  to  said 
town  of  Baltimore,  and  flour  being  the  principal  commodity  their  ' '  township 
produceth,  and  having  two  mills  in  said  township,  viz. :  John  McDowell's  and 
William  Smith' s, ' '  they  pray  the  court  to  appoint  men  to  view  and  lay  out  a 
road  from  each  of  said  mills  to  meet  at  or  near  the  house  of  William  Maxwell, 
and  from  thence  to  run  by  the  nearest  and  best  way  toward  said  town  of  Bal- 
timore, until  it  intersects  the  ' '  temporary  line, ' '  or  the  line  of  York  County. 
The  court  appointed  Henry  Pawling,  James  Jack,  John  Allison,  Joseph  Brad- 
ner,  John  McClellan,  Jr. ,  and  William  Holliday,  viewers,  any  four  of  them  to 
make  a  report.  No  report  was  made  until  April,  1768,  when  the  viewers  re- 
ported in  favor  of  granting  the  petition  of  the  people  of  Peters  and  Hamilton 
Townships.  But  the  branch  roads  to  the  mills  were  restricted  to  be  bridle 
roads.  They  were  to  unite  at  or  near  James  Irwin's  mill,  in  Peters  Town- 
ship; thence  crossing  to  the  Conococheague  Creek,  at  the  mouth  of  Muddy  Run; 
thence  through  Antrim  Township  to  Nicholson's  Gap,  in  the  South  Mountain, 
from  there  to  Baltimore.  Thus  it  mainly  followed  the  old  trail ;  the  trail  being 
superseded  by  a  bridle  road,  and  this  by  a  wagon  road,  and  the  last  by  a 
turnpike.  This  was  the  regular  order  of  development  that  has  now  resulted 
in  the  railroads — the  first  and  main  lines  of  which  substantially  follow  the  great 
Indian  trails. 

In  1 768  the  court  appointed  Edward  Crawford,  Jonah  Cook,  George  Brown, 
AVilliam  McBrier,  William  Holliday  and  William  McDowell,  viewers,  to  locate 
a  road  from  James  Campbell's,  near  Loudon,  through  Chambersburg,  to  the 
county  line  in  Black' s  Gap.  This  is  now  substantially  the  route  of  the  present 
turnpike  road. 

When  Chambersburg  was  laid  out  as  a  town,  the  road  toward  Shippensburg 
crossed  the  spring  at  the  present  fording  on  King  Street,  and  following  its 
course  through  the  Indian  burial  place  and  the  yard  of  the  Presbyterian 
Church,  finally  joined  the  present  road  in  front  of  the  church,  and  pursued  its 
eastward  course  several  rods  distant  from  the  present  turnpike,  but  nearly 
parallel  with  it.  The  only  place  where  the  Conococheague  could  be  crossed 
near  the  southern  limit  of  the  town  was .  at  the  lower  fording,  at  Lemon' s 
factory,  where  the  bridge  now  is.     At  this  ancient  fording  Col.  Chambers  once 



kept  a  fiat-boat  for  carrying  foot  passengers.  Two  roads  ran  westward  from 
the  ford,  one  of  which,  now  Franklin  Street,  wound  over  the  hill  to  Market 
Street,  and  then  proceeded  directly  west.  The  other  ran  through  "Wolfstown 
and  formed  a  junction  with  the  former  at  Western  Point,  about  a  mile  from 

Of  the  roads  in  early  times  in  the  county,  Dr.  W.  C.  Lane,  in  Public 
Opinion,  June  20,  1877,  says:  "In  the  infancy  of  the  settlement  the  facilities 
which  merchants  now  enjoy  for  bringing  their  goods  from  the  eastern  cities 
were  unknown.  Then  we  were  not  within  a  few  hours'  ride  of  Philadelphia, 
and  could  riot  order  goods  one  day  and  receive  them  the  next.  Turnpikes  were 
yet  among  the  things  of  the  future,  and  goods  from  the  East  were  slowly  drawn 
over  the  rough  roads,  in  small  and  lumbering  wagons,  and  many  days  were  re- 
quired for  the  journey.  Commercial  intercourse  with  the  West  was  carried  on 
exclusively  by  means  of  pack-horses,  and  the  process  of  sending  goods  to,  Or 
bringing  them  from,  this  remote  part  of  the  State,  was  both  slow  and  expen- 
sive; as  a  necessary  consequence,  merchandise  of  all  varieties  then  commanded 
a  much  higher  price  than  it  does  now.  This  mode  of  transporting  goods  on 
pack-horses  from  Chambersburg  ran  into  the  beginning  of  the  present  century. 
The  roads  from  Chambersburg  to  the  West  were  then  narrow  and  rough,  and 
wagons  could  hardly  be  drawn  over  them,  and  pack-horses  were,  necessarily, 
almost  exclusively  used  as  a  means  of  transportation.  Long  strings  of  these 
horses,  with  small  bells  suspended  from  their  necks,  and  laden  with  salt,  iron 
and  goods  of  various  kinds,  were  accustomed  to  start  from  the  town  on  their 
weary  march  to  their  distant  destination.  A  wooden  pack-saddle  was  fastened 
on  the  back  of  the  horse,  and  over  this  was  placed  bent  bars  of  iron,  on  the 
curved  and  projecting  ends  of  which  sacks  of  salt,  iron  bars  and  cast  iron  uten- 
sils of  various  kinds  were  strapped.  Each  horse  carried  about  200  pounds,  and 
many  weary  days  were  spent  in  traversing  the  country  over  which  they  passed. 
It  will  not  be  forgotten  that,  at  this  early  date,  the  western  counties  of  the 
State  were  sparsely  settled,  and  that  the  manufacture  of  iron,  salt  and  different 
other  commodities,  was  yet  undeveloped.  Hence,  the  people  of  these  sections 
were  entirely  dependent  upon  the  East  for  these  indispensable  articles  of  daily 
use.  We  may  incidentally  remark  that,  about  the  year  1790,  Mr.  John  Gil- 
more,  of  Strasburg,  sold  salt  at  his  store  in  that  town,  for  transportation  to 
Washington  County,  on  pack-horses,  at  $8  per  bushel.  Other  articles  of  trade 
brought  correspondingly  high  prices.  In  the  few  following  years  the  roads 
over  the  mountains  were  widened  and  otherwise  improved,  and  wagons  then 
took  the  places  of  pack-horses.  The  usual  time  required  for  a  loaded  wagon 
to  make  the  trip  from  Chambersburg  to  Pittsburg,  and  return,  was  three 
weeks.  The  average  price  of  freight  between  these  places  was  $10  per  hun- 


The  first  consideration  to  the  settlers,  in  order  to  live  at  all,  was  roads. 
They  had  to  have  salt  and  iron.  These  they  could,  after  a  fashion,  carry  over 
the  rough  and  narrow  roads  they  made.  The  growth  of  their  wants  soon  com- 
pelled the  making  of  wagon  ways,  and  then  it  was  some  time  before  they  felt 
compelled  to  put  bridges  across  the  streams.  They  contented  themselves  with 
* '  fords  ' '  — shallow  places — where,  by  a  little  work  in  digging  the  banks,  it  was 
possible  to  cross  on  the  wagons  with  light  loads,  but  here,  as  in  many  places 
in  the  mountain  passes,  they  would  "double  teams,"  and  in  mud  and  water, 
and  in  sore  trials  and  labor,  after  spending  the  most  of  a  day  at  a  bad  cross- 
ing, they  would  pass  over.  Then  selecting  places  of  narrow  and  steep  banks 
they  would  make  rude   bridges.     These  were  very   imperfect  affairs — often 


washed  away  by  the  freshets  that  went  raging  down  the  mountain  streams,  and 
many  were  the  freighters  and  travelers  who  had  to  go  into  camp  and  patiently 
wait  the  subsidence  of  the  waters.  When  the  waters  had  gone  down,  the  people 
would  replace  the  washed- away  first  bridge  with  one  better  constructed,  but 
still  their  inexperience  often  deceived  them  as  to  what  the  stream  could  do  the 
next  effort  it  made,  and  sometimes  the  second  and  third  bridges  would  follow 
down  the  stream  like  the  first  one. 


The  building  of  the  first  turnpike  road  was  an  era  in  the  history  of  the  de- 
velopment of  the  county.  The  people  heard  of  its  promised  advantages,  and 
the  probabilities  of  its  ever  being  really  made,  with  some  incredulity.  The 
national  and  State  governments  willingly  lent  their  aid  to  the  construc- 
tion of  these  important  improvements.  Better  ways  for  commercial  inter- 
course among  the  distant  communities  were  imperative.  The  great  Mis- 
sissippi Valley  was  being  rapidly  taken  up  by  settlers,  and  the  stupendous 
national  project  was  conceived  of  a  great  highway  from  Baltimore  to 
the  Mississippi  River,  through  the  States  of  Maryland,  Pennsylvania,  Ohio, 
Indiana  and  Illinois.  The  work  upon  this  enterprise  was  carried  on  for 
nearly  a  generation.  It  was  never  completed  to  the  Mississippi  River,  but  waa 
built  to  Vandalia,  the  then  capital  of  Illinois.  It  was  the  wants,  the  foresight 
and  energy  of  the  people  of  Franklin  that  caused  the  commencement  of  this 
national  road. 

The  turnpike  road  from  Chambersburg  to  Baltimore  was  made  in  1809,  and 
the  first  broad- wheeled  wagon  which  passed  over  it  was  made  by  Mr.  Philip 
Berlin,  of  Chambersburg   in  that  year. 

The  Pittsburgh  turnpike  was  made  about  1820.  The  first  stage  coach  from 
Chambersburg  to  Pittsburgh  ' l  passed  over  a  rough  and  narrow  mountain  road 
in  the  year  1804" 

The  construction  of  the  Western  turnpike  gave  an  active  impulse  to  trade, 
and  goods  were  shipped  over  it  in  great  broad-wheeled  wagons  in  large  quan- 
tities. The  business  activity  of  Chambersburg  and  the  surrounding  country 
then  greatly  increased.  Several  lines  of  stages  started  daily  for  Philadelphia, 
Pittsburgh  and  Baltimore,  besides  other  lines,  which  reached  less  distant  places. 
The  town  then  was  a  great  thoroughfare  for  travel,  and  at  all  seasons  the  town's 
hotels  were  filled  with  travelers.  The  public  highways  were  soon  lined  with 
blacksmith  and  wagon-makers'  shops,  stage  and  hack  stands,  and  trading 
places.  The  tavern  yards  were  crowded  with  wagons,  and  merchants  were  busily 
engaged  receiving  and  shipping  goods.  Large  numbers  of  men  were  thus  em- 
ployed. The  road  from  Chambersburg  to  Pittsburgh  was  often  lined  with  long 
files  of  broad-wheeled  wagons,  with  their  high  bows  covered  with  heavy  can- 
vas, and  drawn  by  those  teams  of  powerful  draught  horses,  for  which  Pennsyl- 
vania was  once  famous,  many  of  whose  necks  were  mounted  with  bearskin 
housings  and  tinkling  bells. 

The  following  account  kept  by  Henry  R.  F.  Mollwitz,  keeper  of  the  North 

Mountain  turnpike  gate,  leading  from  Loudon  to  McConnellsburg,  for  the  years. 

1830  and  1834,  exhibits  at  one   view  the  amount  of  traveling,  etc.,    on  the 

turnpike,  during  those  years. 

During  the  year                        1830  1834                                                           1830  1834 

Broad  wheeled  wagons 6641  6359  Riding  horses 3116  2817 

Narrow  wheeled     "       495  374  Draft  horses 39824  42330' 

Single  horse            "      761  1243  Heads  of  cattle 5834  6457 

Carriages 138  107  Sheep 2180  2852 

Two  horse  wagons 318  779  Hogs 1180  40 

Gigs 18  00  Carts 18  00 


The  first  turnpike  company  in  the  State  was  incorporated  in  April,  1792; 
but  it  was  not  built  till  about  1814,  when  many  similar  companies  were  char- 
tered, and  the  public  mind  became  deeply  interested  in  their  building.  The 
State  was  a  liberal  subscriber  to  such  enterprises.  Every  State  in  the  Union 
subscribed  largely  to  its  enterprises  of  internal  improvements.  During  these 
times  three  important  turnpike  roads  were  constructed  into  Franklin  County, 
and  to  each  of  these  the  State  contributed  liberally.  The  three  roads  were: 
The  Carlisle  and  Chambersburg  road  (this  received  from  the  State  $100,000); 
the  Chambersburg  and  Bedford  road  ($175,000);  and  the  Waynesboro,  Green- 
castle  and  Mercersburg  road  ($25,000). 


Inns  or  taverns  were  numerous  in  those  days.  It  is  said  that  nearly 
every  tenth  house  along  the  turnpike  was  a  hostelry,  whose  yards  were  night- 
ly filled  with  wagons,  and  whose  tap-rooms  were  thronged  with  noisy  and 
hilarious  teamsters.  A  violin  was  then  considered  an  indispensable  adjunct  to 
a  country  tavern;  and,  moved  by  its  inspiring  notes,  the  jolly  crowd  often 
stamped  and  thundered  through  the  ' '  stag  dance, ' '  the  Virginia  reel,  and  the 
"  hoe  down."  The  fun  was  fast  and  furious,  especially  when  the  throng  was 
maddened  by  their  frequent  and  generous  potations  of  the  "worm  of  the 
still;"  then  a  brawl  and  promiscuous  fight  was  not  unfrequent,  and  bloody 
noses  and  blackened  eyes  were  the  proud  badges  of  the  royal  fun  they  had 
had.  Certainly  these  were  wild  times — but  they  were  jolly.  The  good  old 
days  of  the  wayside  taverns ;  the  era  of  Concord  coaches  and  their  ' '  great  men' ' 
drivers,  who  were  the  heroes  par  excellence,  whether  mounted  upon  their  box, 
the  "ribbons"  guiding  the  prancing  horses,  the  long  whip,  and  the  winding 
horns  blowing  defiance  and  triumph  in  the  face  of  a  gaping  world,  like  the 
heralds  of  the  plumed  knights  of  old;  or  in  the  bar-room,  the  center  of  an  ad- 
miring crowd,  to  which  they  gave  their  condescending  and  oracular  "Yes; 
with  a  little  sugar,  please."  They  were  the  country  taverns'  truly  great  men. 
The  flattering  "treats"  of  the  men,  the  gracious  smiles  of  the  blooming  bar- 
maid, were  theirs  exclusively.  What  a  picture  of  rural  life  and  happy  con- 
tent your  recollection  conjures  up!  Now  all  is  gone.  The  shrill  whistle  of 
the  flying  engine  has  blown  out  of  this  world  even  those  great  heroes,  the 
stage- drivers.  Your  memory  lingers  now  like  a  fading  tradition — ye  have 
passed  away,  like  a  dissolving  view — a  silent  tear  to  your  shades. 


The  earliest  settlers  were,  soon  after  landing  here,  compelled  to  resort 
to  some  mode  of  military  organization,  by  the  action  of  the  Indians.  Then 
there  were  the  conflicting  claims  to  the  country  by  the  Spaniards,  French  and 
English.  The  different  settlements,  as  they  happened  to  be  from  different 
nations  of  Europe,  were  often  given  to  raids  upon  neighboring  colonies,  and 
sometimes  drove  them  off  and  destroyed  their  property;  at  other  times  they 
were  content  to  take  the  colony  under  their  authority,  and  incorporate  the 
conquered  colonists  with  their  own  society.  Except  the  Quakers,  all  the  peo- 
ple were  more  or  less  militant.  As  early  as  1750,  nearly  every  able-bodied 
man  was  in  some  way  or  other  connected  with  the  militia  of  his  county.  The 
Indians  had  become  so  troublesome  that  parties,  when  they  went  out  to  open 
new  roads,  had  to  go  as  armed  squads  of  militia.  In  1755  Col.  James  Smith, 
who  afterward  became  eminent  in  the  wars  of  the  country,  was  captured  by 
the  Indians  while  in  the  act  of  opening  a  road  from  Loudon  to  Bedford. 

After  the  Revolution  the  Assembly  enacted  laws  for  the  regular  organiza- 


tion  of  the  militia,  and  appointed  officers  to  take  charge  thereof,  and  to  hold 
regular  encampments  and  muster  days.  All  the  people  of  the  county  en- 
rolled in  the  militia  were  required  to  meet  upon  the  muster  days,  and  to 
bring  their  guns  and  learn  the  drill  of  arms.  Those  who  had  no  guns,  the 
State  being  too  poor  to  supply  any,  were  requested  to  use  a  stick  or,  as  some 
did,  a  corn  stalk;  and,  hence,  the  name  of  "  cornstalk  militia"  was  at  onetime 
a  term  quite  common.  These  muster  days  were  eventually  great  annual  events  in 
the  county.  Here  the  people  met,  discussed  political  and  current  events,  arbitrated 
disputes,  fought  out  old  quarrels,  and  some  drank  whisky  and  rather  indiscrim- 
inately frolicked  and  fought,  as  opportunity  offered.  In  the  early  part  of  the  cen- 
tury the  authorities  ordered  a  change  in  the  uniform  from  a  black  to  a  white  cock- 
ade in  the  hats  of  the  militia.  In  counties  where  the  Federal  party  was  the 
stronger,  this  order  created  in  some  places  almost  riots,  and  in  many  there 
were  acts  of  insubordination  and  open  denunciation  of  the  order.  Companies 
would  put  on  the  required  cockade  while  in  the  ranks  drilling,  but,  the  moment 
the  commanding  officer  would  say  ' '  dismiss, ' '  they  would  tear  off  the  regular 
cockades  and  trample  them  under  foot,  and  from  their  pockets  produce  and 
place  in  their  hats  the  other  color  cockade,  and  thus  boisterously  parade  the 
town.  Many  court-martials  of  militia  officers  occurred  for  insubordinations, 
and  the  two  political  parties  for  a  while  were  the  "white  cockades  "  and  the 
' '  black  cockades. ' ' 


It  sounds  strange  to  the  people  of  to-day,  to  say  that,  for  six  years 
after  the  formation  of  the  county,  there  was  not  a  postoffice,  or  mail 
facilities  of  any  kind,  in  the  county,  or  in  this  part  of  the  common- 
wealth. People  in  those  days  wrote  letters  and  watched  for  opportuni- 
ties to  send  them  by  the  hands  of  some  party  going  to  their  destination.  The 
Government  sent  letters  to  its  army  officers  only  by  special  couriers.  Busi- 
ness men  sent  and  received  important  business  letters,  and  remitted  and  re- 
ceived money  by  the  hands  of  persons  going  from  one  to  the  other.  The 
freighters  were,  of  course,  a  common  convenience  in  this  respect.  But  off 
these  routes  of  general  travel,  it  was  a  very  difficult  matter  to  communicate 
with  friends.  Practically  then  at  one  time,  after  there  were  certainly  as 
many  as  10,000  people  in  what  is  now  Franklin  County,  neither  letters  nor 
papers  were  brought  into  the  county.  The  first  provision  of  the  Government  au- 
thorities, that  refers  to  this  county,  was  a  resolution  of  Congress,  passed  May  20, 
1788.  It  provided  that  the  Postmaster- General  be  directed  to  employ  posts 
for  the  regular  transportation  of  the  mails  between  the  city  of  Philadelphia, 
and  the  town  of  Pittsburgh,  ' '  by  the  route  of  Lancaster,  Yorktown,  Carlisle, 
Chambers'  Town  and  Bedford,"  and  that  the  mail  be  dispatched,  "once  in 
each  fortnight  from  the  said  postoffices  respectively. ' ' 

The  first  postoffice  in  the  county  was  established  in  Chambersburg  in  June, 
1790.  The  settlement  was  then  sixty  years  old,  and  all  this  time  the  people 
had  to  supply  their  imperative  necessities  by  such  means  as  they  could  find. 
For  many  years  thereafter,  as  the  reader  will  see  by  reference  to  the  dates  of 
the  establishment  of  the  postoffices  as  given  below,  it  was  only  the  few  princi- 
pal offices  in  the  county  that  had  any  mail  connections  with  one  another.  For 
a  long  time  regular  mails  could  only  be  sent  from  Chambersburg  to  Shippens- 
burg ;  Chambersburg  to  Greencastle ;  Chambersburg  to  Mercersburg,  and  Mer- 
cersburg  to  Hagerstown.  Papers,  circulars  and  political  addresses  preceding 
a  hotly  contested  election  were  distributed  by  horseback  couriers,  each  political 
party  sending  oat  its  distributors.  These  pony  riders  would  usually  start 
from  the  county  seat  on  the  first  of  the  week,  each  provided  with  horns  to 


blow  when  he  would  approach  a  hamlet  or  some  leading  citizen's  house.  The 
people  would  gather,  they  would  distribute  their  important  mail  matter,  and 
in  this  way  go  all  over  the  county.  These  trips  would  occupy  about  the  en- 
tire week.  Barney  O'  Neil  and  Theo.  Ditz,  both  living  near  Chambersburg, 
were  such  mail  carriers. 

A  copy  of  the  Chambersburg  Gazette  of  June  19,  1793,  contains  a  list  of 
settlers  in  the  Chambersburg  postoffice  as  follows:  David  Adams,  Falling 
Springs;  Patrick  Boyle;  Mathew  Brown;  Mary  Brettow,  care  John  Scott, 
Esq. ;  John  Bigham,  care  Hugh  Bigham ;  Thomas  Cooper,  James  Crawford, 
Greencastle;  Archibald  Cunningham,  care  James  Finley,  Esq.;  Andrew 
Dougherty,  care  J.  Mahoney;  James  Dodds,  care  James  Ramsey;  John  Mc- 
Donald, care  John  Gilmore;  John  Dorans,  care  John  King;  Thomas  Downing, 
care  Dr.  Huey;  David  Ewing,  care  Andrew  Kennedy;  Christopher  Ferris, 
Greencastle;  Mathew  Fleming,  care  Rev.  John  King;  John  Grimes,  care  John 
Martin;  Andrew  Givins,  Tuscarora  Valley;  John  Glenn,  Mercersburg;  William 
Guthrie,  Southampton  Township ;  John  Gilmore,  Strasburg ;  James  Gregg, 
care  John  Calhoun;  Thomas  Henderson,  hatter;  Eleanor  Hayes,  care  Samuel 
Calhoun;  James  Henderson,  care  John  Scott;  Charles  Hunter,  care  James 
Ramsey  or  John  Parkhill ;  Lenox  Hallam,  care  Capt.  Beatty;  James  Hender- 
son; Andrew  Irwin,  care  Samuel  Quigley ;  Robert  Kidd,  care  Alexander  Dobbin; 
John  Kennon,  care  James  Gailey;  James  Kelly,  care  James  Ramsey;  John  Mil- 
ler, Coyler's  Creek;  William  McKee,  James  McCaslin,  John  McCurdy,  John 
McKillop,  Alexander  McCracken,  care  James  Ramsey;  William  McCleneghan, 
care  James  McCleneghan;  Samuel  McMillin,  Burnt  Cabins;  Robert  Martin 
Cooper,  care  Geo.  Clark;  Thomas  Mitchell,  Susanah  McShane,  care  Rev. 
John  King;  William  Martin,  Sherman's  Valley;  Walter  McKinney,  care  John 
King;  John  Neal,  care  Thomas  Lucas;  Robert  Porter,  Robert  Peebles, 
Hamilton  Township;  Archibald  Patterson,  shoe-maker;  Robert  Patterson, 
cooper;  Nathaniel  Rankin,  Greencastle;  Thomas  Stewart,  James  Semple, 
Mrs.  Polly  Stokes,  Charles  Victor  Shook,  Peter  Shields,  Joseph  Thompson, 
Henry  Work,  Esq.,  M.  Williams,  Peter  Walter,  Jacob  Year,  John  Urr. 

The  following  is  an  alphabetical  list  of  the  postoffices  in  the  county  and 
the  postmasters,  with  dates  of  appointments: 

Altenwald. — Jacob  B.  Cook,  December  21,  1881. 

Amberson's  Valley. — Benjamin  J.  Culbertson,  December  16,  1850;  Samuel 
Shearman,  June  21,  1852;  John  Creamer,  June  25,  1853;  Jeremiah  B.  Jones, 
March  29,  1865;  John  M.  Shearer,  July  2,  1866;  John  A.  Shoemaker,  April 
28,  1874;  Francis  L.  Shoemaker,  August  3,  1885. 

Antietam  (late  Quincy). — Abraham  Stoner,  July  16,  1839;  changed  to 
Quincy  September  2,  1841. 

Black's  Gap. — Robert  Black,  June  15,  1869;  changed  to  Greenwood  Mills, 
September  29,  1869. 

Black's  Gap  (late  Greenwood  Mills). — Robert  Black,  February  9,  1870; 
Nannie  C.  Bohn,  September  23,  1885. 

Blue  Ridge  Summit  (late  Monterey  Springs). — A.  C.  Roosman,  April  5, 
1876;  Maggie  L.  Chapman,  January  7,  1881. 

Bridgeport  Mills. — Martin  Hoover,  February  15,  1837;  discontinued  May 
10,  1842;  re-established  with  Jacob  Phillipi,  December  19,  1873;  changed  to 
Lemasters,  April  6,  1877. 

Brown' s  Mills, — Andrew  Dalrymple,  May  14,  1867;  Hiram  Young,  April  15, 
1869;  John  H.  Grayson,  April  1,  1870;  John  T.  Valentine,  March  31,  1871; 
Jeremiah  R.  Young,  February  25,  1876;  Hiram  Young,  January  15,  1878: 
Henry  C.  Gelwicks,  April  14,  1882;  James  B.  Weicht,  March  17,  1886. 


Carrick. — Samuel  Dunn,  April  16,  1834;  John  Dunn,  May  8,  1843;  Ben- 
jamin H.  Eshleman,  February  8,  1849;  discontinued  December  24,  1849. 

Carrick  Furnace. — George  W.  Swank,  July  5,  1860;  William  Noonan,  Feb- 
ruary 26,  1864;  discontinued,  January  19,  1865;  re-established  with  Samuel 
H.  Brown,  postmaster,  October  23,  1872;  Alvin  W.  Horning,  January  12, 
1874;  changed  to  Metal,  May  19,  1884. 

Chambersburgh. — John  Martin,  June  1,  1790;  Patrick  Campbell,  July  1, 
1795;  Jeremiah  Mahoney,  January  1,  1796;  John  Brown,  July  5,  1802;  Jacob 
Deckert,  April  7,  1818;  John  Findlay,  Sr.,  March  30,  1829;  John  Findlay, 
July  9,  1836;  William  Gilmore,  November  24,  1838;  George  H.  Harper,  April 
3,  1841;  David  D.  Durboran,  July  8,  1842;  John  McClintock,  February  3, 
1846;  Nicholas  Pearse,  April  18,  1849;  John  Noel,  May  13,  1853;  John  Lig- 
gett, April  13,  1858;  John  W.  Deal,  April  15,  1861;  Mathew  P.  Welsh,  Sep- 
tember 19,  1866;  John  A.  Seiders,  April  8,  1869;  Daniel  O.  Gehr,  April  21, 
1877.   E.  W.  Curriden,  November  14,  1884;  James  Sweney,  October  19,  1886. 

Clay  Lick.— Elam  B.  Winger,  April  21,  1862;  Joseph  W.  Winger,  Febru- 
ary 17,  1866;  Jacob  M.  Winger,  December  2,  1874;  Albert  C.  Winger,  March 
21,  1881;  Jacob  M.  Winger,  February  11,  1885;  William  B.  Zullinger,  July 
24,  1886. 

Concord. — Edward  W.  Doyle,  April  1,  1811;  Edward  Doyle,  January  16, 
1816;  James  Wilson,  April  3,  1826;  William  E.  Pumroy,  June  15,  1849;  Will- 
dam  Johnston,  June  10,  1853;  Solomon  B.  Hockenberg,  March  13,  1861;  Til- 
lie  E.  McElheny,  March  20,  1886;  Rachel  J.  McElheny,  April  10,  1886. 

Doylesburgh.— Philip  T.  Doyle,  May  23,  1854;  Joseph  M.  Doyle,  April  29, 
1856;  John  Goshorn,  February  11,  1865;  Isaac  Clugston,  December  15,  1869; 
Alva  C.  Clugston,  February  6,  1879. 

Dry  Run. — William  Campbell,  Jr.,  February  5,  1825;  James  Ferguson, 
May  27,  1839;  Thomas  Wilson,  April  27,  1849;  John  E.  Kerr,  December  1, 
1853;  William  W.  Piles,  January  16,  1854;  Henry  S.  Doyle,  June  21,  1856; 
James  H.  Craig,  February  23,  1859;  James  M.  Rankin,  June  29,  1861;  George 
E.  Stewart,  September  27,  1866;  William  H.  H.  McCoy,  March  19,  1869; 
Wilson  H.  Coons,  January  6,  1882;  J.  B.  Elder,  July  30,  1885. 

Edenville. — Levi  L.  Springer,  December  21,  1882;  William  C.  Hartman, 
November  9,  1885. 

Fannettsburgh — James  Sweeney,  March  30,  1809;  Chamber  Anderson,  April 
11,  1820;  James  Brewster,  December  19,  1834;  Jacob  Flickinger,  April  14, 
1838;  William  Uttz,  June  14,  1839;  John  Kyle,  May  16,  18.45;  Mary  Kyle, 
October  5,  1848;  William  W.  Skinner,  September  23,  1850;  John  S.  Skinner, 
May  1,  1854;  Mary  Kyle,  July  19,  1853;  John  S.  Skinner,  May  1,  1854;  George 
W.  Swank,  February  6,  1855;  John  Kegerries,  November  1,  1855;  Mary  A. 
Kegerries,  June  7,  1860;  George  A.  Miller,  December  22,  1870;  Robert  E. 
Typer,  October  23,  1873;  John  J.  Basore,  January  6,  1875;  Jacob  B.  Wine- 
man,  December  9,  1885. 

Fayetteville.  — John  Darby,  September  4,  1826;  Frederick  Ashbaugh, 
March  20,  1827;  James  D.  Rea,  December  27,  1831;  Charles  P.  Cummings, 
June  14,  1832;  William  B.  Cummings,  October  21,  1835;  R.  M.  French,  Jan- 
uary 24,  1837;  Joseph  Boggs,  June  22,  1841;  R.  M.  French,  July  29,  1845; 
Mary  A.  French,  April  8,  1846;  Hiram  Heysinger,  September  27,  1855;  Will- 
iam Richey,  April  24,  1857;  David  F.  Richey,  October  18,  1859;  Joseph  Boggs, 
June  17,  1861;  Upton  J.  Cook,  January  23,  1866;  Jacob  Oyler,  August  29, 
1866;  William  N.  Horner,  March  19,  1869;  John  D.  Boggs,  January  6,  1882; 
John  N.  Baxter,  September  14,  1885. 

Five  Forks.— William  H.  Brown,  March  5,  1873. 


Foltz. — Appleton  Berger,  April  2,  1880;  Thomas  O.  Bradley,  November  1, 
1882;  George  F.  Grove,  May  15,  1884;  John  A.  Wister,  August  24,  1885. 

Fort  Loudon  (late  Loudon). — Thomas  G.  McGuire,  June  22,  1883;  John 
H.  Metz,  July  30,   1885. 

Greencastle. — John  Watson,  April  4,  1797;  David  Watson,  June  29,  1837; 
Jacob  F.  Kreps,  July  7,  1845;  George  Eby,  February  27,  1849;  William  W. 
Fleming,  April  9,  1849;  William  McCrary,  June  11,  1853;  George  Eby,  May 
28,  1861;  Eli  Fuss,  July  29,  1868;  George  H.  Miller,  May  6,  1869;  Henry  P. 
Prather,  December  18,  1871. 

Green  Village. — James  McAnulty,  September  12,  1827;  John  E.  McGaw, 
March  9,  1832;  Thomas  Sturgis,  April  16,  1832;  William  Blankney,  February 
22,  1833;  Charles  W.  Lego,  June  18,  1841;  William  Blankney,  February  3, 
1843;  John  P.  Wallace,  May  4,  1849;  Thomas  H.  Wallace,  November  28,  1881; 
John  Ditzlear,  September  23,  1885. 

Greenwood  Mills,  (late  Black's  Gap). — Bobert  Black,  September  29,  1869; 
changed  to  Black's  Gap,  February  9,  1870. 

Jackson  Hall. — John  S.  Kerr,  May  12,  1827;  Frederick  Koemer,  Febru- 
ary 2,  1830;  John  P.  Baker,  March  16,  1835;  William  McCleary,  May  30, 
1837;  John  Underlich,  April  11,  1839;  John  C.  Tritle,  June  21,  1853; 
Thomas  C.  Fitzgerald,  September  19,  1854;  Jacob  C.  Snyder,  July  5,  1860; 
John  McKnight,  May  8,  1861;  Jeremiah  Y.  Herman,  March  30,  1868;    James 

A.  Davidson,  December  22,  1870;  Charles  A.  W.  Baker,  March  20,  1872;  Fred- 
erick J.  Pfoutz,  March  27,  1879 ;  changed  to  New  Franklin  August  21,  1882. 

Keeffer's  Store. — Lewis  Keeffer,  August  25,  1849;  Isaac  H.  Thompson, 
July  29,  1853;  Lewis  Keeffer,  December  29,  1854;  Jonathan  Strine,  Decem- 
ber 20,  1855;  discontinued,  December  5,  1856;  re-established,  with  Philip 
D.  Weaver,  postmaster,  May  13,  1858;  George  Westhafer,  December  12, 
1859;  discontinued,  April  18,  1864;  re-established  with  Wlliam  Karper, 
postmaster,  October  20,  1864;   discontinued,  February  9,  1871. 

Keef ers.  — Jacob  A.  Karper,  December  9,  1879 ;  Daniel  G.  Hoover,  March 
10,  1882;  Jacob  A.  Karper,  September  24,  1883;  Joshua  A.  Phillips,  Novem- 
ber 19,  1884. 

Lemasters  (late  Bridgeport  Mills). — Samuel  Plum,   April  6,  1877;  Edgar 

B.  Diehl,  May  11,  1885. 

Loudon. — Nicholas  Baker,  May  2,  1814;  William  H.  Brotherton  April  8, 
1817;  Alexander  Elder,  February  1,  1819;  William  H.  Brotherton, ,  June  27, 
1821;  JohnEaston,  October  18,  1823;  Benjamin  Stinger,  December  24,  1828; 
Hugh  L.  McGaw,  February  14,  1831;  William  Minich,  October  11,  1833; 
Jane  Minich,  August  5,  1850;  John  Mullan,  December  10,  1852;  Jacob  Sny- 
der, July  5,  1860;  Eliza  L.  B.  Madden,  December  4,  1861;  John  Thompson, 
December  14,  1863;  John  H.  Jarrett  December  28,  1866;  William  Burgess, 
March  19,  1869;  Hettie  A.  Easton,  June  28,  1872;  Thomas  G.  Maguire, 
October  2,  1878;  changed  to  Fort  Loudon,  June  22,  1883.  (This  office  was 
at  one  time  called  Loudontown. ) 

Lurgan. — D.  D.  Swanger,  February  27,  1886;  MaryE.  Swanger,  April  14, 

Marion. —William  Martin,  March  2,  1833;  Abraham  Scott,  April  5,  1834; 
Emanuel  Kuhn,  January  21,  1835;  John  S.  Scheible,  March  29,  1837;  John 
Clugston,  April  2,  1838 ;  Jacob  Greenawalt,  July  9,  1847 ;  Jacob  A.  Swigert, 
October  9,  1865;  Andrew  Statler,  March  10,  1874;  Samuel  S.  Ledy,  October 
19,  1885. 

Mason  &  Dixon.  — Abraham  B.  Barnhart,  May  15,  1868;  Jacob  H.  Brewer, 
April  25,    1871;    Huron  A.  Huyett,   July  17,  1872;  Henry  B.  Harnish,  Octo- 


ber  9,   1875;  Frank  H.  McLaughlin,  May  25,  1877;  Henry  P.  McLaughlin, 
March  25,  1886. 

Mercersburgh. — James  Bahn,  January  1,  1803;  George  King,  October  1, 
1803;  James  McCoy,  January  1,  1808;  William  B.  Guthrie,  January  22, 
1813;  Peter  W.  Little,  February  11,  1822;  Robert  King,  May  5,  1827;' Elli- 
ott T.  Lane,  July  15,  1829;  Daniel  Shaffer,  April  30,  1834;  Thomas  P.  Bard, 
June  24,  1841;  Daniel  Shaffer,  January  21,  1845;  Sarah  H.  Findlay,  April 
18,  1849;  Eliza  Carson,  April  14,  1853;  Maggie  G.  Grove,  March  29,  1861; 
JohnHoch,  September  26,  1866;  Elizabeth  Rice,  March  6,  1867;  Wilson  L. 
Harbaugh,  February  17,  1879;  W.  A.  Shannon,  July  24,  1885  (at  first  called 

Metal  (late  Carrick  Furnace). — Alvin  W.  Horning,  May  19,  1884;  George 
W.  Swank,  April  16,  1886. 

Midvale.—  M.  R.  Nevin,  February  24,  1881;  Oscar  W.  Good,  March  24, 
1881;  Jacob  F.  Good,  November  28,   1881. 

Mongul.— William  A.  Baer,  April  14,  1882. 

Mont  Alto. — John  Kuhn,  December  14,  1843;  discontinued,  December  9, 
1845;  re-established  with  Peter  Heefner,  August  15,  1846;  Joseph  F.  Walter, 
April  21,  1848;  Ephraim  J.  Small,  May  29,  1849;  Peter  Heefner,  July  15, 
1853;  George  W.  Toms,  August  27,  1853;  discontinued,  June  22,  1855;  re- 
established with  George  W.  Toms,  June  30,  1855;  Ephraim  J.  Small,  Octo- 
ber 6,  1855;  John  Small,  November  21,  1857;  John  Keis,  May  28,  1861; 
Ralph  Smith,  May  17,  1866;  Henry  Shiery,  October  17,  1866;  Ephraim  J. 
Shank,  April  10,  1869;  David  Ziegler,  April  24,  1873;  David  Knepper,  Janu- 
ary 9,  1882;  Edward  M.  Small,  July  24,  1885. 

Monterey  Springs. — Henry  Yingling,  September  28,  1870;  changed  to  Blue 
Ridge  Summit,  April  5,  1876. 

Mount  Parnell. — John  Mullan,  April  3,  1862;  Charles  Gillan,  April  6, 
1866;  James  D.  McDowell,  April  1,  1878;  John  A.  Gillan,  March  2,  1880; 
Alexander  Dale,  March  28,  1881;  discontinued,  August  19,  1881. 

Mowers ville. — Jacob  H.  Snoke,  March  3,  1868;  A.  S.   Bashore,  February 

8,  1875;  Andrew  B.  Gross,  October  15,  1879;  Samuel  Taylor,  March  15,  1881; 
David  R.  Frehn,  September  23,  1885;  James  F.  Geyer,  March  25,  1886. 

New  Bridge. — Harmon  P.  Piper,  September  8,  1868. 

New  Franklin  (late  Jackson  Hall). — Jeremiah  Hoover,  August  21,  1882. 

New  Guilford. — George  Trittle,  December  17,  1849;  discontinued,  August 
31,  1852;  re-established  with  Jacob  Snyder,  December  17,  1852;  Nathan  R. 
Hutchinson,  January  9.   1856;  John  L.  Wingert,   December  27,   1856;  John. 
Wolfkill,  October  17,  1859;  discontinued,  February  27,  1866. 

Opher. — John  H.  McMullen,  April  16,  1883;  discontinued,  January  12, 

Orrstown. — James  B.  Orr,  June  26,  1836;  William  L.  Smith,  March  19, 
1849;  Ephraim  Bear,  April  26,  1850;  Jacob  R.  Zearfoss,  March  4,  1852;  Henry 
Ruby.  January  18,  1853;  Cyrus  B.  Ruby,  October  9,  1855;  James  B.  Orr, 
May  24,  1857;  William  Orr,  Jr.,  March  12,  1858;  David  T.  Bard,  December 
18,  1860;  Jacob  Kindig,  March  25,  1861;  Samuel  Knisley,  March  16,  1864; 
David  L.  Powders.  January  9,  1872;  Samuel  Knisley,  April  20,  1874;  David 
E.  Kendig,  December  9,  1875;  Lottie  A.  Kendig,  January  5,  1883;  Samuel 
Knisley,  July  7,  1884;  John  A.  Zullinger,  July  20,  1885. 

Pen  Mar.— Charles  A.  Rouzer,  April  16,  1883. 

Pleasant  Hall. — Charles  Whealan,  August  28,  1851;  Jonathan  Strine,  May 

9,  1855;  Charles  Whealan,    December  14,  1855;  John    S.   Myers,    May    11, 
1859;    Albert  M.    Hunter,    May  1,    1860;  Abraham  Keefer,   April    20,    1863; 


discontinued  October  20,  1873;  re-established  with  Isaac  Burkholder,  post- 
master, January  13,  1876;  Abraham  W.  Hoover,  February  14,  1882. 

Quincy. —Jacob  Byer,  March  27,  1830;  George  Wertz,  November  2,  1832; 
changed  to  Antietam  July  16,  1839. 

Quincy  (late  Antietam). — James  McKinley,  September  2,  1841;  Jacob 
Firor,  May  28,  1846;  William  B.  Raby,  December  15,  1846;  John  B.  Way- 
nant,  December  14,  1848;  Jacob  S.  Zeigler,  March  22,  1849;  David  Piper, 
August  12,  1852;  Hugh  Logan,  June  11,  1853;  John  R.  Smith,  December  21, 
1853;  George  A.  Anderson,  May  2,  1854;  discontinued  October  12,  1860;  re- 
established with  David    Wertz,    October  31,    1860;    John  R.  Smith,  October 

3,  1866;  Samuel  Secrist,  October  24,  1866;  William  B.  Raby,  January  20, 
1868;  Elam  B.  Wingar,  March  19,  1869;  David  Sommers,  May  8,  1871; 
Christian  W.  Good,  July  1,  1874;  Levi  C.  Kefmer,  January  16,  1878;  Benja- 
min R.  Summer,  August  6,  1885. 

Richmond  Furnace. — William  Burgess,  May  23,  1872;  Charles  Hoffman, 
December  7,  1876;  John  A.  Diehl,  March  18,  1878. 

Rocky  Spring.— Barnard  Fohl,  May  4,  1839;  Robert  E.  Tolbert,  March 
7,  1844;  discontinued  April  1,  1847. 

Rowzersville.— Samuel  Gonder,  January  22,  1873;  Charles  H.  Buhrman, 
June  26,  1873;  Anie  E.  Gresanam,  December  13,  1880. 

Roxbury.  —  William^Reynolds,  February  5,  1822;  Godlieb  Wunderlich,  Jan- 
uary 17,  1823;  Thomas' Rumroy,  May  1,  1826;  William  I.  Thompson,  March 
12,  1832;  George  A.   Dougherty,  February  3,   1837;  Robert  Gilmore,  March 

14,  1839;  Samuel  Stailey,  June  24,  1841;  William  Deardorff,  April  1,  1851; 
William  J.  G.  Thompson,  April  7,  1852;  John  Taylor,  January  20,  1853; 
Esrom  D.  Weaver,  October  9,  1855;  George  W.  Saltsman,  April  9,  1861;  John 
M.  Saltsman,  December  18,  1862;  Robert  A.  Hamilton,  November  23,  1885. 

Saint  Thomas. — James  Edwards,  February  21,  1824;  William  G.  Sterrett, 
March  20,  1832;  James  Edwards,  April  20,  1835;  Henry  Smith,  April  18, 
1837;  Daniel  S.  Hossler,  December  7,  1848;  Barnard  Fohl,  May  4,  1849; 
Christian  W.  Burkholder,  July  7,  1853;  William  D.  Dickson,  January  14, 
1858;  Barnard  Fohl,  March  29,  1861;  Michael  H.  Keyser,  September  22, 
1862;  William  D.  Dickson,  March  19,  1869;  William  L.  Gillem,  October  10, 
1872;  Cyrus  C.  Gelwicks,  August  14,  1885. 

Scotland. — George  R.  Mcllroy,  June  29,  1849;  James  W.  Dunmire,  April 

15,  1854;  James  S.  Chambers,  July  5,  1861;  William  Wallace,  Jr.,  April  25, 
1866;  Henry  Sleichter,  June  15,  1869;  John  G.  Youst,  April  4,  1881;  Will- 
iam L.  Craig,  August  4,  1885. 

Shady  Grove. — Charles  McCauieyv  April  15,  1852;  Jacob  B.  Waynant, 
May  13,  1854;  discontinued,  April  25.  1856. 

Shady  Grove. — Frank  B.  Snively,  December  7,  1860;  Melchi  Snively,  May 

4,  1879;  William  T.  Phillips,  August  24,  1885;  John  F.  Wilt,  April  29,  1886. 

Spring  Run. — William  A.  Mackey,  November  13,  1850;  Isaac  Clugston, 
November  22,  1858;  William  A.  Mackey,  July  5,  1861;  William  M.  Nesbitt, 
August  21,  1877;  William  S.  Elliott,  September  7,  1880;  Daniel  Wolff,  March 
20,  1883. 

State  Line. — David  Brumbaugh,  Jr.,  February  9,  1830;  Joseph  Gilbert, 
May  28,  1634;  Jacob Felmlee,  April  2,  1838;  Gearhart  Brenner,  April  1,  1843; 
William  Martin,  June  12,  1843;  Jacob  Felmlee,  August  15,  1844;  discontin- 
ued, FeV  a  "'3,  1845;  re-established  with  John  Rearick,  postmaster,  Jan- 
uary 6,  lv  1  aiel  S.  Barnhart,  June  20,  1857;  John  Rearigh,  August  15, 
1859;  John  A.   Orr,    September  10,    1861;  Daniel  B.   Hade,  June  17,  1869; 



George  W.  Harbaugh,  June  15,  1874;  Jacob  A.  Witmer,  September  10,  1875? 
Henry  R.  Harnish,  Jnne  7,    1877;  Philip  N.   Brumbaugh,  August  24,  1885. 

Stone  Bridge. — -Isaac  Kuhn,  September  22,  1873;  discontinued  May  6, 

Strasburgh. — George  Beaver,  July  1,  1797;  George  McClellan,  April  23, 
1798;  William  McClellan,  August  4,  1823;  changed  to  Upper  Strasburgh 
February  28,  1829. 

Sylvan. — John  Zimmerman,  June  6,  1843. 

Svlvan. — William   Bowers,    February   3,    1837;    discontinued,    February 

9,  1842. 

Upper  Strasburgh  (late  Strasburgh). — William  McClellan,  February  28, 
1829;  James  McFarland,  March  14,  1839;  John  Grove,  July  2,  1841;  William 
Gilmor,  December  26,  1844;  William  S.  Doyle,  May  9,  1849;  John  Grove, 
June  10,  1850;  Philip  Karper,  July  14,  1853;  Josephus  M.  Wolf  kill,  November 
2,  1855;  Samuel  Gilmore,  June  9,  1858;  James  S.  Slyder,  July  5,  1861; 
William  W.  Britton,  March  24,  1865;  Frederick  C.  Karper,  December  10, 
1880;  Jacob  V.  B.  Leedy,  May  11,  1885. 

Upton  (late  Whitestown). — George  Cook,  July  24,  1837;  Robert  J.  Boyd, 
November  15,  1867. 

Warren  Point. — Archibald  S.  Winger,  February  11,  1878;  discontinued 
August  26,   1878. 

*Waynesborough. — Michael  Stoner,  December  19,  1807;  Joseph  Deardorf, 
September  22,  1830;  Thomas  Walker,  February  28,  1833;  Michael  M.  Stoner, 
May  2,  1837;  John  W.  Stoner,  December  17,  1840;  James  Brotherton,  July 
19,  1845;  James  Brotherton,  Jr.,  February  15,  1849;  Jacob  R.  Welsh,  June 
13,  1853;  Thomas  G.  Pilkington,  May  28,  1861;  Nancy  Pilkington,  February 

10,  1863;  Andrew  G.  Nevin,  September  30,  1864;  Jacob  R.  Welsh,  November 
26,  1866;  Andrew  G.  Nevin,  May  6,  1869;  Matilda  R.  Nevin,  February  5, 
1875;  George  Middow,  January  19,  1882;  James  P.  Lowell,  March  12,  1886. 

Welsh  Run. —John  Eldon,May  17,1830;  James  Watson,  February  16,  1832; 
Thomas  Bowles,  February  16,  1839;  William  H.  Craig,  June  18,  1859;  Thomas 
Bowles,  February  18,  1862;  John  R.  Stover,  December  27,  1877;  Henrv  G. 
Chritzman,  December  12,  1881;  Frank  T.  Elliott,  December  3,  1884. 

Whitestown. — George  Cook,  July  10,  1837;  changed  to  Upton,  Julv  24, 

Williamson. — E.  H.  Hagerman,  August  20,  1872;  Upton  G.  Hawbecker, 
September  23,  1885. 

Willow  Kill.—  Charles  Fleming,  September  24,  1878;  Edgar  S.  Bock, 
April  24,  1882. 

Wingerton. — Philip  Wiesner,  January  22,  1884. 

Yetter. — Christian  Yetter,  May  17,  1881;  discontinued  February  16,  1882. 

Zullinger.— David  Zullinger,  February  23,  1882. 

Zero.— Lewis  Ripple,  February  7,  1837;  John  P.  Baker,  July  28,  1838;. 
discontinued,  April  10,  1839. 


The  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad  is  the  oldest  road  in  this  section,  and 
among  the  pioneer  roads  of  the  country.  Its  history  is  the  history  of  the  rail- 
roads of  this  valley,  as  well  as  the  interesting  story  of  the  simpler,  crude- 
beginnings  that  have  grown  into  the  great  railroad  system  of  the  country. 
The  simplest  statement  of  the  facts  is  a  story  full  of  interest  to  the  general 

The  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad  Company  was  chartered  by  the  Legisla- 
ture of  Pennsylvania  on  the  2d  of  April,    1831,   to  construct  a  railroad  from 

*First  called  "  Waynesburgh  or  Waynesboro." 


Carlisle  to  a  point  on  the  Susquehanna  Eiver  at  or  near  Harrisburg.  The 
charter,  having  expired  by  limitation  of  time,  was  revived  by  an  act  of  Assem- 
bly of  the  15th  of  April,  1835,  and  authority  extended  to  construct  the  road 
from  the  Susquehanna  River  to  Shippensburg  and  Chambersburg.  In  accord- 
ance with  the  provisions  of  the  charter,  in  order  to  organize  the  company,  an 
election  for  officers  and  managers  was  held  on  the  27th  of  June,  1835.  in 
the  borough  of  Carlisle  with  the  following  results:  President,  Thomas  G.  Mc- 
Colloh,  of  Chambersburg;  treasurer,  Joseph  B.  Mitchell,  of  Philadelphia; 
secretary,  Abraham  Hendel,  of  Carlisle;  managers,  Samuel  Alexander, 
Charles  B.  Penrose,  Lewis  Harlan,  Frederick  Watts,  John  K.  Neff,  John 
Grigg,  David  Mahon,  Frederick  Byers,  Philip  Berlin,  Thomas  Chambers, 
Charles  S.  Border,  George  W.  Himes.  The  board  of  managers,  at  a  meeting 
held  on  the  21st  of  August,  1835,  selected  William  Milner  Roberts  for  chief 

On  the  23d  of  October,  1835,  Mr.  W.  Milner  Roberts  reported  to  the 
board  of  directors  the  results  of  his  survey  of  the  line  from  the  Susquehanna 
River,  opposite  Harrisburg  to  Chambersburg.  He  estimated  the  cost  of  build- 
ing the  road  to  a  connection  with  the  Harrisburg  &  Lancaster  Railroad, 
including  the  bridge  across  the  Susquehanna  at  $564,064,  and  the  average 
annual  receipts  of  the  road  at  $284,617.50.  He  calculated  on  100 
passengers  each  way  per  day  at  3  cents  per  mile,  and  35,000  tons  of  through 
freight  and  51,950  tons  of  local  freight,  all  at  the  rate  of  4^  cents  per  ton  per 

On  February  21,  1836,  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature  granted  authority  to 
bridge  the  Susquehanna  and  connect  with  the  Pennsylvania  Canal,  and  the 
Harrisburg,  Portsmouth,  Mount  Joy  &  Lancaster  Railroad,  and  authorized 
the  managers  of  the  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad  to  manage  for  uninterrupted 
communication  of  trade  and  travel  between  Chambersburg  and  Philadelphia. 

The  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad  was  opened  for  travel  from  White  Hill  to 
Carlisle  in  August,  1837,  and  through  to  Chambersburg  in  November  of  the 
same  year.  The  first  locomotive  and  cars  were  hauled  across  the  Harrisburg 
Bridge  (a  part  of  which  still  stands),  and  over  the  turnpike  to  White  Hill. 
The  locomotive  had  two  driving  wheels,  wooden  spokes,  was  named  "  Cumber- 
land Valley,"  and  was  built  by  William  Norris  in  Philadelphia.  The  passen- 
ger cars  were  like  the  old  stage  coaches.  They  had  been  run  on  the  State  road 
from  Philadelphia  to  Columbia,  and  would  seat,  inside  and  out,  fourteen  pas- 
sengers each.  The  railroad  track  consisted  of  cross  ties  laid  four  and  a  half 
feet  apart  upon  the  ground  without  ballast,  upon  which  were  laid  oak  stringers 
5x9  inches,  on  which  bar  iron  five-eighths  of  an  inch  thick  and  two  and  a 
quarter  inches  wide  was  spiked.  The  ends  of  the  iron  bars  were  mitred,  and 
the  bar  which  extended  on  the  inside  of  the  track  would  become  pressed 
away  from  its  connection,  so  as  to  be  caught  on  the  flange  of  the  wheels 
going  in  an  opposite  direction,  causing  them  to  turn  up  against  the  bottom, 
and  sometimes  through  the  car.  As  a  protection  against  the  turning  up  of 
bars,  the  bottoms  of  the  cars,  were  covered  with  two- inch  plank,  inside  of 
which  was  a  lining  of  boiler  plate,  and  at  the  time  the  road  was  opened  to 
Chambersburg,  the  iron  was  not  laid  for  about  three  miles  from  Chambersburg, 
and  the  cars  were  run  in  on  the  wooden  stringers. 

The  railroad  bridge  across  the  Susquehanna  was  built  in  1837-38,  and 
completed  in  January,  1839,  when  on  the  16th  of  that  month  it  was  opened  for 
travel  and  connection  made  with  the  Harrisburg  &  Lancaster  Railroad.  A 
poster,  bearing  pictures  of  the  primitive  locomotive  and  train,  was  issued  by 
Mr.  T.  G.  McColloh,  president  of  the  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad,  January 


25,  1839,  announcing  that  "on  the  first  day  of  the  next  February  the  regular 
train  of  passenger  cars  would  commence  running  as  follows: 

" Leave  Chambersburg  at  4  o' clock  in  the  morning;  arrive  at  Harrisburg 
at  8,  at  Lancaster  at  12,  and  at  Philadelphia  before  6  P.  M.  Returning,  it 
will  leave  Harrisburg  as  soon  as  the  cars  from  Philadelphia  arrived,  about  5 
o'clock  in  the  evening,  and  arrive  at  Chambersburg  at  10  P.  M. " 

The  first  sleeping-car  ever  used  on  any  railroad  was  put  in  use  on  the  Cum- 
berland Valley  Railroad  in  the  spring  of  1839,  a  historical  fact  of  great  import- 
ance, because  it  was  the  first  of  the  kind  in  the  world.  The  berths  were 
upholstered  boards,  in  three  rows,  one  above  the  other,  held  by  leather  straps, 
and  in  the  daytime  were  folded  back  against  the  walls — very  simple  and  plain 
in  construction,  but  comfortable,  and  in  all  essential  features  the  germ  of  the 
luxurious  sleeper  of  the  present  day.  At  that  time  travel  between  Philadel- 
phia and  Pittsburgh  was  by  rail  to  Chambersburg,  and  stage  from  Chambers- 
burg to  Pittsburgh.  Passengers  going  east  reached  Chambersburg  about  mid- 
night, and  left  about  1  A.  M. ,  reaching  Harrisburg  about  5  A.  M. 

The  oldest  extant  report  of  the  operations  of  the  Cumberland  Valley 
Railroad  was  made  by  President  McColloh  for  the  year  1839.  In  it  he  deplores 
' '  the  general  financial  depression  of  the  country,  due  to  the  error  which  has 
everywhere  prevailed,  of  forcing  public  improvements  further  than  the  means 
of  the  countiy  would  justify."  ".We  start,"  he  says,  "with  half  means,  and 
are  then  forced  to  finish  on  credit  at  a  ruinous  cost,  and  one  experience  has 
been  an  example  of  this  prevailing  error."  He  finds  hope,  however,  in  the 
fact  that  ' '  we  are  an  energetic  and  elastic  people,  and  with  care  and  economy 
our  wonted  prosperity  will  soon  be  attained."  He  announces  the  purchase  of 
three  locomotives  for  $21,250,  and  two  passenger  cars  at  $4,175;  that  two 
passengers  and  one  freight  train  are  run  each  day  between  Chambersburg  and 
Harrisburg,  and  that  no  injury  has  been  done  to  any  passenger  since  the  road 
has  been  operated — two  and  one-half  years. 

On  the  27th  of  April,  1840,  Thos.  G.  McColloh  tendered  his  resignation  as 
president  of  the  company,  and  on  the  same  day  Chas.  B.  Penrose,  of  Carlisle, 
was  elected  by  the  board  of  managers  to  fill  his  place. 

On  the  26th  of  April,  1841,  Chas.  B.  Penrose  tendered  his  resignation  of 
the  presidency  of  the  company,  having  accepted  the  position  of  solicitor  of 
the  treasury,  under  the  administration  of  Gen.  Harrison,  at  Washington. 
Upon  its  acceptance,  on  the  same  day  Frederick  Watts  was  unanimously 
chosen  by  the  board  to  fill  the  position,  which  he  held  for  thirty-two  continu- 
ous years. 

The  next  report  of  which  we  find  a  copy  was  made  by  Hon.  Frederick 
Watts,  president  for  the  year  1842,  in  which  he  states  that  the  universal  de- 
pression of  the  last  few  years  has  had  its  effect  upon  the  business  of  the  com- 
pany; but  that  it  is  hoped  that  prosperity  will  again  bless  the  country,  and  if 
it  does,  he  is  confident  that  the  stock  of  the  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad  will 
be  profitable  to  its  owners.  The  total  earnings  for  the  year  were  $70,116.82. 
For  the  year  1849  the  earnings  were  $101,084.77,  and  the  tonnage,  which 
is  for  the  first  time  shown,  was  37,439,  of  which  7,818  was  flour,  5,126  ore, 
4,247  coal,  2,123  grain,  2,237  lumber.  It  is  stated  in  the  report  for  the  year 
1849  that  "  arrangements  have  been  made  to  relay  the  road  with  heavy  T 

In  March,  1832,  the  Franklin  Railroad  was  chartered  by  the  Pennsylvania 
Legislature,  and  on  January  16,  1837,  by  the  Legislature  of  Maryland.  The 
road  was  built  from  Chambersburg  to  Greencastle  in  1837,  and  to  Hagerstown 
in  1841.     It  was  run  by  steam-power  for  two  years,  when  an  arrangement  was 


made  with  the  Cumberland  Valley  Kailroad  to  operate  the  line  and  its  own  motive 
power  was  sold.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  first  cab  ever  put  on  a  locomo- 
tive was  placed  on  one  of  the  Franklin  Railroad  locomotives,  named  "'Wash- 
ington," at  the  shops  of  the  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad,  in  Chambersburg, 
in  1841.  The  Franklin  Railroad  was  only  operated  a  short  time  by  the  Cum- 
berland Valley  Railroad,  when  steam-power  was  withdrawn,  and  it  was  then 
operated  by  Mr.  D.  O.  Gehr,  of  Chambersburg,  with  horse-power.  It  was 
never  profitable,  and  was  sold  several  times,  until,  in  i860,-  it  was  rebuilt  and 
laid  with  T  rails.  The  Cumberland  Valley  then  contracted  to  run  it,  and, 
with  some  changes  in  the  contract,  continued  to  do  so,  except  during  the  time 
of  its  possession  and  partial  destruction  by  the  rebels,  until  1865,  when  the 
two  roads  consolidated. 

In  October,  1862,  the  rebels  destroyed  the  shops  and  depot  buildings  in 
Chambersburg,  and  on  June  15,  1863,  they  made  another  raid,  destroying  all 
company  property  in  the  town,  and  tearing  up  and  destroying  five  miles  of  the 
track  of  the  Franklin  Railroad. 

The  rebel  raid  and  burning  of  Chambersburg  July,  1864,  also  caused  the 
company  great  inconvenience  and  loss. 

In  1871  the  Southern  Pennsylvania  Railroad  was  opened  from  Marion  to 
Richmond,  Penn. ,  and  leased  by  the  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad. 

In  the  year  1872  the  Mont  Alto  Railroad  was  completed  from  a  point  near 
Scotland  to  Mont  Alto. 

In  1873  the  Hon.  Frederick  Watts,  who  had  been  president  of  the  Cum- 
berland Valley  Railroad  for  thirty-two  years,  declined  a  re-election,  as  he  had 
accepted  the  position  of  commissioner  of  agriculture  at  Washington,  and  Mr. 
Thomas  B.  Kennedy,  of  Chambersburg,  was  elected  president.  In  this  year 
the  Martinsburg  &  Potomac  Railroad  was  completed,  and  leased  by  the  Cum- 
berland Valley  Railroad. 

In  June,  1882,  the  Shenandoah  Valley  Railroad  was  opened  from  Hagers- 
town  to  a  connection  with  the  Norfolk  &  Western  Railroad,  at  Roanoke,  Va. , 
making  a  through  line  via  the  Cumberland  Valley,  between  the  northeast  and 
southwest.  From  the  year  1837  up  to  this  time  the  business  of  the  Cumber- 
land Valley  Railroad  had  been  entirely  local,  that  is,  it  had  originated  or  ter- 
minated at  local  points  on  its  road. 

The  management  of  the  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad  has  always  been  in 
close  sympathy  with  the  patrons  of  the  road,  giving  all  possible  accommoda- 
tions, and  the  benefit  of  the  best  transportation  facilities  of  the  times,  keeping 
pace  in  improvements  with  the  best  and  most  enterprising  railroad  companies 
of  the  country. 

The  Old  "Tape  Worm1''  Line  was  chartered  about  the  same  time  the  Cum- 
berland Valley  Railroad  was — or  in  1 835.  This  was  the  day  of  the  rage  of 
internal  improvements  in  the  country.  Thad.  Stevens  stood  sponsor  to  this 
enterprise  for  many  years.  He  was  then  a  resident  of  Gettysburg,  and  had 
iron  mills  in  Franklin  County,  and  he  wanted  a  railroad  to  his  mills.  The 
charter  was  for  a  road  to  start  at  Gettysburg,  to  run  into  Franklin  County  and 
then  turn  south,  tapping  the  heart  of  the  southern  country  wherever  it  was 
advisable  and  most  convenient.  The  State  made  a  large  appropriation  to  the 
road,  and  the  managers,  when  they  came  to  spend  the  money,  commenced 
all  along  the  line.  The  result  was,  a  great  deal  of  money  was  expended, 
the  appropriations  were  exhausted,  the  State  internal  improvement  scheme 
collapsed,  and  the  work  stopped,  and  not  a  mile  of  the  road  was  completed, 
and  practically  this  was  the  end  of  the  ' '  Tape  Worm. ' ' 

The    Harrisburg   &   Potomac     Railroad    was  chartered    in   1870,    as   the 


Mermar  Iron  &  Railroad  Company.  Its  chief  promoters  were  Daniel  V.  and 
Peter  A.  Ahl,  of  Newville.  It  was  originally  intended  to  pass  through  the 
county  via  Shippensburg,  Mont  Alto,  Quincy  and  Waynesboro,  but  owing  to 
financial  difficulties  was  never  completed. 

The  Baltimore  &  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad  was  organized  in  1876,  to 
run  from  Chambersburg  by  a  direct  line  through  Waynesboro  to  a  junction 
with  the  Western  Maryland  Railroad,  at  a  point  on  the  west  slope  of  the 
Blue  Ridge,  two  and  one-half  miles  east  of  Smithsburg,  and  seventy-two  miles 
west  from  Baltimore,  the  line  to  be  built  in  the  interest  of  the  Western 
Maryland  Road,  and,  when  constructed,  leased  by  it  and  operated.  The  length 
of  the  line,  twenty-one  miles,  made  the  distance  from  Chambersburg  to 
Baltimore  ninety-three  miles,  thus  lessening  the  old  route,  via  Harrisburg, 
forty  miles.  The  road  was  built,  and  May  18,  1886,  the  Cumberland  Valley 
Railroad  Extension  Company  leased  the  line  to  the  Western  Maryland  Rail- 
road, at  an  annual  rental  of  $32, 700.  This  is  one  of  the  most  valuable  lines 
now  in  Franklin  County.  It  opens  up  to  the  trade  of  the  county,  not  only  a 
competing  line  to  the  eastern  ports,  but  is  the  great  highway  to  the  South — 
to  Memphis,  New  Orleans,  Savannah  and  all  southern  points. 

Mont  Alto  Railroad. — In  1872  the  Mont  Alto  Railroad,  extending  from  Mont 
Alto  to  a  connection  with  the  Cumberland  Valley  Railroad  at  a  point  three 
and  one-half  miles  northeast  of  Chambersburg,  was  built  by  the  Mont  Alto 
Railroad  Company,  Geo.  B.  Wiestling,  engineer  and  superintendent. 

It  was  opened  for  business  on  October  2,  1872.  It  was  ten  and  one- 
quarter  miles  in  length.  During  1878  and  1879  the  line  was  extended  to 
Waynesboro,  Penn. ,  making  the  entire  line  eighteen  miles  in  length.  The 
extensive  iron  ore  fields  in  the  Mont  Alto  region  were  largely  depended  upon 
to  furnish  tonnage  to  the  railroad,  and  it  is  only  in  prosperous  stages  of  the 
iron  business  that  this  can  be  realized. 

In  1875  the  magnificent  summer  resort,  Mont  Alto  Park,  was  improved 
and  opened  by  Geo.  B.  Wiestling,  and  has  received  the  evidence  of  high 
appreciation  by  the  liberal  patronage  bestowed  upon  it  by  the  public. 

Mont  Alto  Iron  Works  consist  of  a  blast-furnace,  steam  bloomary,  re- 
finery, machine  shops,  foundry,  blacksmith,  carpenter  and  wheel -wright  shops, 
charcoal  kilns,  two  saw- mills,  seventeen  developed  iron  mines,  seven  farms  and 
20,000  acres  of  ore  and  timber  lands.  In  prosperous  times  it  employs  500 
men,  75  horses  and  mules  and  21  steam  engines. 

The  furnace  was  built  in  1807-08,  by  Daniel  and  Samuel  Hughes,  of 
Maryland.  At  first  it  was  what  is  known  as  a  "  quarter  stack,"  and  was  31 
feet  high,  and  8  feet  diameter  of  boshes.  It  was  operated  with  cold  blast; 
the  water-wheel  was  30  feet  in  diameter.  The  first  output  was  from  two  to  three 
tons  per  day  of  pig  iron,  but  this  only  accumulated  hands  for  want  of  transpor- 
tation. To  reach  markets,  the  pig  iron  was  hauled  by  wagon  to  the  Potomac 
River,  at  Williamsport,  and  then  waited  for  a  rise  in  the  water,  to  be  taken 
down  on  flat-boats. 

A  foundry  was  built  in  1815,  and  then  the  pig  iron  was  made  into  stoves 
and  hollow  ware  on  the  grounds,  which  were  then  wagoned  to  Baltimore.  For 
some  time  the  iron  was  not  remelted  to  cast,  but  was  dipped  out  of  the  fur- 
nace and  poured  into  the  molds.  A  cupola  furnace  was  put  up,  and  then  the 
iron  was  remelted. 

In  1811  the  Messrs.  Hughes  brought  over  an  expert,  Mr.  Overmeyer.  He 
leased  land  in  East  Antietam  Valley,  five  miles  from  Mont  Alto,  and  erected  a 
bloomary,  forge  and  saw-mill,  and  commenced  manufacturing  hammered  bar 
iron.      In  1832  a  rolling-mill  was  put  up  near  the  bloomary,  on  East  Antietam 


Creek.      This  was  at  that  time  supposed  to  have  the  best  power  of  any  mill  in 
the  country,  and  therefore  could  roll  the  largest  bars  of  iron. 

In  1835  the  Messrs.  Hughes  built  nail  works  near  the  above  rolling-mill. 
These  were  eventually  burned. 

In  1864  the  entire  Mont  Alto  plant  was  purchased  by  the  Mont  Alto 
Iron  Company,  Geo.  B.  Weistling,  superintendent.  The  furnace  was  enlarged 
to  37  feet  high,  and  nine  feet  diameter  of  boshes;  two  additional  tuyeres  were 
introduced,  making  it  a  three-quarter  stack,  and  steam-power  was  introduced. 
The  output  was  fifteen  tons  a  day  of  pig  iron.  Another  enlargement  was  made 
in  1880;  the  stack  increased  in  height,  the  boshes  made  nine  and  one-half 
feet,  and  other  modern  improvements  were  introduced.  Capacity  then  be 
came  thirty-five  tons  of  pig  iron  per  day. 

The  Caledonia  Iron  Works  were  constructed  in  1837,  by  Thad.  Stevens 
and  James  D.  Paxton,  in  Greene  Township.  These  men  were  the  firm  until  1848, 
when  a  heavy  indebtedness  caused  a  change,  and  Stevens  bought  out  Paxton, 
and  assumed  the  entire  indebtedness.  The  new  proprietor  put  Mr.  Wm. 
Hammett  in  charge  as  superintendent,  who  filled  the  place  for  twenty  years, 
and  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  John  Swaney  who  had  charge  of  them  at  the  time  of 
their  destruction  in  1863.  In  the  plant  were  about  20,000  acres  of  good  ore 
and  lumber  land.  The  ore  was  converted  into  blooms  and  marketed  in  the 
eastern  cities — average  price  $65  to  $75  per  ton.  It  is  supposed  that  Stevens 
lost  considerable  money  by  his  iron-mills.  The  mill  and  machinery  were  en- 
tirely destroyed  during  the  war,  by  order  of  Gen.  Early. 

Mount  Pleasant  Iron  Works  were  established  by  the  Chambers,  about 
1783.  They  afterward  passed  into  the  possession  of  the  Kings,  Dunns  and 
Doyles,  respectively.  Through  all  these  various  changes,  they  were  operated 
more  or  less  successfully,  until  1829,  when  they  were  permanently  closed. 
Being  among  the  earliest  of  iron-mills  in  the  country,  they  served  in  their  time 
a  valuable  purpose. 

The  Carrick  furnace,  four  miles  north  of  the  Mount  Pleasant  works,  was 
the  substitute  that  made  the  latter  such  a  prime  necessity.  The  Carrick  fur- 
nace was  erected  about  1830,  and  continued  to  be  operated  through  various 
changes,   until  1844,  when  it  closed  down  for  want  of  patronage. 

The  Richmond  furnace,  in  Metal  Township,  at  the  time  of  the  general  de- 
pression of  the  iron  trade  of  the  country,  banked  its  furnaces  and  closed  up.  It 
is  fully  equipped  for  the  production  of  iron,  and  it  is  the  intention  to  start 
it  again  into  full  operation  as  soon  as  a  change  in  the  trade  will  warrant  it. 


WAR   OF    1812-15. 

Cause  of  the  War— Declaration  of  War— Franklin  County  Companies- 
Incidents  of  the  War. 

FREE  trade  and  sailors'  rights"  was  the  Nation's  watch -word,  that 
culminated  in  the  second  war  with  Great  Britain.  The  mother  country 
seems  to  have  forgotten  that  the  colonies  had  relinquished  maternal  depen- 
dence, and  were  living  a  national  existence  of  their  own.      The  right  to  search 


our  merchant  vessels  upon  the  high  seas,  and  also  the  right  to  impress  seamenr 
found  in  such  merchant  service,  was  the  provoking  cause  to  the  national 
motto  given  above. 

June  12,  1812,  Congress  declared  war  against  Great  Britain,  and  the  Presi- 
dent called  upon  the  people  to  take  up  arms. 

It  is  not  proposed  here  to  give  a  history  of  the  ensuing  war.  That  is  a 
part  of  the  general  history  of  our  country.  The  part  taken  therein  by  Franklin 
County  is  the  boundary  limit  of  this  chapter. 

During  the  three  years  of  hostilities  thirteen  companies  of  Franklin 
County  men  were  recruited  and  sent  to  the  field  of  action.  Some  time  before 
actual  hostilities  were  declared  our  people  anticipated  the  coming  struggle, 
and  in  the  towns,  villages  and  rural  districts  the  nuclei  of  military  organiza- 
tions were  formed.  A  large  number  of  these  was  found  in  this  county, 
many  of  them  ready  on  short  notice  to  march  in  effective  martial  display  to  the 
front.  We  have  the  names  of  the  Antrim  Greens,  a  rifle  company  of  60 
men;  Franklin  County  Light  Dragoons,  41  men — captain,  Mathew  Patton;. 
Mercersburg  Rifles,  72  rank  and  file — captain,  James  McDowell;  Concord 
Light  Infantry,  30  men — captain,  Michael  Harper;  Chambersburg  Union  Vol- 
unteers, 51  men — captain,  Jeremiah  Snider.  These  companies  at  once  ten- 
dered their  services,  through  County  Brigade  Inspector  William  McClellan,  to> 
the  Government. 

The  first  detachment  of  troops  left  the  county  September  5,  1812.  This 
was  composed  of  the  Union  Volunteers,  the  Franklin  Riflemen,  the  Concord 
Light  Infantry,  the  Mercersburg  Rifles  and  the  Antrim  Greens — total,  264, 
officers  and  men.  The  quota  of  the  county  was  507,  and  the  deficiency  was 
made  up  by  draft  from  the  militia.  Maj.  William  McClellan  was  in  command  of 
the  detachment.  They  were  sent  to  the  northwest  frontier,  proceeding  there 
by  way  of  Bedford,  Pittsburgh  and  Meadville,  reaching  the  latter  place  in 
September.  The  troops  were  there  re-organized  into  four  regiments — two  of 
rifles  and  two  of  infantry.  Jeremiah  Snider  was  elected  colonel  of  the  First 
Regiment,  John  Purviance,  of  the  Second  Regiment.  The  four  regiments  being 
formed  into  a  brigade,  under  Gen.  Tannahill,  Dr.  Samuel  D.  Culbertson,  of 
Chambersburg,  was  appointed  surgeon-in-chief;  John  McClintock  became  cap- 
tain of  Snider' s  company,  on  latter  being  made  colonel,  and  G  eo.  K.  Harper  was 
promoted  to  the  vacant  lieutenancy  in  Snider' s  company.  The  companies  of 
Capts.  McClintock,  Reges  and  Harper  were  in  Col.  Snider' s  regiment,  and  those 
of  Capts.  Oaks  and  Hays  in  Col.  Jared  Irwin's  regiment.  Immediately  after 
the  re- organization,  the  command  marched  to  Buffalo,  reaching  there  in  No- 
vember, where  it  went  into  winter  quarters,  and  remained  until  discharged,  their 
term  of  enlistment  expiring  in  January,  1813. 


Captain — Jeremiah  Snider. 

Lieutenant — John  McClintock. 

Ensign — Owen  Astoq. 

Sergeants — John  Stevenson,  Alexander  Allison,  John  Calhoun,  Andrew  Calhoun. 

Corporals— Robert  Haslett.  William  Tillard,  H.  Ruthrauff,  John  Reed. 

Musicians— William  Donaldson,  Henry  Bickney. 


Timothy  Allen.  A.  L.  Crain.  Robert  Foote. 

John  Andrews.  Andrew  Clunk.  Hugh  Greenfield. 

Joseph  Barnett.  David  Clouser.  Isaac  Grier. 

Samuel  Beatty.  John  Cummings.  Peter  Glossbrenner. 

David  Blythe.  George  Faber.  John  Hunter. 



George  Heist. 
Horace  Hill. 
John  Hutchinson. 
Thomas  Harvey. 
Daniel  Hood. 
Andrew  Lindsay. 
James  Murray. 

Alexander  McConnell. 
Spencer  McKinney. 
Elisha  Nahh. 
John  Phillipy. 
John  Plummer. 
Stephen  Ritrler. 
William  Shannon. 

George  Sampson. 
Moses  H.  Swan. 
William  Taylor. 
Joshua  Wilson. 
James  Wilson. 
Bernard  Wolf. 


Captain — Henry  Reges. 
First  lieutenant — Jeremiah  Senseny. 
Second  lieutenant — John  Musser. 
First  sergeant — Peter  Flack. 

John  Bayle. 
John  Baughman. 
Robert  Cunningham. 
John  Cook. 
Edward  Crawford. 
Arthur  Dobbin. 
John  Denig. 
John  Essig. 
Isaac  Erwin. 
John  Favorite. 
John  Gilwicks. 
William  Grice. 
Joseph  Good. 
John  Gilmore. 


Philip  Grim. 
Christian  John. 
George  W.  Lester. 
Josiah  Lemon. 
Isaiah  Lamer. 
Robert.  McMurry. 
John  Mumma. 
Hugh  Marmon. 
Hugh  McConnell. 
Hugh  McNulty. 
John  Martin. 
Benjamin  Matthews. 
James  McConnell. 
William  Pollock. 

Richard  Runnion. 
John  Radebaugh. 
John  Robinson. 
John  Reilly. 
Jacob  Snyder. 
Joseph  State. 
Henry  Smith. 
Thomas  Schools. 
Joseph  Severns. 
Daniel  Sailer. 
John  Whitney. 
James  Wise. 
George  Wilson. 
George  Zimmerman. 


Captain— Andrew  Oakes. 
Lieutenant — Thomas  Wilson. 
Ensign— George  Zeigler. 

Sergeants — Peter  Cramer,  Jacob  Gudtner,  Jacob  Fletter,  James  Pennell. 
Corporals — William  Dugan,  George  Sharer,  Henry  Sites,  Jacob  Garresene,  Thomas- 
Brady,  John  Poper. 

William  Bolton. 
George  Bettes. 
Henry  Brendlinger. 
Joseph  Byerly. 
Samuel  Bender. 
William  Carroll. 
Patrick  Dugan. 
Evan  Evans. 
William  Foster. 
Thomas  Fletcher. 


John  Gaff. 
John  Garner. 
William  Gordon. 
Richard  Keller. 
Samuel  Martin. 
James  McCurdy. 
Samuel  McLaughlin. 
William  Ovelman. 
Thomas  Plummer. 
William  Scully. 

George  Shaffer. 
Samuel  Smith. 
John  Snyder. 
John  Sreader. 
George  Stuff. 
George  Uller. 
Samuel  Weidner. 
Daniel  Weidner. 
Christian  Willhelm. 


Captain — Patrick  Hays. 
Lieutenant — John  Small. 
Ensign — Samuel  Elder. 

Sergeants — James  McQuown,  Jacob  Small,  Jacob  Williams,  George  Spangler. 
Corporals — Joseph  Herrington,  John  Donothen,  John  Mull,  Daniel  Leer,  Jacob  Cain, 
Jacob  Wise. 

James  Bennett. 
Isaac  Brubaker. 
Samuel  Campbell. 
Joseph  Cunningham. 
Henry  Cline. 
John  Crouch. 
William  Cooper. 
Samuel  Craig. 
John  Clapsaddle. 
Alexander  Dunlap. 


John  Dunlap. 
Fredik  Divelbiss 
David  Deitrick. 
James  Elder. 
Jacob  Groscope. 
Peter  Gaster. 
Jonas  Hissong. 
John  Hastier. 
Abraham  Hodskins. 
John  Harris. 

William  Hart. 
John  Heart. 
Jacob  Hodskins. 
John  Hallin. 
James  Halland. 
John  King. 
Peter  Kyler. 
Robert  McFarland. 
James  McDowell. 
William  McCurdy. 


Robert  McQuown.  Samuel  Martin.  Peter  Teach. 

John  Mowry.  Charles  Pettet.  James  Walker. 

Campbell  Montgomery.  Henry  Suffecool.  Henry  Weaver. 

William  McQuown.  William  Stewart.  Daniel  Welker. 

Charles  McPike. 

harper's  company  from  path  valley. 

Captain— Michael  Harper. 

Lieutenant — William  McKinzie. 

Ensign — John  Campbell. 

Sergeants— William  Irwin.  James  McKinzie,  John  Widney,  Hugh  Barrack. 

Corporals— Jeremiah  Baker,  Francis  McCullogh,  Samuel  Campbell,  James  Girmeren. 


John  Cannon.'  James  Hockenberry.  Isaac  Scooly. 

James  Dever.  Peter  Hockenbery.  William  Smith. 

Barnabas  Donnelly.  George  Irwin.  Richard  Scott. 

David  Evans.  James  Linn.  James  Taylor. 

Barnabas  Fegan.  Samuel  Phillips.  Peter  Timmons. 

Jere  Hockenberry. 

In  1814,  in  obedience  to  orders  from  the  Government,  Gov.  Snyder  ordered 
a  draft  upon  the  State  for  troops.  Franklin,  Cumberland,  York  and  Adams 
Counties'  quota  under  the  call  was  1,000  men,  the  men  from  this  county  to 
assemble  in  Loudon  on  the  1st  of  March.  Capt.  Samuel  Dunn,  of  Path  Val- 
ley, had  a  company  of  forty  men.  These  at  once  volunteered.  The  balance 
of  the  county's  quota  was  175  men.  Capt.  Samuel  Gordon's  full  company  from 
Washington,  and  Capt.  Stake's  partial  company  from  Lurgan,  rendezvoused  at 
Loudon,  Wm.  McClellan  in  command,  who  took  them  to  Erie,  leaving  Loudon 
March  4.  Maj.  McClellan' s  official  report  says  the  command,  221  privates,  was 
officered  by  one  major,  three  captains,  five  lieutenants,  and  two  ensigns.  At 
Erie  they  were  put  in  the  Fifth  Eegiment,  commanded  by  Col.  James  Felton; 
James  Wood,  of  Greencastle,  was  major;  Thomas  Poe,  of  Antrim,  adjutant. 
The  latter  was  a  brave  and  gallant  soldier.  He  was  a  man  born  to  command. 
It  is  told  of  him  that  by  the  mere  power  of  his  presence  he  quelled  an  outbreak 
of  his  men  in  camp,  and  by  a  word  forced  them  to  go  quietly  to  their  quarters. 
He  fell  mortally  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Chippewa,  July  6,  1814. 

Capt.  Jacob  Stake  lived  between  Eoxbury  and  Strasburg.  Dr.  W.  C. 
Lane  says  of  his  command:  ''He  went  as  a  captain  of  drafted  men  as  far  as 
Erie,  at  which  place  his  company  was  merged  into  those  of  Capts.  Dunn 
and  Gordon.  " 

dunn's  company. 

Captain — Samuel  Dunn. 

First  lieutenant — James  McConnell. 

Second  lieutenant — Robert  Foote. 

Third  lieutenant — John  Favorite. 

Ensign — William  Geddes. 

Sergeants— John  Snively,  Samuel  Baker,  James  McHenry,  John  M.  Shannon. 


Levi  Black.  James  Connor.  Abraham  Flagle. 

John  Brandt.  Samuel  Creamer.  Jacob  Frush. 

Jesse  Beams.  John  Cunningham.  Jere  Gift. 

George  Bryan.  James  Compton.  Hugh  Henderson. 

Fredk.  Boreaugh.  Barnabas  Clark.  Nehemiah  Harvey. 

Anthony  Bates.  Thomas  Cummings.  Edward  Heil. 

John  Barclay.  Benj.  Davis.  Henry  Halby. 

John  Brewster.  Samuel  Davenport.  Thomas  Hays. 

Hugh  Baker.  John  Doyle.  Robert  Hunter.* 

John  Beatty.  James  Elliott.  John  Humbert. 

William  Buchanan.  Robert  Elder.  _  Henry  Hess. 

Andrew  Barclay.  Joseph  Fingerty.  Robert  Johnston. 

♦Afterward  colonel  of  the  Fiftieth  Regiment. 



Enoch  Johns. 
John  Krotzer. 
James  Keever. 
Michael  Kester. 
James  Kirkwood. 
Benjamin  Long. 
David  Lightner. 
Tobias  Long. 
Noah  Macky. 
John  McConnell. 
Robert  McConnell. 
James  Morhead. 
John  McDowell. 
Adam  Meyers. 
George  Macomb. 
John  Miller. 
William  McClure. 
Samuel  Mateer.^ 
William  Moore. 

John  Marshal. 
James  McKim. 
Absalom  Mcllwee. 
John  Murray. 
Joseph  Noble. 
John  Noble. 
John  Over. 
Joseph  Phipps. 
Thomas  Penwell. 
George  Plucher. 
Mathias  Panther. 
William  Reed. 
Charles  Runion. 
William  Ramsay. 
Philip  Roan. 
Jacob  Stevick. 
Peter  Schell. 
Samuel  Swope. 
John  Shell. 

John  Smith. 
John  Swanger. 
Jacob  Staley. 
William  Sheets. 
John  Stewart. 
Barney  Shiptou. 
John  Stake. 
David  Trindle. 
William  Woods. 
Richard  Wright. 
John  Walker. 
George  Wrist. 
William  Williams. 
William  Westcott. 
John  Young. 
Robert  Young. 
John  Young. 
Jacob  Zettle. 

This  company  was  in  service  seven  months,  in  the  battles  of  Chippewa  and 
Lundy's  Lane;  guarded  prisoners  captured  on  the  frontier  to  Albany,  N.  Y. 
They  were  mustered  out  at  Albany. 

Gordon's  company,   march  1,   1814. 

Captain — Samuel  Gordon. 
First  lieutenant — William  Dick. 
Second  lieutenant — William  Patton. 
Third  lieutenant — James  Burns. 
Ensign — William  Miller. 

Sergeants — Hugh  Davison,  Charles  Miller,  James  Scott,  Josiah  Gordon. 
Corporals — Joseph  Arthur,  James  Hall,  Joseph  Shilling,  John  Podman,  Philip  Mason, 
William  Burgiss. 

Thomas  Allen. 
William  Alsip. 
Martin  Beard. 
Henry  Baugher. 
Benjamin  Bump. 
George  Burr. 
Fred'k  Beverson. 
John  Baker. 
Michael  Borer. 
Jacob  Baker. 
Peter  Baker. 
Michael  Bear. 
Adam  Brown. 
Conrad  Croft. 
John  Coon. 
John  Craig. 
Richard  Cahil. 
William  Clem. 
John  Carver. 
William  Clark. 
Richard  Donahoe. 
William  Divelbiss. 
John  Dowman. 
Edward  Detrick. 
Geo.  Davis. 
Saml.  Dean. 
Jacob  Deemer. 
John  Davis. 
Adam  Duncan. 
Jacob  Eby. 
George  Ensminger. 
William  Edwards. 
Nathaniel  Fips. 


Joseph  Flora. 
John  Fisher. 
Michael  Fritz. 
Henry  Geiger. 
George  Glaze. 
Moses  Getrich. 
John  Greenly. 
John  Graham. 
John  Huber. 
Joseph  Hoffman. 
William  Hardin. 
Geo.  Harmony. 
James  Hardy. 
John  Hawk. 
Peter  Harger. 
John  Irwin. 
David  Johnston. 
John  Jeffery. 
Nathaniel  King. 
Jacob  Keefer. 
William  Kline. 
William  King. 
Peter  Keefer. 
Mathew  King. 
James  Logan. 
Benj.  Lewis. 
Jacob  Liepert. 
John  McColley. 
John  McConnell. 
Alexander  McMullen. 
Peter  Myers. 
John  McNeal. 

John  McClay. 
Phillip  Myers. 
William  Mahaffy. 
Murdock  Mitchell. 
John  McCurdy. 
Robt.  McClelland. 
Daniel  Mentzer. 
G.  M.  Miller. 
George  Miller. 
George  Neff. 
Joseph  Neal. 
Nathan  Phipps. 
Abraham  Piaceare. 
William  Pearslake. 
Thomas  Poe. 
Erasmus  Quarters. 
Andrew  Robertson. 
William  Reesemen. 
John  Ritter. 
Adam  Rankin. 
Adam  Ream. 
Christopher  Sites. 
Fredk.  Stumbaugh. 
Jacob  Stauffer. 
Nicholas  Smith. 
Jacob  Smith. 
Henry  Satin. 
Joseph  Tic'e. 
James  Thompson. 
Henry  Unger. 
William  Wolf. 
William  Whitman. 
Henry  Weaver. 



August  24,  1814,  the  Americans,  under  Gen.  Winder,  were  defeated  at  the 
battle  of  Bladensburg;  the  same  day  the  British  entered  Washington  and 
burned  the  capitol  and  other  buildings.  This  fired  anew  the  hearts  of  the  peo- 
ple. The  people  by  common  impulse  rang  the  bell  and  assembled  in  meetings. 
The  people  at  one  of  these  meetings,  in  Franklin  County,  dispatched  one  of 
their  number  as  a  messenger  to  the  national  authorities  to  learn  if  more  troops 
were  wanted  or  would  be  accepted.  The  news  borne  by  the  messenger  was- 
gladly  received,  and  word  returned  that  the  Government  wanted  more  troops. 
When  the  people  learned  this  they  gave  expressions  to  their  joy,  and  all  the 
bells  of  the  town  were  rung,  drum  and  fife  corps  paraded  the  streets,  and  in  a 
few  days  seven  companies  were  organized,  equipped,  and  on  their  way  to  Bal- 
timore. One  of  them  was  a  troop  of  cavalry,  from  Mercersburg,  under  Capt. 
Mathew  Patton,  which  marched  to  Baltimore,  but  their  services  were  not 
accepted  as  cavalry  were  not  needed,  but  the  majority  of  the  troops  determined 
to  go  to  the  war,  disposed  of  their  horses,  and  joined  different  companies  of 

The  following  are  the  rosters  of  the  companies  that  left  the  county  in  the- 
early  part  of  September,  1814: 


Captain — John  Findlay. 
First  lieutenant — John  Snider. 
Second  lieutenant — Greenberry  Murphy. 
Ensign — John  Hershberger. 

Sergeants — Joseph   Severns,  Andrew  Rea,   Henry  Smith,  Jeremiah  Senseny,  Jacob 

Corporals— John  Robison,  Geo.  W.  Lester,  Jacob  Heck,  Jacob  Bickley. 

Jacob  Abrahams. 
John  Berlin. 
Peter  Bonebrake. 
John  Baxter. 
James  Buchanan. 
John  Brindle. 
William  Bratten. 
Benj.  Blythe. 
John  Baughman. 
John  Bucher. 
Jacob  Bittinger. 
Abraham  Burkholder. 
Fred'k  Best. 
John  Campbell. 
James  Carberry. 
Conrad  Clouse. 
Daniel  Crouse. 
Joseph  Cope. 
John  Clugston. 
McFarlin  Cammel. 
Conrad  Draher. 
Daniel  Dechert. 
"William  Dugan. 
James  Dixon. 
John  Eaton. 
Simon  Eaker. 
Benj.  Firnwalt. 
Henry  Fry. 
Thomas  Fletcher. 
Henry  Gauter. 


Jacob  George. 
John  Gillespy. 
Jacob  Glosser. 
John  Gelwicks. 
Michael  Helman. 
Thomas  Hall. 
William  Harman. 
James  Huston. 
Daniel  Helman. 
Isaac  Irvin. 
Thomas  Jones. 
William  Kinneard. 
David  Keller. 
Thomas  Kaisey. 
Jacob  Laufman. 
John  Lucas. 
Reuben  Monroe. 
Robert  McAfee. 
Daniel  McAllister. 
William  McKesson. 
William  McKean. 
William  Mills. 
Samuel  McElroy. 
Soyer  McFaggen. 
John  Milone. 
David  Mentzer. 
Jacob  McFerren. 
Cammel  Montgomery. 
David  Mumma. 
Ludwick  Nitterhouse. 


Samuel  Nogel. 
John  Nitterhouse. 
Jacob  NefE. 
John  Nixon. 
John  Porter. 
Edward  Ruth. 
Jacob  Reichert. 
John  Radebaugh. 
Elijah  Sargeant. 
Charles  Stuard. 
Samuel  Shillitto. 
Daniel  Sharp. 
William  Sipes. 
Jacob  Spitel. 
Ross  Sharp. 
Joseph  Suttey. 
John  Tritler. 
John  Todd. 
Joseph  Wilson» 
Benj.  Wiser. 
James  Walker. 
Jacob  Wolfkill. 
Josiah  Wallace. 
David  White. 
Matthew  Wright. 
James  Westbay. 
Hugh  Woods. 
William  White. 
George  Young. 
George  Zimmerman. 

Captain — Samuel  D.  Culbertson. 
First  lieutenant — John  McClintock. 



Second  lieutenant — George  K.  Harper. 

Ensign — John  Stevenson. 

Sergeants — Andrew  Calhoun,  John  Calhoun,  Stephen  Rigler,  Alex  Allison. 

Corporals — Hugh  Greenfield,  James  Wilson,  Samuel  Beatty,  John  Andrew. 

John  Arntt. 
Henry  Burchett. 
John  Besore. 
Samuel  Brand. 
Mathew  Besore. 
George  Beaver. 
James  Crawford. 
Augustus  Capron. 
William  Cook. 
James  Campbell. 
Edward  Crawford. 
Edward  Capron. 
Peter  Crayton. 
John  Devine. 
William  Denny. 
Joseph  Duffield. 
John  Denig. 
John  Daugherty. 
Joseph  Erven. 
Benj.  Fahnestock. 
William  Ferry. 
Isaac  Grier. 
Jacob  Grove. 
Henry  Greenawalt. 
William  Grove. 
Paul  Heoflich. 


John  Holmes. 
William  Heyser. 
Joseph  Housem. 
John  Hutchinson. 
George  Harris. 
Herman  Helfmire. 
John  Hinkle. 
Michial  S.  Johns. 
William  Jamison. 
George  Jasonsky. 
John  Kindline. 
Jacob  Kelker. 
Andrew  Lindsay. 
William  M.  McDowell 
John  McBride. 
Patrick  Murray. 
John  McCormick. 
George  B.  McKnight. 
Thds.  G.  McCulloh 
Henry  Merklein. 
John  Nunemacher. 
Wm.  Nochtwine. 
George  Oyster. 
John  O'Neal. 
Samuel  Porter. 
William  Reynolds. 

James  D.  Riddle. 
Phillip  Reges. 
John  Reed. 
Samuel  Ruthrauff. 
William  Richey. 
Adam  Rcemer. 
George  Simpsou. 
William  Schoeplin. 
John  Snider. 
Samuel  Shillitt. 
William  Shane. 
Daniel  Stevenson. 
Jacob  Smith. 
David  Trittle 
Robert  Thompson. 
Abraham  Voress. 
Bernard  Wolff. 
Jacob  Widefelt. 
John  Weaver. 
John  Whitmore. 
John  B.  Watts. 
James  Warden. 
Joseph  Wallace. 
George  Wilson. 


Captain — Thomas  Bard. 

First  lieutenant — James  McDowell. 

Second  lieutenant — John  Johnston. 

Ensign — Joseph  Bowers. 

Sergeants — A.  T.  Dean,  G.  Duffield,  Thomas  Smith,  G.  Spangler. 

Corporals — William  Smith,   Thomas  Grubb,   William  McDowell,  Thomas  Johnston. 

Fifer— John  Mull. 

John  Abbott. 
John  Brown. 
Archibald  Bard. 
Robert  Carson. 
Samuel  Craig. 
John  Coxe. 
John  Cox,  Jr. 
John  Campbell. 
Joseph   Dick. 
Joseph  Dunlap. 
Jeremiah  Evans. 
Peter  Elliott. 
John  Furley. 
John  Glaz-/. 
William  Glass. 
Joseph  Garvin. 
Henry  Garner. 
Leonard  Gaff. 
James  Garver. 
William  Hart. 
James  Harrison. 


William  Houston. 
Joseph  Harrington. 
Fred'k  Henchy. 
James  Hamilton. 
John  Harrer. 
Samuel  Johnson. 
John  King. 
John  Liddy. 
James  McDowell. 
William  McDowell,  Sr. 
James  McNeal. 
John  McCurdy. 
John  Maxwell. 
John  McClelland. 
George  McFerren. 
Augustus  McNeal. 
Robert  McCoy. 
William  McKinstry. 
Thomas  C.  McDowell. 
James  Montgomery. 
Samuel  Markle. 

John  McCulloch. 
Charles  Pike. 
Mathew  Patton. 
David  Robston. 
William  Rankin. 
Thomas  Speer. 
George  Stevens. 
Conrad  Stinger. 
James  Sheilds. 
John  Sybert. 
William  Stewart. 
David  Smith. 
Thomas  Squire. 
William  Wilson. 
James  Walker. 
Christopher  Wise. 
Samuel  Witherow. 
John  Werlby. 
Thomas  Williamson. 
John  Witherow. 
Thomas  Waddle. 




Captain — Andrew  Robson. 

First  lieutenant — John  Brotherton. 

Second  lieutenant — James  Mitchell. 

Ensign — JacoB  Besore. 

Sergeants— James  Walker,  Andrew  Snively,  Thomas  Wilson,  Archibald  Fleming 

Corporals — John  Randall,  George  Bellows,  George  Sackett,  Alex  Aiken. 

Paymaster — William  Carson. 

William  Armstrong,  Jr. 
John  Allison. 
Robert  Bruce. 
Samuel  Bradley. 
Robert  Brotherton. 
John  Billings. 
William  H.  Brotherton. 
Frederick  Baird. 
William  Bratten. 
Henry  Beatty. 
James  Brotherton. 
John  Boggs. 
Benjamin  Core. 
George  Clark. 
James  Camion. 
Walter  B.  Clark. 
Frederick  Carpenter. 
William  Clark. 
William  Coffroth. 
James  Davison. 
Jesse  Deman. 
William  T.  Dugan. 
John  Dennis. 
George  Flora. 
David  Fullerton. 
Samuel  Foreman. 
Robert  Guinea. 
William  Gallagher. 
Peter  Gallagher. 
Hugh  Guinea. 


John  Gaff. 
John  Garner. 
Edward  Gordon. 
Fred'k  Gearhart. 
Joseph  Hughes. 
William  Harger. 
John  Henneberger. 
William  Irwin. 
James  Johnston. 
William  Krepps. 
Jonathan  Keyser. 
George  Kuy. 
Mathew  Kennedy. 
James  McGaw, 
William  H.  Miller. 
Samuel  McCutchen. 
Abraham  McCutchen. 
John  McClellan. 
John  McCune. 
James  McCord. 
William  Moreland. 
John  Miller. 
John  McCoy. 
Adam  McCallister. 
William  McGraw. 
John  McConnell. 
Archibald  McLane. 
John  B.  McLanahan. 
Samuel  Nigh. 
Robert  Owen. 

Jacob  Poper. 
James  Poe. 
J.  Piper. 
John  Park. 
A.  B.  Rankin. 
John  Reed. 
John  Rowe,  Sr. 
Roger  Rice. 
John  Rogers. 
John  Shira. 
John  Shearer. 
Henry  Sites. 
Robert  Smith. 
Charles  Stewart. 
Samuel  Statler. 
George  Speckman. 
John  Shaup. 
Adam  Sayler. 
George  Schreder. 
John  Snyder. 
George  Uller. 
William  Vanderaw. 
George  Wallack. 
John  Weaver. 
Thomas  Welsh. 
Christian  Wilhelm. 
Thomas  Walker. 
James  Wilson. 
Christian  Wise. 
Alexander  Young. 


Captain — John  Flanagan. 

Lieutenant — William  Bivins. 

Ensign — Daniel  McFarlin. 

Sergeants — Robert  Gordon,  George  Cochran,  William  Downey  and  George  Foreman. 

Samuel  Allison. 
Christian  Bechtel. 
Hugh  Blair. 
John  Bowman. 
David  Beaver. 
John  Bormest. 
William  Barnet. 
William  Call. 
James  Duncan. 
Joseph  Fulton. 
James  Fullerton. 
Jacob  Fry. 
Loudon  Fullerton. 
Samuel  Green. 


James  Gettys. 
George  Gettys. 
Daniel  Haulman, 
David  Heffner. 
Peter  Haulman. 
Daniel  Hartman. 
James  Harshman. 
James  Hayden. 
George  Koontz. 
John  Logan. 
Daniel  Logan. 
James  McCray. 
William  Mooney. 
William  McDowell. 

Joseph  Misner. 
John  Oellig. 
Maximillian  Obermeyer. 
George  Price. 
Robert  Ray. 
Abraham  Roberson. 
John  Sheffler. 
Alex.  Stewart. 
John  Stoner. 
Adam  Stonebraker. 
David  Springer. 
George  Weagley. 
David  Weaver. 


Captain — William  Alexander. 
Lieutenant — Francis  McConnell. 
Ensign — James  Barkley. 


Sergeants — John  Maclay,  Richard  Childerson,  Peter  Foreman,  William  Young. 
Corporal — John  Sterrett. 


James  Alexander.  George  Houston.  Hugh  Maxwell 

Thomas  Childerstone.  James  Irwin.  John  McRee. 

Edward  Dunn.  James  Jones.  John  Neal. 

John  Elder.  David  Kyle.  Peter  Piper. 

Noah  Elder.  James  KcConnell.  John  Patterson. 

Andrew  Foreman.  John  Little.  John  Ryan. 

William  Finnerty.  Robert  Lewis.  William  Shutter. 

Thomas  Geddis.  Robert  McMillon.  Arthur  Sheilds. 

John  Harry.  James  McKibben.  John  Vanlear. 

Samuel  Hockenberry.  Robert  McCleary.  David  Witherow. 

John  Hill.  John  McAllen.  James  Wallace. 

Thomas  Harry.  Joseph  McKelvy.  Peter  Wilt. 

These  companies  formed  a  regiment,  Col.  John  Findlay  commanding. 
After  Findlay' s  promotion  Lieut.  William  Young  became  captain.  The 
other  field  officers  of  this  regiment  were  major,  David  Fullerton;  surgeon, 
John  McClelland;  first  mate,  Dr.  JohnBoggs;  second  mate,  Dr.  Jesse  McGaw; 
adjutant,  James  McDowell;  quartermaster,  Thomas  G.  McCulloh;  sergeant- 
major,  Andrew  Lindsay;  quartermaster- sergeant,  William  Carson;  paymaster- 
general,  George  Clark. 

These  troops  continued  in  active  service  until  September  23  following  when 
they  were  mustered  out.  • 


Texas  and  Mexico— Whig  and  Democrat — Counter  Arguments— Declara- 
tion of  War—Franklin  County  Company— Its  Services. 

TEXAS  had  revolted  and  conquered  its  independence  from  Mexico,  and  asked 
to  become  a  part  of  the  Union.  The  Lone  Star  State  was  of  herself  a  great 
and  rich  empire  in  territory,  and  when  she  knocked  at  the  doors  of  the  United 
States  for  admission  as  one  of  the  sister  States,  to  the  average  American  there 
was  a  strong  desire  to  bid  her  come  and  welcome.  Had  Mexico  quietly  con- 
sented at  that  time,  and  abandoned  all  claims  to  still  control  the  independent 
State,  it  is  highly  probable  it  would  have  peacefully  become  a  member  of  the 
Union,  and  Mexico  would  have  avoided  a  disastrous  war  with  this  country,  and 
the  consequent  loss  of  her  immense  territories  north  of  the  Rio  Grande;  and 
then,  too,  it  is  probable  that  the  annexation  of  Texas  would  not  have  caused  a 
political  feud  in  the  United  States,  over  which  discussion  became  heated,  and 
new  political  issues  were  made — presidents  were  elected,  and  eminent  politi- 
cians were  defeated  in  their  ambitious  purposes. 

When  a  national  question  in  this  country  assumes  a  political  phase  it  is 
curious  to  watch  its  accidental  outcomes.  Men  apparently  shut  their  eyes  and 
rush  forward  in  spite  of  the  most  solemn  warnings  of  their  neighbors.  They 
care  only  to  know  what  their  political  rival  wants  them  to  do,  and  then  they 
set  their  faces  like  steel  to  accomplish  the  very  opposite.  Thus,  by  curious  ac- 
cident, the  Mexican  war  became,  in  the  minds  of  men  of  that  time,  a  Democratic 
war;  and  the  Whigs,  as  a  party,  were  placed  in  the  position  as  opposed  to  the 


annexation  of  Texas.  To  demonstrate  how  purely  accidental  were  the  controll- 
ing influences  among  men,  we  give  an  incident  that  occurred  between  a  Demo- 
cratic and  a  Whig  politician  in  Illinois  in  1844.  They  were  two  bright  and 
ambitious  young  men — both,  afterward,  becoming  eminent  in  the  Nation' s  coun- 
cils. They  lived  in  the  same  village  in  southern  Illinois,  and  each  was  striv- 
ing for  his  party  nomination  for  congressman.  In  order  to  advertise  their 
claims  they  agreed  to  travel  together  over  the  vast  district,  and  hold  in  each 
county  joint  discussions.  They  started  out  on  the  absorbing  topic  of  both 
Whig  and  Democrat,  the  annexation  of  Texas,  ranged  on  different  sides.  They 
were  bright,  witty,  brilliant  and  eloquent,  and  they  drew  nearly  equal  to  a 
circus  in  the  Illinois  back  counties.  But,  in  taking  sides,  the  Whig  favored 
annexation,  and  the  Democrat  opposed  it.  Thus  they  had  passed  over  about 
two-thirds  of  the  district,  when  the  long  delayed  news  from  the  National 
Democratic  Convention  reached  them,  and  lo,  it  had  nominated  Polk,  and  upon 
the  strongest  kind  of  a  Texas  annexation  platform.  Here,  indeed,  was  a  kettle 
of  fish.  What. could  they  do?  Why,  simply,  just  what  they  did  do — swap 
sides  and  continue  their  trip  and  discussion  through  the  remainder  of  the 
district,  hammering  each  other  over  the  heads,  each  with  the  other's  own 

Congress  passed  a  bill  admitting  Texas  into  the  union  of  States,  and  on  the 
4th  of  July,  1845,  the  Legislature  of  Texas,  by  solemn  act,  approved  of  the 
measure,  and  the  union  was  consummated.  Mexico  considered  this  as  an  act 
of  war;  and  withdrew  her  minister  from  Washington.  Some  feeble  and  pos- 
sibly half-hearted  attempts  to  tide  over  the  threatened  conflict  were  made  by 
the  United  States,  and  then  the  two  nations  declared  war,  and  at  once  began 
marshalling  their  armies.  In  the  early  part  of  1846  our  armies  had  marched  to 
the  border  lines  of  Mexico,  and  after  a  brief  halt  they  invaded  the  country  of 
the  enemy.  The  declaration  of  war  was  made  by  Congress,  May  11,  1846, 
and  $10,000,000  voted  to  furnish  the  army,  and  the  President  was  authorized 
to  call  for  50,000  volunteers.  The  temper  of  our  people  is  shown  by  the  fact, 
that  at  once  200,000  volunteers  offered  themselves,  and  from  every  part  of  the 
Union  it  was  a  race  among  companies  and  regiments  to  get  in  first.  Every- 
where companies  were  formed  that  the  Government  was  compelled  to  reject. 

Franklin  County  sent  one  company.  This  was  recruited  in  1847,  by  Mar- 
tin M.  Moore,  of  Washington,  who  had  procured  authority  to  enlist  a  Pennsyl- 
vania company  for  the  Mexican  war.  He  opened  a  recruiting  office  in  Cham- 
bersburg,  and  soon  filled  his  company,  and  it  left  Chambersburg,  March  17, 
1847,  for  the  seat  of  war,  numbering  122  men,  rank  and  file,  officered  as  fol- 

Captain — Martin  M.  Moore. 

First  lieutenant — Charles  T.  Campbell. 

Second  lieutenants — Horace  Haldeman,  Washington  Meads. 

Third  sergeant — James  S.  Gillan. 

Corporals — Michael  W.  Houser,  J.  R.  Thompson,  Henry  Remley. 


Jacob  Arbaugh.  George  Barmord.  William  Fisher. 

James  S.  Bigger.  Emanuel  Burns.  William  Johnson. 

John  Bricker.  Davrd  Beard.  Jeremiah  Keefer. 

Joseph  Bricker.  Hugh  P.  Coxe.  Henry  Koyler. 

Fredrick  Berkle.  Washington  Cramer.  Samuel  Kraft. 

Fredrick  Baker.  Jeremiah  Douglas.  Amos  Lightner. 

William  Bittinger.  Mathew  Downs.  George  Miller. 

James  Briley.  John  Davis.  Daniel  Miller. 

John  Beamhop.  George  Eldridge.  James  McCullough. 

'  -    ^:Wi 


John  Mehaffey.  Henry  Ray.  Thomas  Shoemaker. 

Alexander  McCarthey.  Lewis  Rummel.  John  Sheaffer. 

John  McCumseh.  William  Retter.  Joseph  Welch. 

William  I.  McClellan.  Heury  Reafsnider.  Jacob  West. 

Joseph  McMahan.  Hezekiah  Stuff.  Jacob  Williams. 

Joseph  Nave.  John  C.  Sheffield.  John  Zumbro. 

John  A.  Pierson.  David  M.  Stump.  John  Harnish. 

Jacob  Pentz.  John  Suders.  Joseph  Grimes. 

William  Robison.  Henry  Sheafer.  David  Cordell. 

Although  we  have  no  complete  list  of  the  men  of  Company  B,  Eleventh 
United  States  Infantry,  as  furnished  by  the  War  Department,  yet  we  give  only 
those  that  were  known  to  be  from  Franklin  County. 

This  company  marched  to  Pittsburgh,  by  way  of  Bedford,  where  it  received 
some  additional  recruits.  It  arrived  with  the  army  at  Brazos  Santiago,  in 
April,  1847,  and  for  some  time  was  in  garrison  at  Tampico,  where  a  number  of 
men  died  of  yellow  fever.  From  here  it  went  to  Vera  Cruz,  and  from  there  to 
the  City  of  Mexico.  The  company  was  in  active  service  until  the  close  of  the 
war,  July  4,  1848. 

Capt.  Moore  was  dismissed  from  the  service  at  Tampico,  and  Charles  T. 
Campbell  was  promoted  to  captain,  and  was  in  command  until  our  army  was 
mustered  out.  At  the  time  of  the  close  of  the  war  it  was  in  the  interior  of 
the  country,  about  seventy-five  miles  from  the  City  of  Mexico.  When  the 
company  reached  New  York  on  its  return  home  in  July,  1848,  its  force  of  100 
men  had  been  reduced  to  about  twenty-four  men  in  the  line. 

There  were  other  men  recruited  who  went  to  the  war  from  this  county  in  ad- 
dition to  those  given  above  in  Company  B.  Capt.  Whipple  and  Lieut. 
Hanson  got  recruits  for  their  command  here.  Then  we  are  informed  that 
there  were  several  Franklin  County  men  who  joined  commands  that  went  out 
from  Cumberland  County,  and  their  identity  as  Franklin  County  men  was 
thereby  lost. 

Captain  Charles  T.  Campbell  is  now  a  resident  of  Scotland,  Dak. ,  to  which 
point  he  removed  from  Franklin  Countv,  some  years  ago. 



Introductory  —  First   Newspaper  —  Press   of    Chambersburg —  Press   of 
Waynesboro — Press  of  Mercersburg — Press  of  Greencastle. 

THE  corner-stones  of  modern  civilization  are  the  family,  the  school,  the 
church  and  the  state. 
The  family  is  the  origin  of  all  government — the  germ  of  all  organization. 
Upon  it  all  social  and  political  institutions  rest.  From  it  all  others  derive 
their  vitality  and  inspiration.  Without  its  economy,  the  body  politic  and  the 
social  fabric  could  not  exist.  The  family  may  be  regarded  a  preparatory 
university,  whose  president  is  the  father,  and  whose  chief  instructor  is  the 
loving  and  faithful  mother.  All  science  and  all  art  are  taught  in  this  univer- 
sity.      The  most  important  lessons  in  life  are  the  "things  learned  at  that  best 



academy,  a  mother's  knee,"  embracing  the  names  and  qualities  of  objects  and 
actions;  government,  philosophy,  religion,  political  economy,  theology,  poetry, 
literature,  music — all  the  gems  of  an  encyclopedic  education. 

From  this  preparatory  school  pupils  are  admitted  to  the  conventional 
school  under  the  control  of  a  licensed  master  or  mistress.  New  lessons  and 
new  duties  are  to  be  learned.  Certain  personal  rights  must  be  sacrificed  to 
enjoy  certain  privileges  that  are  desired.  True  republicanism  is  cultivated. 
Genuine  philanthropy  is  developed,  and  the  pupil  qualified  to  enter  intelligently 
the  next  grade — the  church.  It  is  the  great  theological  institution  intended 
to  teach  the  higher  duties  and  responsibilties  of  a  moral  and  pious  life.  Self- 
control,  charity,  benevolence,  consecration,  devotion,  unselfishness — all  these 
are  its  legitimate  purposes  to  accomplish.  Its  work  done  efficiently,  the 
subject  is  prepared  to  occupy  his  appropriate  position  in  the  state;  in  other 
words,  to  become  an  intelligent,  conscientious  citizen.  Three  sets  of  agencies, 
each  working  efficiently  in  its  own  sphere,  have  co-operated  to  produce  the 
highest  type  of  manhood,  the  conception  which  inspired  Holland  to  write : 

"God  gives  us  men!  a  time  like  this  demands 
Strong  minds,  great  hearts,  true  faith  and  ready  hands; 

Men  whom  the  lust  of  office  does  not  kill; 
Men  whom  the  spoils  of  office  can  not  buy; 

Men  who  possess  opinions  and  a  will, 
Men  who  have  honor — men  who  will  not  lie; 

Men  who  can  stand  before  a  demagogue 
And  damn  his  treacherous  flatterers  without  winking, 

Tall  men,  sun-crowned,  who  live  above  the  fog 
In  public  duty,  and  in  private  thinking." 

Men  may  condemn  the  evils  of  church  and  state;  they  can  not  be  divorced. 
As  well  attempt  to  separate  youth  and  manhood,  the  soil  and  its  crop,  or  any 
cause  from  its  effect.  If  the  child  is  the  father  of  the  man,  the  family,  the 
school  and  the  church  are  the  progenitors  of  the  state. 

But  as  society  is  organized,  the  life-blood  of  all  these  institutions  is  the 
modern  newspaper.  It  is  the  food  of  all.  In  its  greed  it  has  usurped  the 
prerogative  formerly  enjoyed  by  the  oral  teacher,  secular  and  religious.  It 
is  the  accepted  text-book  of  the  ordinary  laborer,  the  learned  divine  and  the 
profoundest  statesman.  It  is  more  powerful  than  the  throne,  which  it  makes 
and  unmakes  at  will.  It  is,  in  our  modern  civilization,  the  life-blood  of  the 
body  politic.      Hence  the  power  and  the  responsibility  of  the  press. 

In  the  history  of  English  journalism  occurs  this  account  of  the  growth  of 
the  newspaper :  ' '  First  we  have  the  written  news  letter,  furnished  to  the 
wealthy  aristocracy;  then,  as  the  craving  for  information  spread,  the  ballad  of 
news,  sung  or  recited;  then  the  news  pamphlet,  more  prosaically  arranged; 
then  the  periodical  sheet  of  news ;  and  lastly,  the  newspaper. ' ' 

The  English  newspaper  was  born  in  London,  in  1622.  Its  liberty  at  first 
was  greatly  restricted,  nothing  being  allowed  publication  until  it  had  passed 
proper  official  inspection.  In  its  struggle  for  independence,  the  press  had  to 
undergo  many  prosecutions  and  trials  unknown  to  the  present  generation. 
The  blood  of  martyrs  is  the  seed  not  only  of  the  church,  but  of  the  press  as 
well.  Governmental  influence  with  the  subject-matter  of  the  newspaper  was 
regarded  a  divine  right;  hence  we  are  not  astonished  to  find  the  House  of 
Commons  resolving,  in  1729,  that  "it  is  an  indignity  and  a  breach  of  privilege 
of  the  House  of  Commons  for  any  person  to  presume  to  give,  in  written  or 
printed  newspapers,  any  account  or  minutes,  of  the  debates  or  other  proceed- 
ings of  this  House  or  any  committee  thereof."  In  1764  the  editor  of  the 
Evening  Post,  of  London,  was  fined  £100  by  the  House  of  Lords,  for  mention- 


ing  the  name  of  Lord  Hereford  in  his  paper.      The  good  work  continued,  how- 
ever, till  the  press  was  disenthralled. 

France  had  much  difficulty  in  liberating  the  press.  Daring  the  reign  of 
Louis  Napoleon  there  were  6,000  prosecutions  of  publishers;  but  they  finally 
succeeded,  and  France  can  hear  from  plebeians,  sentiments  which  the  throne 
did  not  dare  to  utter.  Not  by  German  battalions  only  was  the  usurper  over- 
thrown. He  was  shot  through  and  through  by  the  paper  bullets  of  a  hostile 
and  enraged  public  press. 

In  America  the  first  neAvspaper  was  published  at  Boston,  September  25, 
1090,  by  Benjamin  Harris,  the  printing  being  done  by  Richard  Pierce.  Its 
name,  Public  Occurrences,  both  Foreign  and  Domestick,  was  very  significant. 
The  only  copy  now  in  existence  is  preserved  in  the  State  office  in  London. 
Others  sprang  up  in  regular  order,  until  to-day  the  American  press  stands 
forth  as  one  of  the  greatest  bulwarks  of  national  liberty — the  proudest  monu- 
ment of  the  progressive  spirit  of  the    age. 

A  sentence  or  two  may  serve  to  sketch  the  editor  who  realizes  the  nature 
of  the  trust  he  holds. 

1.  An  editor,  like  a  poet,  is  born,  not  made.  A  plug  hat,  a  waxed  mustache, 
a  cigar  and  a  goose  quill,  will  not  necessarily  edit  a  paper  successfully.  Pro- 
fanity, bad  grammar,  excessive  slang  and  whisky,  are  not  the  indispensable 
requisites  of  modern  journalism. 

2.  He  has  an  inherent  right  to  be  both  a  gentleman  and  a  scholar.  He 
should  be  sufficiently  educated,  at  least,  to  express  an  original  thought  occa- 
sionally, in  good  Anglo-Saxon.  Scissors  and  paste  have  their  legitimate  sphere, 
but  this  does  not  imply  that  he  should  have  "just  enough  learning  to  mis- 
quote," nor  does  it  require  that  he   should  demonstrate  in  his  own  case  that, 

' '  to   follow    foolish    precedents,    and  wink  with    both    eyes,    is   easier   than 
to  think." 

3.  He  should  be  a  leader  in  public  sentiment.  It  is  his  province  to 
mould  the  thought  of  his  constituents.  On  every  new  issue  he  should  be  able 
to  sound  forth  the  clarion  notes  of  truth  and  progress,  and  lead  his  readers  to 
occupy  advanced  grounds  in  the  face  of  ignorant. opposition.  Some  one  has 
truly  said :  "To  know  hoiv  to  say  what  others  only  know  how  to  think,  is  what 
makes  men  poets  and  sages ;  but  to  dare  to  say  what  others  only  dare  to  think, 
is  what  makes  them  heroes  or  reformers  or  both." 

4.  He  should  have  a  conscience  on  matters  that  affect  the  public  weal. 
A  newspaper  is  not  private  property  in  the  sense  that  it  is  to  reflect  only  the 
wishes  and  piques  of  its  manager.  It  represents  a  constituency  whose  con- 
sciences it  ought  to  respect,  while  it  aims  to  educate  them.  It  can  not  be 
made  the  vehicle  for  giving  vent  to  private  ill-will.  For  that  reason  it  ought 
to  treat  an  opponent  with  courtesy,  so  long  as  he  exhibits  marks  of  sincerity. 

The  press  of  Franklin  County  has  had  an  existence  since  the  opening  of  the 
last  decade  of  the  eighteenth  century  and  has  had  some  able  representatives  in  the 
ranks  of  journalism.  As  will  be  seen  from  the  lists  that  are  to  follow,  these  daily, 
weekly  and  monthly  heralds  of  light  and  life,  have  been  exceedingly  numer- 
ous, but  many  of  them,  having  accomplished  their  mission,  did  obeisance  to 
an  apparently  disinterested  public,  and  silently  departed  to  enjoy  the  rewards 
of  achieved  fame.  For  the  information,  and  in  many  cases,  the  language 
contained  in  these  brief  sketches,  obligation  is  publicly  acknowledged  to  those 
faithful  chroniclers  of  Franklin  County  History,  Dr.  W.  C.  Lane,*  Judge 
Henry  Rubyj  and  I.  H.  McCauley,  Esq.  J 

*[n  Public  Opinion  of  January  1,  1878. 
fin  Shippensburg  News  of  October  16,  1875. 
^Historical  Sketch  of  Franklin  County. 



From  the  organization  of  the  county,  in  September.  1784,  to  July  14, 
1790,  no  newspaper  was  published  in  Franklin  County,  all  sheriffs'  proclama- 
tions, notices  of  candidates  for  office,  offers  of  real  estate  for  sale,  estrays, 
runaway  negroes,  desertions  of  bed  and  board  by  wives,  obituaries,  divorce 
and  sale  notices,  etc. ,  being  printed  in  the  Carlisle  Gazette  and  Repository  of 

As  the  population  of  Chambersburg  increased,  one  of  its  chief  wants  was  a 
weekly  journal,  to  " note  the  passing  tidings  of  the  times."  This  want  was 
eventually  supplied  by  the  advent  of  Mr.  William  Davison,  from  Philadelphia, 
who,  in  the  month  of  June,  1790,  issued  the  first  number  of  the  first  news- 
paper published  in  Franklin  County.  The  name  of  this  primitive  journal  was 
The  Western  Advertiser  and  Chambersburg  Weekly  Newspaper.  It  was  a  small, 
dingy  sheet  of  three  columns  to  the  page,  and  10x15  inches  in  size.  Its  con- 
tents consisted  mainly  of  advertisements  and  a  few  extracts  from  London  and 
Eastern  journals,  and  an  occasional  ponderous  and  drowsy  original  communi- 
cation upon  some  political  or  literary  subject.  It  was  singularly  dignified 
and  dull.  The  price  of  the  paper  was  15  shillings  per  annum.  Mr.  Davison  did 
not  more  than  fairly  start  his  enterprise,  before  his  health  began  to  decline,  and  he 
was  obliged  to  call  to  his  assistance  Mr.  Eobert  Harper,  brother  of  the  late  George 
Kenton  Harper.  Mr.  Harper  came  to  Chambersburg  in  1792,  and  took  charge 
of  the  paper.  Mr.  Davison  dying  soon  afterward,  Mr.  Harper  then  became 
its  sole  proprietor.  In  1793  Mr.  Harper  changed  the  elaborate  title  of  the 
journal  to  the  simpler  one  of  The  Chambersburg  Gazette.  This  name  it  re- 
tained until  the  year  1796,  when  it  was  further  changed  to  The  Franklin  Reposi- 
tory. Soon  after  Mr.  Robert  Harper  became  the  owner  of  the  paper,  he  associated 
with  himself  in  its  publication  a  gentleman  named  Dover.  This  connection  ex- 
isted only  a  few  months,  and  was  severed  by  Mr.  Dover' s  withdrawal.  In  the  year 
1800,  Robert  Harper  sold  the  establishment  to  his  brother,  George  Kenton 
Harper.  *  The  latter  gentleman  had  previously  learned  the  art  of  printing  in 
the  office  in  Chambersburg,  although,  at  the  time  of  the  purchase,  he  was  a 
resident  of  Philadelphia.  Under  the  able  and  judicious  management  of  George 
K.  Harper,  the  Repository  became  one  of  the  most  extensively  circulated  and 
influential  journals  in  the  interior  of  the  State.  The  Repository  was  published 
by  Mr.  George  K.  Harper  for  a  period  of  thirty-nine  years,  and  was  then  sold 
to  Joseph  Pritts,  who  was  publishing  the  Chambersburg  Whig,  and  by  whom 
the  two  papers  were  united  under  the  title  of  the  Repository  and  Whig. 

This  venerable  and  influential  old  journal  was  successively  owned  by  many 
companies  and  individuals,  until  it  fell  into  the  most  competent  hands  of  Col. 
Alexander  K.  McClure,  by  whom  it  was  enlarged  and  otherwise  improved.  Its 
title  was,  by  this  gentleman,  again  changed,  and  its  old  and  honored  name  of 
The  Franklin  Repository  most  appropriately  given  it.  Under  Col.  McClure' s 
proprietorship,  it  became  an  acknowledged  political  power  in  the  State.  The 
paper  is  now  ownedf  and  edited  by  Maj.  John  M.  Pomeroy,  and  it  may  be  said  with 
perfect  truth  and  candor,  and  without  any  invidious  disparagement  of  the  very 
many  able  gentlemen  by  whom  it  had  formerly  been  conducted,  that  its  present 
proprietor  exhibits  in  its  management  a  combination  of  energy,  enterprise,  tact 
and  ability  which,  at  least,  have  never  been  exceeded  in  its  past  history.  The 
Repository  has  always  been  a  fearless  and  able  defender  of  the  principles  of  the 

*D.  P..  Kirby,  of  Chambersburg,  has  a  copy  of  the  Repository,  dated  February  20,  1800,  which  was  marked 
No.  44  of  Vol.  IV.  Its  subscription  price  is  put  at  $2.25  per  year.  G.  K.Harper  is  its  owner  and  publisher. 
In  Us  columns  is  a  notice  that  Geo.  K.  Harper  had  bought  of  Robert  Harper  the  Minerva,  showing  its  publi- 
cation in  the  last  century.     See  McCauley's  denials,  in  loco. 

tSee  statement  at  close  of  this  sketch  of  the  press  of  Chambersburg. 


old  Whig  and  Republican  parties,  in  whose  defense  it  has  been  compelled  to 
break  many  a  lance;  and,  in  its  mature  age  of  eighty-seven  years,  it  exhibits 
more  than  the  vigor  and  energy  which  characterized  its  earlier  days. 

The  Repository  was  first  issued  from  an  old  log  house,  originally  built  and 
used  for  a  blacksmith  shop,  which  stood  on  the  lot  now  occupied  by  Mr.  Jacob 
Snider' s  book  store.  It  was  then  removed  to  a  small  one-story  weatherboarded 
building,  which  stood  on  Main  Street,  near  the  corner  of  the  Diamond,  on  the 
lot  on  Which  Mr.  Thomas  E.  Paxton's  store  now  stands. 

For  many  years  the  Repository  was  the  only  newspaper  published  in  Frank- 
lin County.  At  length,  about  the  year  1809,  a  Democratic  rival,  called  the 
Franklin  Republican,  was  issued  by  Mr.  John  Hershberger.  Previously,  how- 
ever, two  papers,  one  in  English  and  the  other  in  the  German  language,*  had 
been  published  for  a  few  years.  The  names  of  these  papers  have  not  been 
ascertained,  although  extended  inquiry  has  been  made.  The  English  paper 
was  now  united  with  the  Franklin  Republican.  On  relinquishing  the  business 
of  printing  in  1816,  Mr.  Hershberger  sold  his  office  to  John  McFarland,  by 
whom  the  publication  of  the  English  journal  was  continued;  but  who  discon- 
tinued the  German  paper  for  want  of  adequate  support.  McFarland  sold  the 
paper  to  John  Sloan,  who  published  it  until  his  death,  a  few  years  after  the 
purchase.  Mr.  Sloan  died  about  the  year  1824.  The  late  Joseph  Pritts,  who 
had  been  employed  in  the  office  of  Sloan,  married  his  widow,  and  thus  became 
the  owner  of  the  printing  establishment.  Mr.  Pritts  continued  to  publish  the 
paper  in  the  interest  of  the  Democratic  party,  until  the  anti-Masonic  excite- 
ment in  1834,  when  he  became  a  member  of  that  organization,  and  purchased 
an  anti-Masonic  newspaper  which  had  previously  been  established  by  James 
Culbertson.  The  two  papers  were  then  conjoined  and  the  name  changed  to 
The  Chambersburg  Whig,  which  it  bore  until  it  was  merged  into  the  Franklin 
Repository,  in  1889.  Mr.  Pritts  having  thus  abandoned  the  Democratic  party, 
that  organization  was  left  without  an  organ,  until  the  Franklin  Telegraph  was 
started  about  the  year  1831,  by  Messrs.  Ruby  &  Maxwell.  This  partnership 
continued  but  six  weeks,  at  the  end  of  which  time  James  Maxwell  withdrew. 
Mr.  Ruby  then  selected  another  partner  named  Hatnick.  Mr.  Hatnick  dying 
after  a  partnership  of  only  nine  months,  Mr.  Ruby  became  sole  proprietor  of 
the  paper,  and  continued  its  publication  until  the  year  1840,  making  it  an  able 
and  successful  exponent  of  the  principles  of  the  party  in  whose  interests  it  was 
established.  Having  been  appointed  one  of  the  associate  judges  of  Franklin 
County,  Judge  Ruby  sold  his  journal  to  Messrs.  Brown  &  Casey.  These  gen- 
tlemen, after  conducting  it  for  several  years,  sold  it  to  John  Brand,  who 
changed  its  name  to  the  Chambersburg  Times.  Mr.  Franklin  G.  May  bought 
the  paper  from  Mr.  Brand,  and  held  it  until  April  6,  1846,  when  he  transferred 
it  to  E.  R.  Powell.  Daring  the  proprietorship  of  Mr.  Powell,  its  name  was 
changed  to  the  Valley  Sentinel.  In  January,  1850,  it  was  purchased  by  Fred- 
erick Smith,  Esq.,  and  edited  by  his  son,  Alfred  H.  Smith,  until  April,  1851, 
when  this  gentleman  moved  to  Philadelphia.  Messrs.  Nead  &  Kinneard  then 
became  the  owners  of  the  Sentinel,  under  whose  management  it  remained  until 
late  in  the  year  1852,  when  it  was  sold  to  Messrs.  P.  S.  Dechert  &  Co. ;  and, 

*One  of  these  was  called  Der  Redliche  Registrator.  Its  publisher  and  editor,  F.  W.  Nihoeplin,  announced  in 
the  Repository  of  December  21, 1813:  "The  first  number  of  this  paper  will  be  issued  from  this  office  to-morrow." 
lie  says,  further:  "Nearly  the  whole  contents  of  this  paper  is  weekly  translated  from  the  latest  English  papers, 
which,  together  with  the  quick  conveyance  by  mails  running  in  all  directions  from  Chambersburg,  enables  its 
patrons  to  receive  information  of  the  occurrences  of  our  own  and  foreign  countries  as  early  as  they  could 
through  any  of  the  English  weekly  papers."  It  must  be  remembered,  that  at  that  time  all  mail  matter  was  dis- 
tributed by  carriers  but  once  a  week,  and  yet  these  crude  facilities  were  highly  appreciated.  The  German  pop- 
ulation in  the  county,  too,  was  an  important  factor  at  this  eai  ly  date.  *ays  .fudge  Ruby :  "  There  were  but  few 
families  in  the  town  or  country  that  did  not  then  understand  the  German  language,  which  accounts  for  two 
weekly  papers  being  sustained  in  that  language."  After  Mr.  Schoeplin's  death,  in  1825,  the  office  was  sold  to 
Henry  Ruby. 


its  apposite  name,  after  appearing  for  a  season  in  company  with  the  Spirit,  as 
the  Spirit  and  Sentinel,  died  away. 

The  Valley  Spirit  was  started  in  Shippensburg,  by  John  M.  Cooper  and 
Daniel  Dechert,  in  July,  1847,  under  the  title  of  the  Valley  Spirit  and  Cum- 
berland and  Franklin  County  Democrat.  In  July,  1848,  it  was  moved  to 
Chambersburg,  and  conducted  under  the  firm  of  P.  S.  Dechert  &  Co. ,  with  Mr. 
Cooper  as  editor.  In  1852  the  firm  bought  the  Sentinel,  and  united  the  two 
papers.  In  1857,  the  Valley  Spirit,  which  had  dropped  part  of  its  original 
name,  became  the  property  of  George  H.  Mengel  &  Co. ,  and  was  published  by 
them  until  1862,  when  it  was  purchased  by  B.  Y.  Hamsher  &  Co. ,  who  retained 
it  until  1867,  when  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  Messrs.  J.  M.  Cooper  &  Co. , 
and  in  1868  Mr.  Cooper  withdrew  from  the  establishment,  Messrs.  Wm.  S. 
Stehger  and  Augustus  Duncan  becoming  its  proprietors.  In  1876  Mr.  Joseph 
C.  Clugston  purchased  the  paper,  and  reinstated  its  old  and  popular  editor, 
Mr.  Cooper,  in  the  editorial  chair. 

The  Valley  Spirit  is  an  ably-managed  and  vigorous  publication,  and  is  an 
able  and  fearless  advocate  of  the  principles  of  the  great  party  to  which  it  be- 
longs; and  its  influence  is  not  limited  merely  to  the  locality  in  which  it  is  pub- 
lished, but  is  sensibly  felt  in  the  politics  of  the  State.  In  that  peculiar  tact, 
as  well  as  talent,  so  essential  to  the  successful  editor,  Mr.  Cooper  was  gifted 
in  an  eminent  degree.  October  1,  1879,  the  paper  was  purchased  by  its  pres- 
ent owners,  John  GK  &  D.  A.  Orr,  from  J.  H.  Wolf  kill,  through  whom  it  had 
come  from  Clugston  and  Cooper.  On  the  2d  of  August,  1886,  John  Gr. 
and  D.  A.  Orr  purchased  at  sheriff's  sale  the  Franklin  Democrat  and  Daily 
Herald,  and  immediately  began  the  publication  of  a  morning  daily  known 
as  the  Valley  Spirit.  In  a  prominent  position  on  its  second  page  stands 
this  epitome  of  its  own  history:  "Established,  1847.  Founded  in  1831,  merged 
in  Valley  Spirit,  1852 — Franklin  Telegraph,  Chambersburg  Times,  Cumber- 
land Valley  Sentinel.  Founded  in  1858;  merged  in  Valley  Spirit,  1862 — the 
Independent,  the  Times.  Founded  in  1878;  merged  in  Valley  Spirit,  1886 — the 
Daily  Herald.  Founded  in  1882;  merged  in  Valley  Spirit,  1886 — the  Frank- 
lin County  Democrat. ' '  Both  daily  and  weekly  editions  show  the  highest  style 
of  mechanical  execution,  and  the  contents  of  each  are  newsy  and  spicy,  evi- 
dencing careful  and  painstaking  research.  It  is  a  pronounced  anti-Randall 
Democratic  exponent  of  the  theories  of  government. 

In  July,  1853,  Mr.  Robert  P.  Hazelet  started  a  folio  sheet,  devoted  more 
especially  to  literature,  which  he  called  the  Transcript.  It  became  the  Know- 
Nothing  organ  in  the  fall  of  1854,  and  was  subsequently  merged  into  the 
Repository,  under  the  title  of  the  Repository  and  Transcript,  and,  after  a  titular 
fellowship  of  a  few  years,  ultimately  perished. 

In  1854,  Messrs.  Kell  &  Kinneard  started  an  educational  monthly,  called 
the  Tutor  and  Pupil,  which  had  an  ephemeral  existence. 

David  A.  Werz  instituted  The  Independent  in  1858,  a  handsome  and  able 
paper,  which  attracted  much  attention  for  its  literary  ability,  but  sold  it  in 
April,  185(J,  to  William  I.  Cook  and  P.  Dock  Frey.  A  few  months  later, 
namely,  on  the  7th  of  October,  1859,  they  transferred  it  to  Frey  &  Foltz,  who 
converted  it  from  a  neutral  into  a  Republican  paper.  On  the  31st  of  August, 
1860,  it  again  changed  owners,  and  Messrs.  William  Kennedy  and  Jacob  Sellers 
converted  it  into  a  Democratic  organ,  as  an  exponent  of  the  principles  of  the 
Douglas  wing  of  the  party,  in  opposition  to  the  Valley  Spirit,  which  sup- 
ported Breckenridge.  After  holding  it  a  few  years  it  was  united  with  the 
Valley  Spirit,  as  the  Valley  Spirit  and  Times,  and,  a  short  time  after,  its  dis- 
tinctive title  passed  into  oblivion. 


In  the  year  1814,  the  Hon.  Henry  Rnby  moved  to  Chanibersburg,  and  was 
apprenticed  to  a  German  printer  named  F.  W.  Schoflin,  who  was  publishing  a 
German  paper  in  connection  with  Mr.  Geerge  K.  Harper.  This  paper  was 
soon  afterward  sold  to  Mr.  Schoflin.  Mr.  Schoflin  died  in  1825,  and  his  paper 
was  managed  by  Mr.  Ruby,  for  his  widow,  for  a  period  of  six  months,  at  the 
expiration  of  which  time  he  bought  the  office.  He  continued  its  publication  for 
some  time  after  the  publication  of  the  Franklin  Telegraph,  but  under  a  new 
name,  and  eventually  sold  it  to  Mr.  Victor  Scriba,  by  whom  it  was  removed  to 
Pittsburgh.  Mr.  Scriba  changed  its  name  to  Freiheif s  Freund,  and  it  soon 
attained  a  large  circulation  and  much  influence  among  the  German  population 
of  Pittsburgh.  Another  German  paper  was  started  in  Chambersburg,  by  John 
Dietz,  in  1824,  but  enjoyed  a  very  brief  existence,  dying  in  its  second  year. 

During  the  time  embraced  by  these  publications,  a  large  number  of  papers 
were  launched  upon  the  treacherous  waves  of  popular  favor,  but  soon  stranded 
on  the  hidden  rock  of  impecuniosity,  and  sank  even  beneath  public  recollection. 
A  notable  exception  to  this  statement,  however,  was  the  Transcript,  estab- 
lished in  1853  by  Robert  P.  Hazelet.  This  paper  aspired  to  the  establish- 
ment of  a  literary  reputation,  in  which  it  secured  a  marked  degree  of  success. 
It  was  then  purchased  by  the  Know-Nothings,  and  upon  the  sudden  collapse 
of  that  political  monstrosity,  was  merged  into  the  Repository,  and  lived  a  short 
time  longer  in  the  Repository  and  Transcript. 

The  Despatch,  a  semi-weekly  paper,  was  started  in  the  spring  of  1861,  by 
George  H  Merklein  and  P.  Dock  Frey,  under  the  firm  of  George  H.  Merk- 
lein  &  Co.,  and  lived  until  the  spring  of   1863. 

The  Country  Merchant,  an  advertising  sheet,  was  issued  in  July,  1866,  by 
M.  A.  Foltz,  and  was  succeeded,  in  1869,  by  Public  Opinion,  a  progressive 
weekly  newspaper,  devoted  to  advanced  Republican  principles.  It  deals  es- 
pecially with  news  of  a  local  nature,  always  giving  the  preference  to  such,  but, 
at  the  same  time,  it  never  neglects  matters  of  national  or  State  import  or  in- 
formation of  general  interest.  The  people  of  Franklin  County  have  always 
had  in  it  a  true  friend.  Their  interests  have  been  its  interests,  and  it  has 
fought  their  battles  with  vigor  from  the  moment  that  it  first  saw  the  light. 

The  first  issue  appeared  on  the  20fch  of  July,  in  the  year  above  named,  and 
met  with  immediate  success.  It  rapidly  became  a  leading  paper,  not  only  in 
its  own  county,  but  throughout  the  whole  of  the  Cumberland  Valley,  its  views 
being  quoted  far  and  wide.  It  has  continued  to  hold  this  prominence,  and  is 
to-day  one  of  the  most  influential  newspapers  in  southern  Pennsylvania.  And 
at  the  present  time,  as  in  the  past,  it  is  representative  of  its  title,  and  is  truly  a 
reflex  of  public  opinion. 

With  the  commencement  of  its  third  volume,  in  July,  1871,  the  Opinion 
enlarged,  and  in  1885  it  re-enlarged,  thus  becoming  one  of  the  largest  week- 
lies published  in  its  section  of  the  State.  It  has  now  a  circulation  of  about 
2, 500,  and  goes  into  the  best  families  in  the  county. 

The  Silver  Cornet,  a  monthly  musical  journal,  was  published  by  P.  Dock 
Frey  &  Co. ,  coming  into  the  world  of  letters  in  September,  1869,  ' '  and  piping 
out ' '  at  the  somewhat  immature  age  of  seven  months. 

The  People's  Register  was  started  in  1876  as  the  Centennial  Register.  It 
is  a  patent  outside,  and  was  edited  by  Rev.  J.  G.  Schaff  until  the  time  of  his 
death,  when  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  his  sons,  who  are  still  publishing  it. 
In  the  summer  of  1886,  they  began  the  publication  of  an  evening  daily  which 
has  met  with  a  favorable  reception.  The  Register  has  given  special  attention 
to  educational  news  and  articles,  and  thus  has  become  the  teachers'  friend  in 
the  county. 


The  Farm  Journal  and  Experimental  Farm  Journal  were  issued  success- 
ively by  George  A.  Dietz  &  Co.,  and  were  extensively  circulated. 

The  first  religious  journal  published  by  the  German  Reformed  Church  was 
a  monthly  pamphlet  called  The  Magazine  of  the  German  Reformed  Church, 
and  was  issued  at  Carlisle,  Penn. ,  under  the  editorship  of  Rev.  Dr.  Lewis  Mayer. 
It  appeared  in  November,  1827.  In  1829  it  was  removed  to  York,  Penn.  In 
1832,  its  title  was  changed  to  The  Messenger  of  the  German  Reformed  Church, 
and  the  numbers  were  designated  as  the  New  Series.  In  1834  it  was 
changed  to  a  semi-monthly,  in  a  quarto  form,  which  was  continued  until  July, 
1835,  at  which  time  it  was  removed  to  Chambersburg.  Its  title  was  now 
changed  to  the  Weekly  Messenger  and  was  issued  weekly.  A  specimen  number 
of  the  paper  was  published  in  July,  but  the  regular  issue  did  not  begin  until 
the  September  following.  The  numbering  as  a  new  series  again  com- 
menced, which  has  been  continued  to  the  present  date.  In  December,  1848, 
the  name  of  the  paper  was  further  changed  to  that  of  The  German  Reformed 
Messenger.  In  September,  1867,  the  title  was  again  changed  to  The  Reformed 
Church  Messenger,  because  the  word  "  German  ' '  had  been  omitted  in  the  church 
itself.  The  office  in  Chambersburg  was  destroyed  by  the  rebels  in  1864,  and 
its  place  of  publication  was  then  transferred  to  Philadelphia.  Its  name  is 
now  simply  The  Messenger,  and  it  is  edited  by  the  accomplished  and  scholarly 
divine,  Rev.  P.  S.  Davis,  D.  D. ,  ably  assisted  by  Samuel  R.  Fisher,  D.  D., 
and  others.  For  a  time  after  the  removal  of  the  paper  to  Chambersburg,  it 
was  published  by  Joseph  Pritts,  and  subsequently  by  Henry  Ruby,  until  the 
church  established  a  printing  office  of  her  own,  in  the  Masonic  Hall,  on 
Second  Street,  in  1840.  The  old  Mansion  House  on  the  east  side  of  the  public 
square  was  then  purchased,  refitted,  and  the  office  removed  into  it. 

The  late  Rev.  Benjamin  S.  Schneck,  D.  D. ,  became  editor  of  the  Messenger 
in  1835,  after  its  removal  to  Chambersburg,  and  occupied  this  position  until 
the  year  1844.  In  the  beginning  of  1840,  the  Rev.  Samuel  R.  Fisher,  D.  D.,* 
became  associated  with  him  in  its  editorial  management.  Dr.  Schneck' s 
relation  to  the  paper,  which  was  suspended  in  1844,  was  resumed  in  the  fall 
of  1847,  and  continued  until  the  year  1852.  During  Dr.  Schneck' s  pastorate 
in  Gettysburg,  Penn. ,  in  1834,  he  began  the  publication  of  a  semi-monthly  in 
the  German  language,  styled  the  Christliche  Herold.  The  publication  of  this 
journal  was  transferred  to  Chambersburg  in  1840,  and  issued  under  the  name 
of  the  Christliche  Zeitschrift.  Dr.  Schneck  then  took  charge  of  it,  changing 
its  name  to  that  of  Reformirte  Kirchenzeitung,  and  continued  this  relation 
until  the  destruction  of  the  office  in  1864,  when  it  was  removed  to  Philadelphia, 
with  the  exception  of  an  interval  of  five  years,  from  1852  to  1857,  when  it  was 
edited  by  the  Rev.  Samuel  Miller. 

For  a  time  the  Saturday  Local  was  published  by  Joseph  Pomeroy  &  Co. 
Having  accomplished  its  mission,  it  quietly  took  its  departure  to  the  sweet 

In  the  foregoing  sketch  it  is  stated  that  the  Repository  is  owned  and 
edited  by  Maj.  John  M.  Pomeroy,  and  a  merited  compliment  is  paid  him. 
Since  that  was  written  by  Dr.  W.  C.  Lame,  the  daily  Franklin  Repository  has 
been  established,  which  is  now  in  its  fourth  volume.  It  has,  like  the  weekly, 
attained  a  large  circulation,  and  is,  with  the  People's  Register,  an  evening 
paper.  Until  November  26,  1886,  it  was  published  and  edited  by  the  Pomeroy 
Bros. ;  but  owing  to  certain  complications,  growing  out  of  the  right  of  title, 
it  was  sold  by  Sheriff  Kurtz  to  T.  M.  Mahon  and  H.  Gehr  for  $2,200,  and 
immediately  leased  by  them  to  its  former  managers.      The  paper  is  now  under 

*Since  deceased. 

,vW:.  ,j      ,,,p 


the  management  of  John  H.    Pomeroy  and  A.    Nevin  Pomeroy,   lessees  and 

The  Repository  is  the  oldest  paper  in  the  Cumberland  Valley,  and  its  pages, 
from  1793  to  the  present,  contain  the  substantial  history  of  the  county.  Its 
influence  upon  the  population  of  the  cotinty  through  these  years  has  been 
wonderful.  It  requires  little  sacrifice  to  be  able  to  concur  in  the  sentiment  of 
Hon.  Henry  Ruby,  himself  an  old  printer  and  a  competent  judge,  "that  few 
towns  in  Pennsylvania  have  newspaper  establishments  conducted  with  as  much 
ability  as  the  Franklin  Repository,  Valley  Spirit  and  Public  Opinion  of 
Chambersburg. ' ' 


In  Rupp's  "  History  of  the  Five  Counties,"  1846,  is  this  simple  statement: 
"A  weekly  paper — Waynesboro  Circulator — is  published  by  M.  C.  Grote." 

The  Village  Record,  weekly,  was  founded  March  13,  1847,  by  D.  O.  &  W. 
Blair.  D.  O.  Blair  afterward  studied  medicine  and  went  to  Abingdon,  111., 
where  he  died.  W.  Blair  had  sold  his  interest  to  his  brother,  but  in  1851 
repurchased  it  and  has  retained  it  every  since.  It  was  during  the  war  published 
regularly  till  the  time  of  Lee's  invasion  in  1863,  when  an  interruption 
occurred.  The  outside  was  printed  June  19,  and  the  inside  July  31.  Rebel 
soldiers  pied  his  type  and  overturned  his  cases,  producing  confusion  which 
required  several  weeks  to  overcome. 

By  virtue  of  continuous  services,  Mr.  Blair  is  entitled  to  be  known  as  the 
Nestor  of  the  Franklin  County  press. 

The  Keystone  Gazette  was  established  in  1876,  as  a  Democratic  weekly,  bv 
J.  C.  West  and  W.  C.  Jacobs.  In  1878  Jacobs  retired.  In  1880,  S.  M. 
Robinson  bought  it,  but  in  1882  sold  to  N.  Bruce  Martin  and  Jas.  B.  Fisher, 
who  conducted  it  as  an  independent  paper  till  January  1,  1885.  At  the  last 
date,  Mr.  Fisher  bought  Martin's  interest,  and  conducted  the  paper  till  March, 
1886,  when  D.  B.  Martin  assumed  editorial  control,  with  Fisher  as  manager. 

The  Brethren  Advocate,  a  religious  weekly  periodical,  was  published  at 
Waynesboro  from  August  5,  1879,  to  July  5,  1882.  It  was  published  in  the 
interests  of  the  German  Baptist  or  Brethren  Church.  The  contributors  to  its 
columns  were  some  of  the  ablest  writers  of  the  sect.  D.  H.  Fahrney  was 
publisher.     Size  of  sheet,  22x32. 


In  1846,  The  Mercersburg  Visitor,  weekly,  was  published  by  McKinstry  and 


The  Mercersburg  Journal  was  established  in  1846.  It  is  a  weekly,  neutral 
in  politics  and  has  a  good  local  circulation.  Its  present  owners  and  managers 
are  M.  J.  Slick  and  George  Hornbraker.  It  has  passed  through  a  number  of 
changes,  which  can  not  be  given. 

In  1851-52,  the  Mercersburg  Review  was  published  in  the  interests  of 
Marshall  College.     It  was  a  bi-monthly,  and  sold  at  $3  per  year. 


The  first  paper  started  in  the  town  was  called  the  Conococheague  Herald, 
and  was  published  by  E.  Robinson,  August,  1848.  In  a  few  months  it  was 
sold  by  him  to  Charles  Martin.  After  running  it  a  year,  he  sold  it  to  A.  N. 
Rankin,  who  in  turn  disposed  of  it  to  Elliott  B.  Detrich,  by  whom  the  name 
was  changed  to  the  Franklin  Intelligencer.  At  his  death  the  paper  passed  into 
the  hands  of  McCrory  and  Bonner,  who  named  it  the  Franklin  Ledger.   When 


Bonner  died,  the  new  firm,  Strickler  &  McCrory  changed  the  name  to  The  Pi- 
lot. Mr.  Strickler  retiring,  McCrory  ran  the  paper  on  his  own  responsibility 
for  several  years,  when  he  sold  it  to  Robert  and  William  Crooks.  The  first 
brother  soon  withdrawing  from  the  firm,  the  other  continued  the  paper  till 
1867,  when  he  sold  to  Rev.  John  R.  Gaff,  who  associated  M.  D.  Reymer  with 
himself,  and  changed  the  name  to  The  Valley  EcJio.  In  1867  Col.  B.  F. 
Winger  purchased  the  paper  and,  with  the  aid  of  Geo.  E.  Haller,  the  present 
proprietor,  ran  it  till  January  6,  1876,  at  which  time  he  sold  the  establishment 
to  the  present  owner  and  manager. 

The  Greencastle  Press  was  established  by  Col.  B.  F.  Winger,  after  retiring 
from  The  Valley  Echo,  in  1876,  and  has  been  controlled  by  him  ever  since. 
At  present  his  associate  in  the  management  and  editorial  work  is  J.  C.  Seacrest. 
It  is  a  weekly,  and  has  a  good  circulation  in  that  portion  of  the  county. 

About  the  opening  of  the  war,  a  small  paper  was  published  at  Concord  by 
a  brother  of  J.  W.  C.  Goshorne,  but  after  a  time  it  was  removed  to  the  West. 

In  1886  the  Path  Valley  News  was  established  at  Fannettsburg,  and  is 
still  in  existence. 



A  Business  of  First  Importance— Its  Promising  Future— Improvements 
Introduced — Judge  Watts — The  First  Reaper — First  Stock  in  the 
Country— Wheat  and  Corn— Hessian  Fly— Improved  Implements— A 
Wonderful  Feat  With  the  Scythe Agricultural  Societies,  Offi- 
cers, Etc. 

I  PROM  the  land  comes  the  life  of  every  living,  breathing,  thing.  It  is  the 
nourishing  mother  of  animal  and  vegetable  life.  It  is  the  beginning  of  all 
existence,  and  "  dust  to  dust"  is  the  common  end.  The  soil  and  the  climate 
are  the  determining  factors  in  the  growth  and  quality  of  the  world' s  civilization. 
From  the  soil  comes  all  that  we  can  possess — the  best  type  of  manhood,  the 
great  cities  with  their  spires  and  minarets  gleaming  in  the  morning  sun,  the 
army  with  banners,  the  armadas  whose  sails  fleck  every  sea,  the  maiden's 
blush,  the  bubbling  laughter  of  childhood,  the  sweet  bondage  of  love,  the 
restful  haven  of  home,  are  all  from  this  one  common,  fruitful  source.  The 
dull  soil,  the  primeval  rocks  from  which  all  soils  are  made,  bore  the  great 
secrets  of  life. 

It  has  been  well  said  that  were  you  to  show  a  man,  sufficiently  versed  in 
the  subject  of  the  rocks,  a  new  world,  that  by  an  examination  of  the  soil  and 
rocks  he  could  tell  exactly  what  kind  of  men,  the  degree  of  civilization,  the 
boundary  line  of  their  improvements,  in  farming  and  in  all  other  industries, 
the  new  world  would  eventually  evolve.  This  might  seem  to  some  a  sweeping 
assertion,  but  by  all  men  of  tolerable  culture  it  is  accepted  without  further 

Of  all  vocations  in  life  that  of  the  farmer  brings  him  in  closer  relations  to 
the  land  than  that  of  any  other  class  of  men.  To  perfect  his  education,  prac- 
tically and  scientifically,  is  to  make  him  the  master  of  the  philosophy  of  the  most 
vital  subject  that  can  affect  life,  because  he  is  in  the  position  of  first  import- 


ance,  and  when  his  energies  are  properly  directed,  it  will  of  itself  place  him 
high  and  supreme  above  all  others.  The  fundamentals  of  our  physical  life 
have  always  rested  primarily  upon  the  tillers  of  the  soil,  and  to  the  coming 
farmer  will  mankind  go  for  the  higher  qualities  of  mental  life  as  they  have 
already  gone  for  their  physical  existence.  The  rudest  tillers  of  the  soil  in  the 
darkest  ages  learned,  by  patient  experiments,  some  of  the  lessons  the  land  had 
to  give  its  children.  However  limited  their  acquirements  may  have  been,  they 
were  the  first  lessons  in  nature's  supreme  university,  whose  final  diplomas  will 
attest  to  the  best  type  of  minds  the  earth  can  produce.  The  coming  farmer 
will  understand  the  physical  laws  of  this  fountain  of  life  at  which  he  toils,  sows 
and  reaps.  The  schools  will  then  teach  that  all  knowledge  is  simply  under- 
standing the  mental  and  physical  laws  that  hedge  us  about,  that  form  and  shape 
us  in  every  way  from  the  cradle  to  the  grave.  Then,  too,  will  be  revealed  to  the 
world  the  important  secret  that  there  is  nothing  so  wholly  practical  as  real 
knowledge.  When  this  great  age  shall  dawn  upon  the  race,  then  will  the 
unfortunate  city  boy  go  to  the  farmer's  school  to  learn  the  true  knowledge — to 
be  educated.  In  that  age  the  great  man,  "the  sun  crowned,"  to  whom  is 
accorded  universal  respect  and  honors,  will  be  that  farmer  with  the  most  knowl- 
edge of  the  soils  he  tills. 

The  improvement  in  the  manner  of  cultivating  the  soil — the  introduction  of 
machinery — has  distinguished  the  last  half  of  this  century.  It  is  not  a  great 
while  ago  that  farming,  stock  raising  and  all  branches  of  the  business,  were 
greatly  matters  of  chance.  Mostly  the  farmer  would  plow  and  sow,  and  gather 
his  crops  after  the  manner  of  his  ancestors.  He  then  did  not  concern  himself 
about  drainage,  or  fertilizing,  or  improving  his  stock,  or  better  implements  of 
husbandry.  Now  the  poorest  farmer  makes  some  effort  to  inform  himself.  He 
has  learned  to  read  agricultural  papers  and  books,  to  meet  and  interchange 
ideas  with  his  fellow- farmers,  and  thus  he  bestows  and  receives  valuable  hints 
and  a  more  accurate  knowledge  of  his  own  affairs.  Agricultural  schools  are 
the  evidences  of  what  this  important  class  are  beginning  to  do  for  themselves. 
These  steps  along  the  line  of  advancement  once  came  very  slow,  but  now  they 
are  keeping  abreast  with  the  age.  These  are  the  most  cheering  signs  of  our 
times.  Already  he  realizes  fully  that  he  is  in  a  position  to  experiment  and 
study  cause  and  effect.  This  is  the  beginning  of  his  real  school,  and  once 
in  the  right  path  he  will  never  turn  aside.  By  these  means  he  lifts  himself 
above  the  narrow  selfishness  that  too  often  characterizes  nearly  all  other  classes 
of  men. 


Reforms  move  slowly.  They  are  required,  as  Herbert  Spencer  says,  to  pass 
through  three  stages:  First,  that  of  indifference;  second,  that  of  violent  opposi- 
tion; third,  that  of  adoption.  Improvements  in  the  material  and  methods  of 
farming  are,  by  no  means,  an  exception  to  this  general  law. 

It  was  the  writer's  good  fortune  lately  to  have  a  pleasant  interview  with 
Hon.  Fred.  Watts,  of  Carlisle,  touching  the  changes  in  farming  that  have  char- 
acterized the  community.  Said  he:  "About  the  middle  of  June,  1839,  I  was 
driving  in  a  carriage  with  my  wife  from  New  York  to  Philadelphia,  there  being 
at  that  time  no  railroad  communication.  Near  Trenton,  N.  J. ,  I  was  met  in 
the  road  by  a  former  resident  of  Carlisle  Barracks,  Lieut.  Wm.  lnmant  of  the 
United  States  Navy,  who  invited  us  to  spend  the  night  at  his  house  on  the  farm. 
We  went  over.  The  next  day  he  showed  me  a  field  of  beautiful  wheat  which  was 
rapidly  ripening  for  the  harvest.  He  told  me  that  two  years  prior  to  that  time 
he  had  procured  three  bushels  of  the  seed  near  Leghorn,  Italy,  and  was  now 
raising  his  second  crop.      I  obtained  from  him  six  barrels  of  the  same  kind,  and 


sowed  it  on  my  farm  near  Carlisle.  This  was  the  introduction  into  the  United 
States  of  the  beautiful  variety  of  wheat  for  a  long  time  very  popular  and  known 
as  Mediterranean.  From  the  six  barrels  which  I  sowed  it  was  spread  through 
the  Cumberland  Valley,  and  into  other  portions  of  the  State. 

' '  It  was  in  the  summer  of  1840, ' '  continued  the  judge,  ' '  I  bought  a  McCor- 
mick  reaper,  and  brought  it  to  my  farm.  When  harvest  came  I  determined  to 
test  its  power  in  a  twelve-acre  field  that  would  yield  at  least  thirty -five  bushels 
per  acre.  When  the  appointed  time  came  there  were  present  from  five  hun- 
dred to  a  thousand  persons  anxious  to  witness  the  signal  failure  of  '  Watts' 
folly, '  as  they  called  the  machine. 

"The  wheat  stood  well.  The  team  was  started,  the  cutting  was  excellent; 
the  draught  was  not  heavy,  but  the  general  decision  was  that  one  man  could  not 
remove  the  wheat  rapidly  enough  from  the  machine.  The  team  could  not  be 
driven  more  than  ien  or  twelve  rods  till  it  was  necessary  to  stop  and  rest  the 
raker  and  straighten  up  his  sheaves.  Finally  a  well-dressed  gentleman,  of  or- 
dinary size  and  pleasant  demeanor,  came  up  and  asked  whether  he  might  be 
permitted  to  remove  the  wheat  for  a  few  rounds.  Being  answered  in  the  affirm- 
ative, he  mounted  the  machine,  and  took  the  raker' s  stand.  With  perfect  ease 
he  raked  off  the  wheat,  nor  did  he  seem  to  labor  hard.  After  two  or  three 
rounds  the  spectators  reversed  their  former  decision  and  unanimously  agreed 
that  the  machine  was  a  complete  success.  '  Watts'  folly '  became  a  favorite, 
and  thus  was  introduced  into  the  Cumberland  Valley  the  first  McCormick,  the 
original  reaping  machine  of  the  United  States.  The  well-dressed  gentleman 
who  did  the  raking  was  Cyrus  H.  McCormick,  the  inventor  of  the  American 
reaper. ' ' 

Similar  illustrations  might  be  adduced  relative  to  the  difficulties  that  at- 
tended the  introduction  of  left-handed  steel  plows,  threshing  machines,  im- 
proved varieties  of  fruit  and  stock,  and  the  general  elements  of  agricultural 
improvements.  The  organization  of  agricultural  and  horticultural  societies, 
the  publication  of  State  and  National  reports,  the  teaching  of  botany,  physi- 
ology, geology  and  agricultural  chemistry,  the  wide-spread  distribution  of 
farm  journals,  and  the  general  education  of  the  people  by  all  rational  means 
have  tended  to  hasten  reforms.  The  good  work  is  going  on.  Scientific  farm- 
ing is  destined  to  be  not  only  a  lucrative  calling,  but  an  intensely  interesting 
intellectual  one. 


The  first  animals  brought  to  America  from  Europe  were  imported  by  Colum- 
bus, in  his  second  voyage  in  1493.  He  brought  over  seventeen  ships, 
laden  with  European  trees,  plants  and  seeds  of  various  kinds,  and  a  number 
of  horses,  a  bull  and  several  cows.  The  second  lot  of  horses,  the  first  hav- 
ing all  been  destroyed  soon  after  landing,  was  in  1539,  by  De  Soto — a  large 
lot  of  horses  and  thirteen  cows.  The  Portugese  took  cattle  and  swine  to 
Nova  Scotia  and  Newfoundland  in  1553.  Thirty  years  after,  they  had  in- 
creased so  much  that  Sir  Richard  Gilbert  was  tempted  to  land  there  to  get 
supplies  of  cattle  and  hogs,  but  his  vessel  was  wrecked.  In  1609  three  ships 
landed  at  Jamestown,  with  many  emigrants  and  the  following  domestic  ani- 
mals: 6  mares,  1  horse,  600  swine.  500  domestic  fowls,  and  a  few  sheep  and 
goats.  Other  domestic  animals  had,  however,  been  introduced  there.  In 
1610,  an  edict  was  issued  in  Virginia,  prohibiting  the  killing  of  domestic  ani- 
mals, on  penalty  of  death.  By  1617  the  swine  had  increased  so  rapidly  that 
the  people  were  obliged  to  palisade  Jamestown  to  prevent  being  overrun  by 
them.      In  1627,  the  Indians  in  Virginia  subsisted  mostly  upon  wild  hog  meat. 


In  1648,  some  of  the  settlers  had  a  good  stock  of  bees.     In  1657,  sheep  and 
mares  were  by  law  forbidden  to  be  exported  from  the  colony. 

The  first  importation  of  domestic  animals  into  New  York  was  in  1625,  by 
the  West  India  Company.  These  consisted  of  horses,  cattle,  sheep  and  swine. 
In  1750,  the  French  in  Illinois  had  numbers  of  horses,  cattle  and  swine. 


The  first  raising  of  wheat  antedates  history.  Its  native  country  even  is 
not  known.  It  was  brought  to  this  country  by  the  earliest  settlers,  and 
was  first  sown  in  Massachusetts  by  a  man  named  Gosnold  in  1602.  It  is 
known  that  it  was  raised  in  Virginia  in  1611,  but  here  it  was  for  many  years 
neglected  forthe  cultivation  of  tobacco.  Prior  to  the  Revolution,  Pennsylvania, 
among  a  few  other  provinces,  raised  enough  for  the  home  market  and  shipped 
wheat  to  the  West  Indies. 

In  1776  there  was  entailed  upon  the  country  the  enduring  calamity — the 
Hessian  or  wheat  fly,  which  it  is  supposed  came  from  Germany,  in  some  straw 
employed  in  the  debarkation  of  Howe's  troops,  on  the  west  end  of  Long  Is- 


This  was  called  sometimes  maize,  and  for  a  long  time  was  called  Indian 
corn.  But  now  it  is  corn  and  is  known,  used  and  cultivated  throughout  the 
civilized  world.  It  is  indigenous  to  the  Western  Hemisphere.  Once  it  was 
the  accepted  saying  in  this  country,  "cotton  is  king,  "  but  in  the  past  quar- 
ter of  a  century,  cotton  has  abdicated,  and  now  "  corn  is  king. ' ' 

Corn  is  still  found  growing  in  its  wild  state  from  the  Rocky  Mountains  in 
the  north  to  the  humid  forests  of  Paraguay,  where,  instead  of  having  each 
grain  naked,  as  is  always  the  case  after  long  cultivation,  it  is  completely  cov- 
ered with  glumes  or  husks.  Columbus  found  corn  cultivated  on  the  island  of 
Cuba  a+  the  time  of  discovery. 

The  first  successful  attempt  to  raise  it  by  the  English  in  this  country  was 
in  1608,  on  the  James  River,  by  the  colonists  sent  over  by  the  London  Com- 
pany.    They  pursued  the  mode  that  they  saw  the  Indians  practice. 


It  is  known  that  oats  have  been  raised  at  least  from  the  times  of  Pliny. 
The  plant  was  introduced  in  North  America  early  in  the  seventeenth  century. 

In  the  early  years  of  this  century,  the  farming  implements  used  were  of  the 
primitive  kind.  The  old  wooden  plow  was  the  means  of  preparing  the  ground; 
then  came  the  Carey  plow,  and  finally  the  iron  moldboard  was  introduced  with 
constant  improvements  to  date,  and  we  now  have  the  gang  plow,  the  sulky  plow 
and  others  in  almost  endless  variety.  Men  of  middle  age  now  can  easily  re- 
member when  there  was  no  corn  planted  except  that  dropped  from  the  hand. 
The  mower  and  reaper  came,  and  then  the  reaper  and  binder,  until  now  a  well 
stocked  agricultural  store  would  be  a  veritable  curiosity — a  world's  agricult- 
ural implement  fair — to  those  who  left  the  farm  only  a  few  years  ago.  There 
are  men  now  living  who  can  remember  when  grain  was  cut  only  by  the  ancient 
sickle — the  scythe  and  cradle  were  in  their  day  a  great  invention.  They  were 
an  advance  like  the  reaper  and  binder  are  to  the  scythe. 


In  putting  away  the  old  "  cradle  "  it  is  appropriate  to  here  record  what  may 
be  considered  an  extraordinary  feat  by  a  gentleman  now  living,  and  the  truth 
of  which  is  so  well  attested  that  its  correctness  cannot  be  questioned. 


During  the  harvest  of  1858,  the  gentleman  in  question,  an  expert  cradler, 
cut  ten  acres  of  grain  in  a  single  day.  The  feat  being  noised  abroad,  some- 
newspaper  ridiculed  the  statement  as  being  absurdly  ridiculous.  In  the  mean- 
time, the  report  reached  the  ears  of  a  firm  in  the  Empire  State,  the  proprie- 
tors of  the  Millard  Fillmore  Manufacturing  Company,  of  Claysville,  N.  Y., 
who  wrote  him  to  inquire  whether  he  could  cut  ten  acres  of  wheat  provided 
they  should  make  a  cradle  just  to  suit  his  wants;  if  so,  they  would  be  pleased 
to  make  him  the  implement,  and  present  it  to  him  with  their  compliments.  He 
responded  to  the  effect  that  if  they  would  make  an  implement  as  ordered,  he 
would  undertake  to  cut  twelve  acres.  They  agreed.  In  due  time  his  cradle 
came,  a  marvel  of  beauty  and  strength.'  The  blade  was  sixty-five  inches  in 
length,  and  made  of  silver  steel,  cost  alone  $25.  The  only  difference  between 
this  cradle  and  the  ordinary  one,  was  in  point  of  size  and  the  slight  curvature 
of  the  blade  at  its  heel. 

The  long-expected  time  finally  arrived,  judges  were  appointed,  and  the 
champion  was  authorized  to  begin  his  day' s  task,  the  limits  being  from  sunrise 
to  sunset.  From  far  and  near  the  people  came,  some  to  witness,  as  they,  pre- 
dicted, a  failure;  some  to  gratify  idle  curiosity,  and  others  to  see  the  modern 
Hercules  actually  accomplish  his  thirteenth  wonder. 

He  had  employed  a  physician  to  traverse  the  field  with  him,  and  to  give 
such  medical  advice  as  circumstances  required.  Under  the  physician' s  advice 
he  worked  bareheaded,  cutting  the  grain  regularly  by  going  around  the  field. 
He  was  clad  in  linen  pants  and  shirt  and  ordinary  slippers.  He  took  no  solid 
food  during  the  day,  nor  halted  at  noon.  Once  every  two  hours  he  stopped 
briefly  to  whet  his  scythe,  and  then  pushed  ahead,  cutting  a  swath  eleven  feet 
wide  and  five  feet  deep  at  every  clip.  He  made,  on  an  average,  twenty -two 
clips  per  minute. 

About  2  o'  clock  in  the  afternoon,  a  heavy  thunder  storm  came  up,  the  rain 
falling  in  torrents.  The  lightning  flashed,  the  blade  gleaming  as  it  was 
thrust  into  the  heavy  grain.  Slippers  were  thrown  aside,  and  still  the  heroic 
man  pushed  on,  determined  to  redeem  his  pledge  or  die  in  his  tracks.  No 
solid  food  was  taken,  but  liquid  nourishment  was  consumed  under  the  advice  of 
the  physician.  Sometime  during  the  afternoon,  an  old  hunter  suggested  to 
the  physician  that  a  piece  of  raw  beef  taken  between  the  teeth  would  benefit 
the  man.  It  was  done,  a  man  being  dispatched  to  Mercersburg  to  procure  a 
piece  which  was  held  and  the  juice  absorbed.  At  night  only  the  fibres  re- 

As  the  sun  sank  behind  the  western  hills  the  judges  called  time.  His  task 
was  done.  The  field  was  subsequently  surveyed,  and  measured  something 
over  twelve  acres  and  a  half.  It  is  located  near  the  village  of  Mercersburg, 
Franklin  Co. ,  Penn.  The  product  of  this  remarkable  day' s  cradling  was  365 
dozen  shocks  of  wheat,  yielding,  when  thresbed,  262  bushels  of  grain.  The  la- 
bor of  four  men  was  required  to  bind  after  him. 

The  gentleman  who  did  this  work,  and  whose  constitution  was  thoroughly 
shattered  by  it,  is  Michael  Cromer,  at  present  the  genial  and  popular  conduct- 
or on  the  South  Penn  Railroad  from  Chambersburg  to  Richmond.  He  never 
speaks  of  it  with  pride,  the  honor  having  been  gained  by  wrecking  a  constitu- 
tion of  unusual  vigor  and  power.  A  more  accommodating  railroad  official  it 
has  not  been  our  good  fortune  to  meet  anywhere.  At  the  age  of  fifty-eight 
years  he  still  has  the  respect  of  everybody  who  is  acquainted  with  him. 

In  the  early  part  of  this  century  the  farmers  of  Franklin  County  began 
agitating  the  subject  of  forming  county  agricultural  societies.  Exactly  what 
year  the  first  meetings  of  the  people  were  held,  looking  toward  organizing,  is 


not  definitely  known.      The  following  is  found  in  a  chance  copy  of  an  old  paper: 

' '  The  Agricultural  Society  of  Franklin  County  held  a  meeting  at  the 
court-house  the  1st  day  of  June,  1824.  James  Riddle,  Prest. ;  T.  G.  McCul- 
lough.  Secy. 

"Note — The  members  of  the  society  are  expected  to  pay  up  their  annual 
contribution  on  or  before  the  day  of  meeting  at  Chambersburg. 

"Tuesday,  June  5,  1827,  a  meeting  of  the  Agricultural  Society  of  Franklin 
was  held.     T.  G.   McCullough,  Secy." 

Exactly  when  these  society  meetings  were  organized,  how  long  they  con- 
tinued, or  exactly  their  manner  of  organization  is  not  definitely  known.  The 
organization  was  in  advance  of  the  county  agricultural  societies  as  they  now 

The  first  regular  organization  was  in  the  year  1853 — the  charter  members 
being  Judge  James  Kennedy;  George  Chambers,  vice  president,  S.  M.  Arm- 
strong, recording  secretary;  James  Mills,  corresponding  secretary;  Alex.  K. 
McClure,  treasurer. 

The  grounds  were  fifteen  acres,  about  one  mile  west  of  Chambersburg, 
which  is  now  the  colored  cemetery.      It  belonged  to  Judge  Kennedy. 

In  1854  the  society  held  a  most  successful  fair.  To  the  novelty  of  the  oc- 
casion, Alex.  K.  McClure  succeeded  by  personal  efforts  in  securing  Horace 
Greeley  to  come  and  deliver  an  address  on  agriculture.  The  address  was  of 
course  able,  edifying  and  interesting.  Col.  McClure  was  at  that  time  pub- 
lishing the  Repository  and  was  so  pleased  with  the  address  that  he  appealed 
to  Mr.  Greeley  to  permit  him  to  publish  it.  The  great  editor  placed  the  manu- 
script in  his  hands  and  the  hieroglyphics  were  as  inscrutable  as  the  characters 
on  a  tea-chest.  After  many  patient  efforts  the  services  of  D.  S.  Early  (who 
was  drowned  in  Philadelphia  in  1855)  were  called  in,  and  he  finally  translated 
the  strange  characters  into  English,  and  the  address  was  printed.  But  when 
once  in  print  it  richly  repaid  the  labor  it  had  cost.  Its  advice  to  the  farmers 
deserved  to  be  not  only  printed  in  Col.  McClure' s  paper,  but  also  to  have 
been  hung  up  over  the  portals  of  every  farm  house  in  the  country,  and  to  be 
read  and  re-read  at  least  once  every  year. 

The  second  list  of  officers  for  the  society,  elected  in  1853,  for  the  year  1854, 
were:  President,  George  Chambers;  vice-president,  William  Heyser;  record- 
ing secretary,  S.  M.Armstrong;  corresponding  secretary,  James  Nil!;  treas- 
urer, Alex.  K.  McClure.  At  the  fair  in  1853,  Daniel  F.  Robenson  delivered  an 
address  on  agriculture. 

The  following  officers  were  elected  for  the  Franklin  County  Agricultural 
Society  for  the  year  1855:  President,  William  Heyser;  vice-presidents,  Will- 
iam McDowell,  James  Davidson,  James  Lowe,  Samuel  Thompson ;  managers, 
Daniel  Trostle,  F.  S.  Sambaugh,  George  Aston,  Jacob  Heyser,  William  Bos- 
sert,  Hez.  Easton,  Peter  Brough,  Martin  Newcomer,  Christian  Stouffer,  Jacob 
Garver,  Benjamin  Snively  and  James  Crawford;  recording  secretary,  S.  M. 
Armstrong;  corresponding  secretary,  Jacob  Heyser;  treasurer,  A.  K.  Mc- 

Farmers  and  Mechanics  Industrial  Association  was  the  third  agricultural 
association  formed  in  the  county.  A  meeting  was  called  in  Chambersburg, 
Tuesday,  January  18,  1859.  Col.  James  B.  Orr,  president,  John  Ruthrauff, 
J.  Watson  Craig,  William  Bossert,  Capt.  Samuel  Walker,  David  Spencer, 
Esq. ,  John  Ditch,  John  W.  Taylor,  Joseph  G.  Cressler,  Samuel  Gilmore,  Sam- 
uel Alexander,  Jacob  B.  Cook,  John  Thomas,  Benjamin  Chambers  and  Hon. 
James  J.  Kennedy,  vice-presidents;  Francis  North  craft  and  William  D.  McKin- 
stry,  secretaries.  A  committee  of  two  from  each  township,  and  two  from  Cham- 
bersburg, appointed  to  solicit  membership  for  the  new  organization,  as  follows : 


Antrim — John  Ruthrauff,  Benjamin  Snively;  Chambersburg — J.  W.  Taylor,  A. 
R.  Hurst;  Fannett — Samuel  Holliday,  Simon  Miller;  Greene — Jacob  Garver,  S. 
Breckenridge;  Guilford — G.  W.  Immell,  F.  Walk;  Hamilton — William  Bos- 
sert,  Henry  Keefer;  Letter kenny — S.  Gilmore,  Samuel  Lehman;  Lurgan — 
Thomas  Pumroy,  D.  C.  Byers;  Metal — Capt.  S.  Walker,  Jacob  Flickinger; 
Montgomery — J.  Watson  Craig,  J.  L.  Rhea;  Peters — A.  E.  McDowell,  S.  Al- 
exander; Quincy — Jacob  Secrist,  John  A.  Shank;  Southampton — D.  Hays, 
David  Spencer,  Esq.;  St.  Thomas — Charles  Gillan,  John  Miller;  Warren — 
A.  H.  McCulloh,  Jacob  Zimmerman;  Washington— Abra